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2.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-327005

ABSTRACT

Highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant has posted a new crisis for COVID-19 pandemic control. Within a month, Omicron is dominating over Delta variant in several countries probably due to immune evasion. It remains unclear whether vaccine-induced memory responses can be recalled by Omicron infection. Here, we investigated host immune responses in the first vaccine-breakthrough case of Omicron infection in Hong Kong. We found that the breakthrough infection rapidly recruited potent cross-reactive broad neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against current VOCs, including Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron, from unmeasurable IC50 values to mean 1:2929 at around 9-12 days, which were higher than the mean peak IC50 values of BioNTech-vaccinees. Cross-reactive spike- and nucleocapsid-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell responses were detected. Similar results were also obtained in the second vaccine-breakthrough case of Omicron infection. Our preliminary findings may have timely implications to booster vaccine optimization and preventive strategies of pandemic control.

3.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326959

ABSTRACT

Background: Nearly 4 billion doses of the BioNTech-mRNA and Sinovac-inactivated vaccines have been administrated globally, yet different vaccine-induced immunity against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) remain incompletely investigated. Methods: We compare the immunogenicity and durability of these two vaccines among fully vaccinated Hong Kong people. Findings: Standard BioNTech and Sinovac vaccinations were tolerated and induced neutralizing antibody (NAb) (100% and 85.7%) and spike-specific CD4 T cell responses (96.7% and 82.1%), respectively. The geometric mean NAb IC50 and median frequencies of reactive CD4 subsets were consistently lower among Sinovac-vaccinees than BioNTech-vaccinees. Against VOCs, NAb response rate and geometric mean IC50 against B1.351 and B.1.617.2 were significantly lower for Sinovac (14.3%, 15 and 50%, 23.2) than BioNTech (79.4%, 107 and 94.1%, 131). Three months after vaccinations, NAbs to VOCs dropped near to detection limit, along with waning memory T cell responses, mainly among Sinovac-vaccinees. Interpretation: Our results indicate that Sinovac-vaccinees may face higher risk to pandemic VOCs breakthrough infection.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315413

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread to more than 200 countries. Thus far, reports regarding multi-center data from throughout gestation in women with COVID-19 and newborn outcomes are scarce. Methods: : We retrospectively reviewed data from 92 pregnant women with COVID-19 (PW-COVID-19) and their 78 newborns from 27 hospitals in 12 regions of Hubei, China. The demographic, epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and therapeutic data and pregnancy, perinatal, and neonatal outcomes were analyzed. Follow-up was censored until April 7, 2020. Findings: Median maternal age was 31.0 years (IQR 28·0-33·0), with nine patients in the first trimester, five in the second trimester, and 78 in the third trimester. None of the patients died, and most (92·4%) recovered and were discharged. Seventy-five deliveries (including three sets of twins) comprised 66 cesarean sections and nine vaginal deliveries, with 21 preterm and 57 full-term infants. Seventeen live births had radiological findings of pulmonary infection. One newborn tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid, and three newborns were viral antibody-positive: two IgG (+) and IgM (-), and one IgG (+) and IgM (+). The median suspected duration of virus exposure was 7 days (IQR 0 to 27). Interpretation: Compared to the pregnant women with other viral infections, such as SARS, MERS, and Zika virus infection, PW-COVID-19 had similar manifestations and relatively better outcomes. The termination time and delivery mode in PW-COVID-19 should be evaluated based on both the maternal and fetal situations. The possibility of maternal-to-fetal transmission of SARS-CoV-2 requires further investigation.Authors Shujie Liao and Renjie Wang contributed equally to this work.

5.
Textile Bioengineering and Informatics Symposium ; : 173-180, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1321215

ABSTRACT

Ultraviolet (UV) and ozonization technology are efficient physical processes for the disinfection of bacteria and viruses. At present, due to the outbreak of the novel coronaviruses (SARS-CoV-2) around the world, it is imperative to seek effective disinfection methods for the SARS-CoV-2. In this paper, the disinfection mechanisms of UV and ozone were analyzed, and many studies on the inactivation of similar coronavirus such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV by UV and ozone were reviewed. The feasibility on the application of UV and ozone to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 was discussed.

6.
Textile Bioengineering and Informatics Symposium ; : 49-55, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1321213

ABSTRACT

Respiratory disease caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia first emerged in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, and spread rapidly to other provinces and other countries. This report briefly introduces SARS-CoV-2's structure, basic characterization and replication process. It also includes some special research results by different researchers, for example, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 as the receptor and the binding of S protein to its receptor ACE2 is triggered by the cellular serine protease TMPRSS2.

7.
Textile Bioengineering and Informatics Symposium ; : 84-91, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1321168

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a pandemic, as such developing a type of material that can inhibit the spread of the novel coronavirus is vital. In this article, copper as metallization material for textiles is discussed for developing disinfection mouth masks or other protective textiles. Copper has been proved to have significant effect against certain bacteria or virus according to several research. For example the Human-Coronavirus 229E virus survive time on copper alloy demonstrates the antivirus property of cooper. The mechanism, such as Cu(I) and Cu (II) enhanced by reactive oxygen species generation on alloy surfaces and other theories is discussed. The metallization method for textile includes the dry process and wet process. However, to develop safe and effective cooper-coated material to inhibit COVID-19 virus requires further research.

8.
2021 7th International Conference on Energy Materials and Environment Engineering, ICEMEE 2021 ; 261, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1274490

ABSTRACT

New Year's Eve 2020, Wuhan outbreak of new crown pneumonia and spread nationwide. This global epidemic has brought great challenges to the operation of emergency logistics system in China In the face of this major public health emergency test, we can note that there are still many shortcomings in the current supply chain system of emergency logistics in China This paper summarizes the experience and lessons accumulated in the anti-epidemic process, aims at all kinds of short boards of the current emergency logistics system and gives the idea of constructing and perfecting it. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2021.

9.
Cities ; 109, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-970125

ABSTRACT

Unlike the large body of research on investigating interactions among cities using survey data, the social media-based city interaction study has received much less exploration. Based on geographical studies of social media content in China, we develop a few indices quantifying various levels of geographical awareness among cities. (1) We find that the geographical awareness proxy by the social media-based indices can measure interactions among cities. Specifically, the geographical awareness among cities follows gravitational law and is highly correlated with mobility flows. (2) The spatial in-awareness index (SIAI) is an appropriate index indicating a city's ranking in the urban hierarchy (3) the spatial out-awareness rate (SOAR) can indicate the interactions from a focal city to other cities. Our findings also show that SOAR can predict the number of people infected during a pandemic in a city system. Once the origin city or hotspots of the outbreak and the number of infected persons within those cities are known, we can use the social media-based SOAR index to predict number of cases for other else cities in the urban system. With this information, governments can properly and efficiently deliver medical equipment and staff to cities where large populations are infected. © 2020 Elsevier Ltd

10.
29th ACM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management, CIKM 2020 ; : 2909-2916, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-927495

ABSTRACT

The fast evolving and deadly outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has posed grand challenges to human society. To slow the spread of virus infections and better respond with actionable strategies for community mitigation, leveraging the large-scale and real-time pandemic related data generated from heterogeneous sources (e.g., disease related data, demographic data, mobility data, and social media data), in this work, we propose and develop a data-driven system (named α-satellite), as an initial offering, to provide real-time COVID-19 risk assessment in a hierarchical manner in the United States. More specifically, given a location (either user input or automatic positioning), the system will automatically provide risk indices associated with the specific location, the county that location is in and the state as a whole to enable people to select appropriate actions for protection while minimizing disruptions to daily life to the extent possible. In α-satellite, we first construct an attributed heterogeneous information network (AHIN) to model the collected multi-source data in a comprehensive way;and then we utilize meta-path based schemes to model both vertical and horizontal information associated with a given location (i.e., point of interest, POI);finally we devise a novel heterogeneous graph neural network to aggregate its neighborhood information to estimate the risk of the given POI in a hierarchical manner. To comprehensively evaluate the performance of α-satellite in real-time COVID-19 risk assessment, a set of studies are first performed to validate its utility;based on a real-world dataset consisting of 6,538 annotated POIs, the experimental results show that α-satellite achieves the area of under curve (AUC) of 0.9378, which outperforms the state-of-the-art baselines. After we launched the system for public tests, it had attracted 51,190 users as of May 30. Based on the analysis of its large-scale users, we have a key finding that people from more severe regions (i.e., with larger numbers of COVID-19 cases) have stronger interests using the system for actionable information. Our system and generated benchmark datasets have been made publicly accessible through our website. © 2020 ACM.

11.
13th Textile Bioengineering and Informatics Symposium, TBIS 2020 ; : 173-180, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-908483

ABSTRACT

Ultraviolet (UV) and ozonization technology are efficient physical processes for the disinfection of bacteria and viruses. At present, due to the outbreak of the novel coronaviruses (SARS-CoV-2) around the world, it is imperative to seek effective disinfection methods for the SARS-CoV-2. In this paper, the disinfection mechanisms of UV and ozone were analyzed, and many studies on the inactivation of similar coronavirus such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV by UV and ozone were reviewed. The feasibility on the application of UV and ozone to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 was discussed. © Textile Bioengineering and Informatics Symposium Proceedings 2020 - 13th Textile Bioengineering and Informatics Symposium, TBIS 2020.

12.
13th Textile Bioengineering and Informatics Symposium, TBIS 2020 ; : 84-91, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-908473

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a pandemic, as such developing a type of material that can inhibit the spread of the novel coronavirus is vital. In this article, copper as metallization material for textiles is discussed for developing disinfection mouth masks or other protective textiles. Copper has been proved to have significant effect against certain bacteria or virus according to several research. For example the Human-Coronavirus 229E virus survive time on copper alloy demonstrates the antivirus property of cooper. The mechanism, such as Cu(I) and Cu (II) enhanced by reactive oxygen species generation on alloy surfaces and other theories is discussed. The metallization method for textile includes the dry process and wet process. However, to develop safe and effective cooper-coated material to inhibit COVID-19 virus requires further research. © Textile Bioengineering and Informatics Symposium Proceedings 2020 - 13th Textile Bioengineering and Informatics Symposium, TBIS 2020.

13.
QJM ; 113(8): 539-545, 2020 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-45910

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lungs from patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have shown typical signs of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), formation of hyaline membrane mainly composed of fibrin and 'ground-glass' opacity. Previously, we showed plasminogen itself is a key regulator in fibrin degradation, wound healing and infection. AIM: We aimed to investigate whether plasminogen can improve lung lesions and hypoxemia of COVID-19. DESIGN: Thirteen clinically moderate, severe or critical COVID-19 patients were treated with atomization inhalation of freeze-dried plasminogen. METHODS: Levels of their lung lesions, oxygen saturation and heart rates were compared before and after treatment by computed tomography scanning images and patient monitor. RESULTS: After plasminogen inhalation, conditions of lung lesions in five clinically moderate patients have quickly improved, shown as the decreased range and density of 'ground glass' opacity. Improvements of oxygen saturation were observed in six clinically severe patients. In the two patients with critical conditions, the oxygen levels have significantly increased from 79-82% to 91% just about 1 h after the first inhalation. In 8 of 13 patients, the heart rates had slowed down. For the five clinically moderate patients, the difference is even statistically significant. Furthermore, a general relief of chest tightness was observed. CONCLUSION: Whereas it is reported that plasminogen is dramatically increased in adults with ARDS, this study suggests that additional plasminogen may be effective and efficient in treating lung lesions and hypoxemia during COVID-19 infections. Although further studies are needed, this study highlights a possible hope of efficiently combating this rapid epidemic emergency.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Plasminogen/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Administration, Inhalation , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Heart Rate/drug effects , Humans , Hypoxia/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Pandemics , Plasminogen/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
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