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1.
Artificial Intelligence Review ; : 1-37, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602391

ABSTRACT

In late December 2019, a new type of coronavirus was discovered, which was later named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2). Since its discovery, the virus has spread globally, with 2,975,875 deaths as of 15 April 2021, and has had a huge impact on our health systems and economy. How to suppress the continued spread of new coronary pneumonia is the main task of many scientists and researchers. The introduction of artificial intelligence technology has provided a huge contribution to the suppression of the new coronavirus. This article discusses the main application of artificial intelligence technology in the suppression of coronavirus from three major aspects of identification, prediction, and development through a large amount of literature research, and puts forward the current main challenges and possible development directions. The results show that it is an effective measure to combine artificial intelligence technology with a variety of new technologies to predict and identify COVID-19 patients.

2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 611460, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389196

ABSTRACT

Background: The data on long-term outcomes of patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 and treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in China are merely available. Methods: A retrospective study included 73 patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 and treated with ECMO in 21 intensive care units in Hubei, China. Data on demographic information, clinical features, laboratory tests, ECMO durations, complications, and living status were collected. Results: The 73 ECMO-treated patients had a median age of 62 (range 33-78) years and 42 (63.6%) were males. Before ECMO initiation, patients had severe respiratory failure on mechanical ventilation with a median PO2/FiO2 of 71.9 [interquartile range (IQR), 58.6-87.0] mmHg and a median PCO2 of 62 [IQR, 43-84] mmHg on arterial blood analyses. The median duration from symptom onset to invasive mechanical ventilation, and to ECMO initiation was19 [IQR, 15-25] days, and 23 [IQR, 19-31] days. Before and after ECMO initiation, the proportions of patients receiving prone position ventilation were 58.9 and 69.9%, respectively. The median duration of ECMO support was 18.5 [IQR 12-30] days. During the treatments with ECMO, major hemorrhages occurred in 31 (42.5%) patients, and oxygenators were replaced in 21 (28.8%) patients. Since ECMO initiation, the 30-day mortality and 60-day mortality were 63.0 and 80.8%, respectively. Conclusions: In Hubei, China, the ECMO-treated patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 were of a broad age range and with severe hypoxemia. The durations of ECMO support, accompanied with increased complications, were relatively long. The long-term mortality in these patients was considerably high.

3.
Cardiol Res Pract ; 2021: 5537275, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304290

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigated the association between the plasma NT-proBNP level at admission and the severity of COVID-19 pneumonia. For this retrospective, single-centre cohort study, we enrolled consecutive patients from February 9 to March 4, 2020, in a COVID-19 ward of Hubei General Hospital (East Branch) in Wuhan, which is a government-assigned centre for COVID-19 treatment. Diagnosis was confirmed by microbiological and radiographic findings following the interim guidance of the World Health Organization (WHO). A total of 91 (92.9%) patients were finally included in this study. The median age of the patients was 61 years (IQR, 47-69), and 39 (43.0%) of them were male. Two cases of death were reported (2.3%). Twenty-three patients (25.3%) had NT-proBNP levels above 300 pg/ml. Higher NT-proBNP levels were associated with worse PSI and CT scores. The natural logarithm of the NT-proBNP level was positively correlated with the PSI and CT scores (PSI score: r S = 0.396, P=0.001; CT score: r S = 0.440, P < 0.001). Patients with NT-proBNP ≥300 pg/ml showed a potential risk for higher mortality than patients with NT-proBNP <300 pg/ml (mortality rate, 8.7% vs. 0%; P=0.062). The plasma NT-proBNP level of COVID-19 patients was significantly related to the severity of pneumonia.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11636, 2021 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253991

ABSTRACT

The elevated level of D-dimer and its relationship with poor outcomes in SARS-COV-2 pneumonia patients have been demonstrated. In addition to a hypercoagulable state, D-dimer is also a biomarker of inflammation. We investigated the relationship between D-dimer level and chest computed tomography (CT) severity score, which could reflect the severity of inflammation in SARS-COV-2 pneumonia patients. We retrospectively enrolled 86 consecutive SARS-COV-2 pneumonia patients. CT severity scores were computed to quantify the overall lung involvement. The D-dimer level among CT score tertiles and the association of the D-dimer level with CT score were analyzed. Our results showed that the median D-dimer level was 0.70 mg/L (IQR 0.35-1.76). 42 patients (48.8%) had D-dimer levels above the median level. The D-dimer levels were significantly different across CT score tertiles (0.37 mg/l [IQR 0.31-0.87], 0.66 mg/l [IQR 0.39-1.43], 1.83 mg/l [IQR 0.85-4.41], P < 0.001). The natural logarithm of the D-dimer level was significantly associated with the CT score (rs = 0.586, P < 0.001). In conclusion, the D-dimer level may be associated with the severity of inflammation of SARS-COV-2 pneumonia prior to coagulopathy/thrombosis. This could be an additional explanation for the mechanism of the relationship between elevated D-dimer level and higher mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/etiology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 615845, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1016068

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to a large and increasing number of patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation and tracheostomy. The indication and optimal timing of tracheostomy in COVID-19 patients are still unclear, and the outcomes about tracheostomy have not been extensively reported. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia who underwent elective tracheostomies. Methods: The multi-center, retrospective, observational study investigated all the COVID-19 patients who underwent elective tracheostomies in intensive care units (ICUs) of 23 hospitals in Hubei province, China, from January 8, 2020 to March 25, 2020. Demographic information, clinical characteristics, treatment, details of the tracheostomy procedure, successful weaning after tracheostomy, and living status were collected and analyzed. Data were compared between early tracheostomy patients (tracheostomy performed within 14 days of intubation) and late tracheostomy patients (tracheostomy performed after 14 days). Results: A total of 80 patients were included. The median duration from endotracheal intubation to tracheostomy was 17.5 [IQR 11.3-27.0] days. Most tracheotomies were performed by ICU physician [62 (77.5%)], and using percutaneous techniques [63 (78.8%)] at the ICU bedside [76 (95.0%)]. The most common complication was tracheostoma bleeding [14 (17.5%)], and major bleeding occurred in 4 (5.0%) patients. At 60 days after intubation, 31 (38.8%) patients experienced successful weaning from ventilator, 17 (21.2%) patients discharged from ICU, and 43 (53.8%) patients had died. Higher 60 day mortality [22 (73.3%) vs. 21 (42.0%)] were identified in patients who underwent early tracheostomy. Conclusions: In patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, tracheostomies were feasible to conduct by ICU physician at bedside with few major complications. Compared with tracheostomies conducted after 14 days of intubation, tracheostomies within 14 days were associated with an increased mortality rate.

6.
Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 25(1): 39-45, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-910322

ABSTRACT

Stanford type A acute aortic dissection (AAD) is a life-threatening illness that presents with chest pain and hemodynamic instability. AAD prompt and accurate evaluation and management are critical for survival as it is a cardiac surgical emergency. The initial treatment of AAD mandates strict blood pressure stabilization with intravenous antihypertensive medications. The progressive nature of the disease will increase the mortality as time elapses between diagnosis and surgical intervention. In addition, the patient's blood pressure control is challenged in the presence of renal failure requiring hemodialysis. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 or named 2019-nCoV) pneumonia was a newly underrecognized illness (COVID-19 [coronavirus disease 2019]). COVID-19 can cause severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute kidney injury, heart injury, and liver dysfunction, which would aggravate the progress of aortic dissection. In this article, we report the successful anesthesia management in a pneumonia patient with AAD complicated with renal failure during the COVID-19 epidemic period, who underwent emergency surgery and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest repair.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia/methods , Aneurysm, Dissecting/surgery , COVID-19/complications , Renal Insufficiency/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aneurysm, Dissecting/complications , Female , Humans
9.
Ann Med ; 52(7): 361-366, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-679531

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Comorbidities are commonly seen in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but the clinical implication is not yet well-delineated. We aim to characterize the prevalence and clinical implications of comorbidities in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This is a retrospective multi-centre study involving patients admitted between January 16th and March 10th 2020. The composite endpoint was defined as the presence of at least one of the following, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, or the need for mechanical ventilation, or death. RESULTS: A total of 472 consecutive cases admitted to 51 certified COVID-19 tertiary care hospitals were enrolled (median age was 43 [32-53.5] years and 53.0% were male). There were 101 (21.4%) patients presented with comorbidities, including hypertension (15.0%), diabetes mellitus (7.8%), coronary artery disease (2.6%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (1.3%) and cerebrovascular disease (1.9%). The composite endpoint occurred in 65 (13.8%) patients. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis indicated that older age (odds ratio [OR] 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.85, per 10-year increment), antecedent hypertension (OR 2.82, 95% CI 1.09-7.29), neutrophil counts (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.14-1.56) and lactate dehydrogenase level (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.01) were independently associated with the presence of composite endpoint. Hypertensive patients, compared with controls, had a greater chance of experiencing the composite endpoint (p < .001) and each individual endpoint, i.e. ICU admission (p < .001), mechanical ventilation (p < .001) and death (p = .012). In the stepwise regression analysis of anti-hypertensive medications, none of the therapy predicted the composite endpoint. CONCLUSIONS: Hypertension is a common comorbidity in patients with COVID-19 and associated with adverse outcomes. KEY MESSAGES Hypertension was identified as the comorbidity associated with the prognosis of COVID-19 in this retrospective cohort. Patients with hypertension could experience an increased risk of the composite endpoint. Anti-hypertensive therapy did not affect patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hypertension/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Antihypertensive Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
12.
Int J Infect Dis ; 96: 710-714, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-197347

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronaviruses, both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, first appeared in China. They have certain biological, epidemiological and pathological similarities. To date, research has shown that their genes exhibit 79% of identical sequences and the receptor-binding domain structure is also very similar. There has been extensive research performed on SARS; however, the understanding of the pathophysiological impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still limited. METHODS: This review drew upon the lessons learnt from SARS, in terms of epidemiology, clinical characteristics and pathogenesis, to further understand the features of COVID-19. RESULTS: By comparing these two diseases, it found that COVID-19 has quicker and wider transmission, obvious family agglomeration, and higher morbidity and mortality. Newborns, asymptomatic children and normal chest imaging cases emerged in COVID-19 literature. Children starting with gastrointestinal symptoms may progress to severe conditions and newborns whose mothers are infected with COVID-19 could have severe complications. The laboratory test data showed that the percentage of neutrophils and the level of LDH is higher, and the number of CD4+ and CD8+T-cells is decreased in children's COVID-19 cases. CONCLUSION: Based on these early observations, as pediatricians, this review put forward some thoughts on children's COVID-19 and gave some recommendations to contain the disease.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology
13.
Heart ; 106(15): 1154-1159, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-155332

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We sought to explore the prevalence and immediate clinical implications of acute myocardial injury in a cohort of patients with COVID-19 in a region of China where medical resources are less stressed than in Wuhan (the epicentre of the pandemic). METHODS: We prospectively assessed the medical records, laboratory results, chest CT images and use of medication in a cohort of patients presenting to two designated covid-19 treatment centres in Sichuan, China. Outcomes of interest included death, admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), need for mechanical ventilation, treatment with vasoactive agents and classification of disease severity. Acute myocardial injury was defined by a value of high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT) greater than the normal upper limit. RESULTS: A total of 101 cases were enrolled from January to 10 March 2020 (average age 49 years, IQR 34-62 years). Acute myocardial injury was present in 15.8% of patients, nearly half of whom had a hs-TnT value fivefold greater than the normal upper limit. Patients with acute myocardial injury were older, with a higher prevalence of pre-existing cardiovascular disease and more likely to require ICU admission (62.5% vs 24.7%, p=0.003), mechanical ventilation (43.5% vs 4.7%, p<0.001) and treatment with vasoactive agents (31.2% vs 0%, p<0.001). Log hs-TnT was associated with disease severity (OR 6.63, 95% CI 2.24 to 19.65), and all of the three deaths occurred in patients with acute myocardial injury. CONCLUSION: Acute myocardial injury is common in patients with COVID-19 and is associated with adverse prognosis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Troponin T/blood , Adult , Age Factors , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Pandemics , Peptide Fragments/blood , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
14.
Chin. J. Radiol. ; 4(54): 292-295, 20200410.
Article in Chinese | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-142812

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the initial chest high resolution CT (HRCT) manifestations of the patients with COVID-19. Methods: A retrospective analysis of the first chest HRCT images of 106 patients with COVID-19 was performed who were confirmed in our hospital from January 3 to 25, 2020. Lesion distribution, morphology and surrounding involvement were analyzed. Results: The lesions were found on all initial HRCT images of 106 patients, with unilateral lung distribution in 11 cases (10.4%) and bilateral lung distribution in other 95 cases(89.6%), peripheral distribution of lung in 65 cases (61.3%) and peripheral and central distribution in other 41 cases (38.7%). HRCT showed 8 cases (7.5%) with 1 lesion, 5 cases (4.7%) with 2 lesions, and other 93 cases (87.8%) with multiple lesions. HRCT also showed the nodular lesions in 12 cases(11.3%), ground-glass opacities in 94 cases (88.7%), fibrous stripes in 7 cases (6.6%), and mixed lesions in 15 cases (14.2%). Only one lung lobe was involved in 10 cases (9.4%), while more than two lobes were involved in other 96 cases (90.6%). In addition, 24 cases (22.6%) with enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes (over 60 years old in 19 cases, accounting for 79.2%), 3 cases with pleural effusion (2.8 %), 1 case with pericardial effusion (0.9%), and 2 cases with pleural involvement/thickening (1.9%) were found. Patients over 60 years old mostly presented with multiple lesions, various appearances, peripheral and central distributions of lungs, involving multiple lobes, and enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. Conclusions: Lung COVID-19 lesions can be shown by the initial chest HRCT, which is the preferred imaging method. Thoracic HRCT scans play an important role in the early diagnosis of COVID-19.

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