Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 54
Filter
1.
Crit Care Med ; 2022 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860941

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) or angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are associated with improved outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 according to sex and to report sex-related differences in renin-angiotensin system (RAS) components. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study comparing the effects of ARB or ACE inhibitors versus no ARBs or ACE inhibitors in males versus females. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 downregulates ACE-2, potentially increasing angiotensin II (a pro-inflammatory vasoconstrictor). Sex-based differences in RAS dysregulation may explain sex-based differences in responses to ARBs because the ACE2 gene is on the X chromosome. We recorded baseline characteristics, comorbidities, prehospital ARBs or ACE inhibitor treatment, use of organ support and mortality, and measured RAS components at admission and days 2, 4, 7, and 14 in a subgroup (n = 46), recorded d-dimer (n = 967), comparing males with females. SETTING: ARBs CORONA I is a multicenter Canadian observational cohort of patients hospitalized with acute COVID-19. This analysis includes patients admitted to 10 large urban hospitals across the four most populated provinces. PATIENTS: One-thousand six-hundred eighty-six patients with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 (February 2020 to March 2021) for acute COVID-19 illness were included. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Males on ARBs before admission had decreased use of ventilation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.52; p = 0.007) and vasopressors (aOR = 0.55; p = 0.011) compared with males not on ARBs or ACE inhibitors. No significant effects were observed in females for these outcomes. The test for interaction was significant for use of ventilation (p = 0.006) and vasopressors (p = 0.044) indicating significantly different responses to ARBs according to sex. Males had significantly higher plasma ACE-1 at baseline and angiotensin II at day 7 and 14 than females. CONCLUSIONS: ARBs use was associated with less ventilation and vasopressors in males but not females. Sex-based differences in RAS dysregulation may contribute to sex-based differences in outcomes and responses to ARBs in COVID-19.

2.
Journal of Translational Critical Care Medicine ; 3(1):1-5, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1824573

ABSTRACT

Objective: The objective of the study is to describe the clinical characteristics, risk factors, and prognosis for acute kidney injury (AKI) among patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Methods: Retrospective study of 456 consecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection at the whole hospital from January 1 to March 1, 2020 was enrolled. Demographic, clinical characteristics, the risk factors, and prognosis were collected and analyzed. Results: Of 456 patients with COVID-19, 38 patients developed AKI. Patients with AKI were older and predominantly male sex and were more likely to have comorbidities such as hypertension, cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular diseases. Among patients with AKI, the white blood cell count, neutrophil count, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, alanine aminotransferase, and C-reaction protein were increased, and lymphocyte and platelet count were decreased. Multivariate analysis showed that age, hypertension, and lymphocyte count were independent risk factors for AKI. The overall mortality rate of 456 patients was 9.9%, and the mortality rate of patients with AKI was 23.7%. In particular, increasing AKI severity was associated with increased risk. Conclusions: The risk of AKI was high in patients with COVID-19. Older age, hypertension, and lower lymphocyte count were independent risk factors for AKI. COVID-19-associated AKI was associated with higher risk of death in patients with COVID-19.

3.
Journal of Translational Critical Care Medicine ; 4(1):1-7, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1824555

ABSTRACT

Background: There are controversies regarding corticosteroids using in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia in the current pandemic. Objectives: This study investigates the efficacy and safety profiles of corticosteroids therapy in COVID-19 patients. Methods: Retrospective, multicenter study case series of consecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection at the whole hospital from January 1 to March 1, 2020, were enrolled. Demographic, clinical, radiological, laboratory, and treatment data were collected and analyzed. The effect of corticosteroids therapy on death and organ-failure complications of pneumonia were analyzed by logistic regression. Results: A total of 470 COVID-19 patients at the whole hospital were enrolled. According to the time of corticosteroids initiation and severity of illness, there were 159 patients stratified into critical ill group and 64% (102 of 159) patients received corticosteroids treatments. Ninety-four percent (166 of 176) of corticosteroids were methylprednisolone. The median cumulative corticosteroids dosage was 300 mg equivalent of methylprednisolone over a median duration of 6 days. Multivariate regression analysis showed that corticosteroids use did not affect the mortality. However, corticosteroids therapy at moderate cumulative doses (total exposure 480 mg to 1200 mg) was associated with deceased occurrence of organ-failure complications in critically ill COVID-19. Conclusions: Corticosteroids have no effect to mortality in COVID-19 patients. The moderate cumulative doses of corticosteroids might decrease organ-failure complications in critically ill COVID-19. Further large-scale randomized controlled trials are warranted to confirm our findings, until then use of corticosteroids should be used with caution COVID-19 patients.

4.
Journal of Translational Critical Care Medicine ; 3(1):1-7, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1824462

ABSTRACT

Background: The effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEIs/ARBs) on the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains controversial from clinic evidence. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to report the major characteristics and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients treated with ACEIs and ARBs and compare the different effects of the two drugs for outcomes of COVID-19 patients. Methods: This is a retrospective, two-center case series of 198 consecutive COVID-19 patients with a history of hypertension. Results: Among 198 patients, 58 (29.3%) and 16 (8.1%) were on ARB and ACEI, respectively. Patients who were on ARB or ACEI/ARB had a significantly lower rate of severe illness and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) when compared with patients treated with ACEI alone or not receiving RAAS blocker (P < 0.05). The Kaplan–Meier survival curve showed that patients with ARB in their antihypertensive regimen had a trend toward a higher survival rate when compared with individuals without ARB (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.27;95% confidence interval [CI], 0.07–1.02;P = 0.054). The occurrence rates of severe illness, ARDS, and death were similar in the two groups regardless of receiving ACEI. The Cox regression analyses showed a better survival in the ARB group than the ACEI group (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.03;95% CI, 0.00–0.58;P = 0.02). Conclusions: Our data may provide that some evidence of using ARB, but not ACEI, was associated with a reduced rate of severe illness and ARDS, indicating their potential protective impact in COVID-19. Further large sample sizes and multiethnic populations are warranted to confirm our findings.

5.
Journal of Translational Critical Care Medicine ; 3(1):1-6, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1824045

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 outbreak has spread around the world. Liver dysfunction (LD) was related with high mortality in COVID-19. Methods: Retrospective, single-center study case series of 425 consecutive hospitalized COVID-19 patients were enrolled. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and treatment data were collected. Results: A total of 425 patients were included in this study, 145 of whom had LD. The overall mortality rate was 8.9%, while 17.9% in the LD group and 4.3% in the nonliver dysfunction (NLD) group. Age, sex, and hypertension were the independent risk factors of LD. LD was an independent risk factor for incidence of severe illness, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and death. The survival rate of patients in LD group was lower than that in NLD group (P < 0.001). A similar trend was observed by the multivariate regression analysis (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.52;95% confidence interval [CI], 1.69–7.33;P = 0.001). Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers had effect to reduce LD (odds ratio of 0.48 [95% CI, 0.232–0.989;P = 0.045]). Conclusions: LD is one of the main features of hospitalized patients of COVID-19, with a worse prognosis. Patients of COVID-19 with LD on admission should be more cautions.

6.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334346

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous studies demonstrate a reduced risk of thrombosis and mortality with anticoagulant treatment in patients with COVID-19 than those without anticoagulation treatment. However, an open question regarding the efficacy and safety of therapeutic anticoagulation (T-AC) versus a lower dose, prophylaxis anticoagulation (P-AC) in COVID-19 patients is still controversial. Methods: : We systematically reviewed currently available randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and observational studies (OBs) from January 8, 2019, to January 8, 2022, and compared prophylactic and therapeutic anticoagulant treatment in COVID-19 patients. The primary outcomes were risk of mortality, major bleeding, and the secondary outcomes included venous and arterial thromboembolism. Subgroup analysis was also performed between critically ill and non-critically ill patients with COVID-19 and between patients with higher and lower levels of D-dimer. Sensitive analysis was performed to decrease the bias and the impact of population heterogeneity. Results: : We identified 11 RCTs and 17 OBs fulfilling our inclusion criteria. In the RCTs analyses, there was no statistically significant difference in the relative risk of mortality between COVID-19 patients with T-AC treatment and those treated with P-AC (RR 0.95, 95% CI, 0.78–1.16, P = 0.61). Similar results were also found in the OBs analyses (RR 1.21, 95% CI, 0.98-1.49, P = 0.08). The pooling meta-analysis using a random-effects model combined with effect sizes showed that in the RCTs and OBs analyses, patients with COVID-19 who received T-AC treatment had a significantly higher relative risk of the major bleeding event than those with P-AC treatment in COVID-19 patients (RCTs: RR 1.76, 95% CI, 1.19-2.62, P = 0.005;OBs: RR 2.39, 95% CI, 1.56-3.68, P < 0.0001). Compared with P-AC treatment in COVID-19 patients, patients with T-AC treatment significantly reduced the incidence of venous thromboembolism (RR 0.51, 95%, 0.39-0.67, P <0.00001), but it is not associated with arterial thrombosis events (RR 0.97, 95%, 0.66-1.42, P = 0.88). The subgroup analysis of OBs shows that the mortality risk significantly reduces in critically ill COVID-19 patients treated with T-AC compared with those with P-AC treatment (RR 0.58, 95% CI, 0.39-0.86, P = 0.007), while the mortality risk significantly increases in non-critically ill COVID-19 patients treated with T-AC (RR 1.56, 95% CI, 1.34-1.80, P < 0.00001). In addition, T-AC treatment does not reduce the risk of mortality in COVID-19 patients with high d-dimer levels in RCTs. Finally, the overall sensitivity analysis after excluding two RCTs studies remains consistent with the previous results. Conclusions: : A comprehensive meta-analysis of OBs demonstrated that T-AC treatment in critically ill patients with COVID-19 significantly increased survival compared with those treated with P-AC, which was not found in the RCTs analyses. Meanwhile, P-AC treatment showed survival superiority in non-critically ill patients with COVID-19. In both RCTs and OBs, T-AC treatment in COVID-19 patients significantly reduced the incidence of venous thromboembolism but showed a higher risk of bleeding than those with P-AC treatment. Protocol registration PROSPERO (CRD42021293294). Registered 24 November 2021.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325062

ABSTRACT

Background: No specific medication has been proven effective for the treatment of patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we tested whether high-dose vitamin C infusion was effective for severe COVID-19. Methods: : This randomized, controlled, clinical trial was performed at 3 hospitals in Hubei, China. Patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the ICU were randomly assigned in as 1:1 ratio to either the high-dose intravenous vitamin C (HDIVC) or the placebo. HDIVC group received 12 g of vitamin C/50 ml every 12 hours for 7 days at a rate of 12 ml/hour, and the placebo group received bacteriostatic water for injection in the same way. The primary outcome was invasive mechanical ventilation-free days in 28 days(IMVFD28). Secondary outcomes were 28-day mortality, organ failure, and inflammation progression. Results: : Only fifty-six critical COVID-19 patients were ultimately recruited due to the early control of the outbreak. There was no difference in IMVFD28 between two groups. During the 7-day treatment period, patients in the HDIVC group had a steady rise in the PaO 2 /FiO 2 (day 7: 229 vs. 151 mmHg, 95% CI 33 to 122, P=0.01). Patients with SOFA scores ≥3 in the HDIVC group exhibited a trend of reduction in 28-day mortality (P=0.06) in univariate survival analysis. IL-6 in the HDIVC) group was lower than that in the placebo group (19.42 vs. 158.00;95% CI -301.72 to -29.79;P=0.04) on day 7. Conclusion: This pilot trial showed that HDIVC might show a potential signal of benefit for critically ill patients with COVID-19, improving oxygenation even though it failed to improve IMVFD28. Clinicaltrial.gov identifer and date: NCT04264533. Registered February 14 2020.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324254

ABSTRACT

Background: Our study aimed to find symptoms unique in pregnancy and to help the early diagnosis in pregnant women and to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 in postpartum women and their newborns. Methods Clinical data were reviewed and collected for 11 pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who were consecutively admitted to Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University and Women and Children’s Hospital of Hubei Province, from Jan 26 to Feb 26, 2020. Results All the confirmed women didn’t have any exposure history and their early symptoms were mildly elevated temperate and fatigue. The chest CT scans of confirmed women can be atypical manifestations, such as bilateral pleural effusions and slightly increased densities. Eight of eleven confirmed women did not feel anything unusual until abnormalities were found on chest CT scans on admission screening test. All three groups had elevated white blood cell count, neutrophil count and lactate dehydrogenase, and reduced total protein.The infection did not increase the risk for premature delivery, premature rupture of membrane, or comorbidities in pregnancy. Conclusions Pregnant women were often asymptomatic and accidentally detected abnormalities on chest CT scan on admission which emphasize the importance of CT scan in prevalent areas of the COVID-19. Even after the laboratory confirmation, the manifestation of the CT scan could be atypical, which alerted the necessity of protection for healthcare workers. The COVID-19 did not increase the risk of complications in pregnant women and their neonates. Trial registration: This case series was approved by the institutional ethics board of Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University (No. 2020020) and Women and Children’s Hospital of Hubei Province(NO. LW035).

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323560

ABSTRACT

Background: In December 2019, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak was reported from Wuhan, China. Information on the clinical course and prognosis of COVID-19 was not thoroughly described. We described the clinical courses and prognosis in COVID-19 patients. Methods Retrospective case series of COVID-19 patients from Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University in Wuhan, and Xi-shui Hospital, Hubei Province, China, up to February 10, 2020. Epidemiological, demographic and clinical data were collected. Clinical course of survivors and non-survivors were compared. Risk factors for death were analyzed. Results A total of 107 discharged patients with COVID-19 were enrolled. The clinical course of COVID-19 presented as a tri-phasic pattern. Week 1 after illness onset was characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, lymphopenia and radiological multilobar pulmonary infiltrates. In severe cases, thrombocytopenia, acute kidney injury, acute myocardial injury or adult respiratory distress syndrome were observed. During week 2, in mild cases, fever, cough and systemic symptoms began to resolve and platelet count rose to normal range, but lymphopenia persisted. In severe cases, leukocytosis, neutrophilia and deteriorating multi-organ dysfunction were dominant. By week 3, mild cases had clinically resolved except for lymphopenia. However, severe cases showed persistent lymphopenia, severe acute respiratory dyspnea syndrome , refractory shock, anuric acute kidney injury, coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia and death. Older age and male sex were independent risk factors for poor outcome of the illness. Conclusions A period of 7–13 days after illness onset is the critical stage in COVID-19 course. Age and male gender were independent risk factors for death of COVID-19.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322149

ABSTRACT

Background: The effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEI/ARB) on the COVID-19 remains controversial from clinic evidence. Methods: This is a retrospective, two-center case series of 198 consecutive COVID-19 patients with a history of hypertension. Results: Among 198 patients, 58 (29.3%) and 16 (8.1%) were on were on ARB and ACEI, respectively. Patients who were on ARB or ACEI/ARB had a significantly lower rate of severe illness and ARDS when compared with patients treated with ACEI alone or not receiving and RAAS blocker ( P <0.05). The Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed that patients with ARB in their antihypertensive regimen had a trend towards a higher survival rate when compared with individuals without ARB (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.27;95% CI, 0.07-1.02;P = 0.054). The Cox-regression analysis to compared ACEI vs. ARB groups showed a significantly lower mortality rate in the ARB group (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.03;95% CI, 0.00-0.58;P = 0.02). Conclusions: Using of ARB was associated with a reduced rate of severe illness and ARDS, indicating their potential protective impact in COVID-19.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312621

ABSTRACT

Importance: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections outbreak in China is now a global issue. There is only a limited understanding of the clinical characteristics of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infections is available. Objective: To describe the characteristics, management strategies, and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Design: , Setting, and Patients: This is aretrospective, multi-center case series of 50 critically ill patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who were admitted at Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University and Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital in Wuhan, China, from January 8 to February 9, 2020. Exposures: Documented Corona Virus Disease, 2019 (COVID-19). Main Outcome Measures: Demographic, clinical, laboratory, imaging data were collected along with management strategies, complications and outcomes of enrolled individuals. Results: Fifty critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infections were enrolled. Their median age was 62 (range, 29-92) [IQR,49.5-69.0] years, 68% were male, and 28 (56%) patients had comorbidities, the most common being hypertension. In this cohort, 20(40%) patients survived ,16(32%) patients died, and the rest remained hospitalized. The invasive mechanical ventilator was used in 36(72%) patients with 15(30%) of them requiring prone positioning, and 17(34%) switched to ECMO. The compliance scores of lungs (Cstat)on the day of ICU admission among survivors were higher than those in non-survivors [42.0(18.0-47.0), vs. 19.5(14.0-24.2), p=0.038].The blood IL-6 levels and neutrophils counts at the first day of ICU admission were significantly higher in non-survivors compared to survivors [123.7(85.3-228.8), vs. 20.2(6.8-67.2) ng/ml, p=0.025 for IL-6, and 20.2(6.8-67.2) vs. 4.01(1.99-7.05) × 10⁹/L, p=0.02 for neutrophils counts].The heart rates, PaCO2, lung injury scale (LIS), and positive end-expiratory pressure levels were constantly higher for 10 days in non-survivors than those who survived (p<0.05). The frequency of vasopressor uses and neuromuscular blockers was higher in non-survivors from day 1 to day 10 compared to survivors (p<0.05). In the whole cohort, the most common complications were ARDS (97%), shock (44%), arrhythmia (38%), acute cardiac injury (26%), and acute kidney injury (22%). A secondary bacterial infection was noted in 17(34%) patients. Univariate analysis indicated that lower lung complianceand higher neutrophil counts at the day of ICU admission were related to higher mortality (p-0.03, and 0.04, respectively) Conclusion: We demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 infection-related critical illness predominantly affected old individuals with comorbidities and characterized by severe hypoxemic respiratory failure, often requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation and rescue therapies. Low lung compliance and persistently elevated PaCO2 indicated poor outcomes.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310368

ABSTRACT

Background: We aim to explore the safety and feasibility of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) transplantation in severe and critically severe type Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Methods: In addition to normal therapy, we performed four times transplantation of UC-MSCs in 16 severe and critically severe type COVID-19 patients. We observed adverse events from enrollment to D28. We evaluated the oxygenation index, inflammatory biomarkers, chest imaging, lymphocyte subsets count et al on the 7th day (D7±1 day), the 14th day (D14±1 day) and the 28th day (D28±3 days). Results: There were no infusion-related or allergic reactions. The oxygenation index was improved after transplantation. The mortality of enrolled patients was 6.25%. The level of cytokines estimated was varied in normal range, the chest imaging was improved, the lymphocyte count and lymphocyte subsets count were recovered after transplantation. Conclusions: Intravenous transplantation of UC-MSCs was safe and feasible for treatment in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.Trial registration: Clinical Trial, NCT04269525. Registered 7 February 2020. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04269525

13.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307728

ABSTRACT

Background: Elderliness is known risk factor for severe progression of COVID-19 due to compromised immunity, however aberrant hyperactive immune response including autoimmunity might be responsible for younger patients. Methods: 162 patients tested with autoimmunological detections were enrolled, and study of “Severe” cases and “Non-severe” controls was retrospectively analyzed. Results: Multivariable analysis involving antinuclear autoimmunity manifests correlation of disease severity with middle age and attenuates the risk of age older than 65. Middle age (45≤age≤65) and female turn out to be the risk factors after hierarchical cluster analysis, before which however sex was not correlated. We find antinuclear autoimmunity to be strongly correlated with severity for the middle-aged (OR= 21.000, 95% CI 4.893- 90.126, p< 0.001) and female (OR= 16.044, 95% CI 4.717- 54.568, p< 0.001), especially for the middle-aged female (Pearson R= 0.770, p< 0.001). Incidence of symptoms fever and chest distress, and complication myocardial injury are statistically more frequent in patients with positive antinuclear antibody, compared with those negative. Severe patients with positive antinuclear antibody possess significantly shorter onset of symptoms to severity time (p= 0.021), indicating quicker progression, and interestingly, present more incidence (21%) of post-remission aggravation, compared with those negative (6%). Conclusions: The presence of antinuclear autoimmunity potentially makes COVID-19 prone to severe progression, especially for the middle-aged and female, probably even quicker.

14.
Journal of Intensive Medicine ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1665214

ABSTRACT

Background The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing pandemic since December 2019. Invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) is essential for the management of COVID-19 with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We aimed to assess the impact of compliance with a respiratory decision support system on the outcomes of patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS who required IMV. Methods In this retrospective, single-center, case series, 46 patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS who required IMV at Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, China, from January 8, 2020, to March 24, 2020, with the final follow-up date of April 20, 2020, were included. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, imaging, and management information were collected and analyzed. Compliance with the respiratory support decision system was documented, and its relationship with 28-day mortality was evaluated. Results The median age of the 46 patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS requiring IMV was 68.5 years, and 31 were men. The partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ratio at intensive care unit (ICU) admission was 104 mmHg. The median total length of IMV was 12.0 (interquartile range [IQR], 6.0–27.3) days, and the median respiratory support decision score was 11.0 (IQR, 7.8–16.0). To 28 days after ICU admission, 18 (39.1%) patients died. Survivors had a significantly higher respiratory support decision score than non-survivors (15.0 [10.3–17.0] vs. 8.5 (6.0–10.3), P = 0.001). Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to assess the discrimination of respiratory support decision score to 28-day mortality, the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.796 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.657–0.934, P = 0.001) and the cut-off was 11.5 (sensitivity = 0.679, specificity = 0.889). Patients with a higher score (>11.5) were more likely to survive at 28 days after ICU admission (log-rank test, P < 0.001). Conclusions For severe COVID-19-associated ARDS with IMV, following the respiratory support decision and assessing completion would improve the progress of ventilation. With a decision score of >11.5, the mortality at 28 days after ICU admission showed an obvious decrease.

15.
Br J Anaesth ; 128(3): 491-500, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608752

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a need to assess the long-term outcomes of survivors of critical illness from COVID-19. METHODS: Ninety-two survivors of critical illness from COVID-19 from four hospitals in Hubei Province, China participated in this prospective cohort study. Multiple characteristics, including lung function (lung volumes, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, chest computed tomography scores, and walking capacity); immune status (SARS-CoV-2-neutralising antibody and all subtypes of immunoglobulin (Ig) G against SARS-CoV-2, immune cells in response to ex vivo antigen peptide stimuli, and lymphocyte count and its subtypes); liver, coagulation, and kidney functions; quality of life; cognitive function; and mental status, were assessed after 3, 6, and 12 months of follow-up. RESULTS: Amongst the 92 enrolled survivors, 72 (78%) patients required mechanical ventilation. At 12 months, the predicted percentage diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide was 82% (inter-quartile range [IQR]: 76-97%) with a residual volume of 77 (64-88)%. Other lung function parameters and the 6-min walk test improved gradually over time and were almost back to normal by 12 months. The titres of IgG and neutralising antibody to COVID-19 remained high at 12 months compared with those of controls who were not infected with COVID-19, although IgG titres decreased significantly from 34.0 (IQR: 23.8-74.3) to 15.0 (5.8-24.3) AU ml-1 (P<0.001), whereas neutralising antibodies decreased from 29.99 (IQR: 19.43-53.93) AU ml-1 at 6 months to 19.75 (13.1-29.8) AU ml-1 (P<0.001) at 12 months. In general, liver, kidney, physical, and mental functions also improved over time. CONCLUSIONS: Survivors of critical illness from COVID-19 show some persistent long-term impairments in lung function. However, a majority of these tests were normal by 12 months. These patients still had detectable levels of neutralising antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and all types of IgG at 12 months, but the levels had declined over this time period. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: None.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Survivors , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/blood , China , Critical Illness , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Kidney/physiopathology , Liver/physiopathology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Respiratory Function Tests , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Walk Test
16.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6641-6652, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544314

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) may develop in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and is associated with in-hospital death. We investigated the incidence of AKI in 223 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and analyzed the influence factors of AKI. The incidence of cytokine storm syndrome and its correlation with other clinicopathologic variables were also investigated. We retrospectively enrolled adult patients with virologically confirmed COVID-19 who were hospitalized at three hospitals in Wuhan and Guizhou, China between February 13, 2020, and April 8, 2020. We included 124 patients with moderate COVID-19 and 99 with severe COVID-19. AKI was present in 35 (15.7%) patients. The incidence of AKI was 30.3% for severe COVID-19 and 4.0% for moderate COVID-19 (p < 0.001). Furthermore, cytokine storm was found in 30 (13.5%) patients and only found in the severe group. Kidney injury at admission (odds ratio [OR]: 3.132, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.150-8.527; p = 0.025), cytokine storm (OR: 4.234, 95% CI: 1.361-13.171; p = 0.013), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (OR: 7.684, 95% CI: 2.622-22.523; p < 0.001) were influence factors of AKI. Seventeen (48.6%) patients who received invasive mechanical ventilation developed AKI, of whom 64.7% (11/17) died. Up to 86.7% of AKI patients with cytokine storms may develop a secondary bacterial infection. The leukocyte counts were significantly higher in AKI patients with cytokine storm than in those without (13.0 × 109/L, interquartile range [IQR] 11.3 vs. 8.3 × 109/L, IQR 7.5, p = 0.005). Approximately 1/6 patients with COVID-19 eventually develop AKI. Kidney injury at admission, cytokine storm and ARDS are influence factors of AKI. Cytokine storm and secondary bacterial infections may be responsible for AKI development in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Bacterial Infections/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Adult , Aged , China , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
17.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 659793, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497084

ABSTRACT

Background: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) might benefit critically ill COVID-19 patients. But the considerations besides indications guiding ECMO initiation under extreme pressure during the COVID-19 epidemic was not clear. We aimed to analyze the clinical characteristics and in-hospital mortality of severe critically ill COVID-19 patients supported with ECMO and without ECMO, exploring potential parameters for guiding the initiation during the COVID-19 epidemic. Methods: Observational cohort study of all the critically ill patients indicated for ECMO support from January 1 to May 1, 2020, in all 62 authorized hospitals in Wuhan, China. Results: Among the 168 patients enrolled, 74 patients actually received ECMO support and 94 not were analyzed. The in-hospital mortality of the ECMO supported patients was significantly lower than non-ECMO ones (71.6 vs. 85.1%, P = 0.033), but the role of ECMO was affected by patients' age (Logistic regression OR 0.62, P = 0.24). As for the ECMO patients, the median age was 58 (47-66) years old and 62.2% (46/74) were male. The 28-day, 60-day, and 90-day mortality of these ECMO supported patients were 32.4, 68.9, and 74.3% respectively. Patients survived to discharge were younger (49 vs. 62 years, P = 0.042), demonstrated higher lymphocyte count (886 vs. 638 cells/uL, P = 0.022), and better CO2 removal (PaCO2 immediately after ECMO initiation 39.7 vs. 46.9 mmHg, P = 0.041). Age was an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality of the ECMO supported patients, and a cutoff age of 51 years enabled prediction of in-hospital mortality with a sensitivity of 84.3% and specificity of 55%. The surviving ECMO supported patients had longer ICU and hospital stays (26 vs. 18 days, P = 0.018; 49 vs. 29 days, P = 0.001 respectively), and ECMO procedure was widely carried out after the supplement of medical resources after February 15 (67.6%, 50/74). Conclusions: ECMO might be a benefit for severe critically ill COVID-19 patients at the early stage of epidemic, although the in-hospital mortality was still high. To initiate ECMO therapy under tremendous pressure, patients' age, lymphocyte count, and adequacy of medical resources should be fully considered.

18.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 27(6): 582-586, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440674

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sepsis and septic shock are life-threatening diseases with high mortality. Although efforts have made to improve the survivals, the outcomes are still frustrating. Blood purification was thought to be a promising adjunctive therapy to regulate the excessive cytokine storm or to reduce the endotoxin activity caused by sepsis. Critically ill COVID-19 characterized with the similar disease to sepsis may also benefit from blood purification. RECENT FINDINGS: The recent studies mainly focused on hemadsorption materials. The results of the clinical trials showed a tendency in decrease of cytokine levels and endotoxin activity and improvement in haemodynamics. However, the results were controversial. More evidence about blood purification in sepsis and COVID-19 are needed from currently ongoing trials and future well designed trials. SUMMARY: The blood purification therapy demonstrated the tendency in decrease of cytokines and endotoxin activity in different degree according to the current studies. However, the effect on mortality and haemodynamics is still in controversy. Further well designed, large sample sized studies should focus on the timing of initiating blood purification, the appropriate indications and the optimal type of blood purification membrane or cartridge to provide more evidence for clinical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sepsis , Shock, Septic , Critical Illness , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/therapy , Shock, Septic/therapy
19.
J Intensive Care Med ; 37(3): 359-365, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435184

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The potential protective role of eosinophils in the COVID-19 pandemic has aroused great interest, given their potential virus clearance function and the infection resistance of asthma patients to this coronavirus. However, it is unknown whether eosinophil counts could serve as a predictor of the severity of COVID-19. METHODS: A total of 1004 patients with confirmed COVID-19 who were admitted to Leishenshan Hospital in Wuhan, China, were enrolled in this study, including 905 patients in the general ward and 99 patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). We reviewed their medical data to analyze the association between eosinophils and ICU admission and death. RESULTS: Of our 1004 patients with COVID-19, low eosinophil counts/ratios were observed in severe cases. After adjusting for confounders that could have affected the outcome, we found that eosinophil counts might not be a predictor of ICU admission. In 99 ICU patients, 58 of whom survived and 41 of whom died, low eosinophil level was an indicator of death in severe COVID-19 patients with a cutoff value of 0.04 × 109/L, which had an area under the curve of 0.665 (95% CI = 1.089-17.839; P = .045) with sensitivity and specificity of 0.569 and 0.7317, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our research revealed that a low eosinophil level is a predictor of death in ICU patients rather than a cause of ICU admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Progression , Eosinophils , Hospitals , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Blood Purif ; : 1-7, 2021 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362021

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Systematic inflammatory response occurred in some critically ill patients with COVID-19. Cytokine reduction by hemadsorption is a mechanism of treatment. However, whether CytoSorb hemoperfusion works for critically ill COVID-19 patients remains unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We observed case series of critically ill COVID-19 patients receiving CytoSorb hemoperfusion as rescue therapy from 3 hospitals in Hubei, China from February 28, 2020, to April 7, 2020. Their demographic, laboratory, and clinical data were collected. The parameters for organ function and IL-6 levels were compared before and after treatments. RESULTS: A total of 10 cases were included. The median age of the patients was 67.7 years (range = 50-85) with APACHE II (23.5) and SOFA (11.4). Patients received a median of 3 attempts of hemoperfusion (range = 1-6). The median CytoSorb perfusion time was 47 h (12-92 h). The level of IL-6 significantly decreased after treatments (712.6 [145-5,000] vs. 136.7 [46.3-1,054] pg/mL, p = 0.005). Significant improvement was found in PaO2/FiO2 (118 [81-220] vs. 163 [41-340] mm Hg, p = 0.04) and lactate levels (2.5 [1-18] vs. 1.7 [1.1-10] mmol/L, p = 0.009). The hemodynamics measured by norepinephrine/MAP slightly improved after treatment (17 [0-68] vs. 8 [0-39], p = 0.09). Albumin mildly decreased after CytoSorb. No significant changes were found in red blood cell counts, white cell counts, and platelets. CONCLUSION: Treatment with CytoSorb in critically ill COVID-19 patients was associated with decreased IL-6 improvement in oxygenation. However, these effects cannot be confirmed as the direct effects of CytoSorb owing to lack of controls. Establishing causality requires large-scale randomized clinical trials.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL