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ATS Sch ; 1(4): 416-435, 2020 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191227


The American Thoracic Society Core Curriculum updates clinicians annually in adult and pediatric pulmonary disease, medical critical care, and sleep medicine in a 3- to 4-year recurring cycle of topics. The topics of the 2020 Pulmonary Core Curriculum include pulmonary vascular disease (submassive pulmonary embolism, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, and pulmonary hypertension) and pulmonary infections (community-acquired pneumonia, pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria, opportunistic infections in immunocompromised hosts, and coronavirus disease [COVID-19]).

Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(1): 183-202, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065440


A growing number of studies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are becoming available, but a synthesis of available data focusing on the critically ill population has not been conducted. We performed a scoping review to synthesize clinical characteristics, treatment, and clinical outcomes among critically ill patients with COVID-19. Between January 1, 2020, and May 15, 2020, we identified high-quality clinical studies describing critically ill patients with a sample size of greater than 20 patients by performing daily searches of the World Health Organization and LitCovid databases on COVID-19. Two reviewers independently reviewed all abstracts (2785 unique articles), full text (218 articles), and abstracted data (92 studies). The 92 studies included 61 from Asia, 16 from Europe, 10 from North and South America, and 5 multinational studies. Notable similarities among critically ill populations across all regions included a higher proportion of older males infected and with severe illness, high frequency of comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease), abnormal chest imaging findings, and death secondary to respiratory failure. Differences in regions included newly identified complications (eg, pulmonary embolism) and epidemiological risk factors (eg, obesity), less chest computed tomography performed, and increased use of invasive mechanical ventilation (70% to 100% vs 15% to 47% of intensive care unit patients) in Europe and the United States compared with Asia. Future research directions should include proof-of-mechanism studies to better understand organ injuries and large-scale collaborative clinical studies to evaluate the efficacy and safety of antivirals, antibiotics, interleukin 6 receptor blockers, and interferon. The current established predictive models require further verification in other regions outside China.

COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(7): 1467-1481, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-634722


The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which presents an unprecedented challenge to medical providers worldwide. Although most SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals manifest with a self-limited mild disease that resolves with supportive care in the outpatient setting, patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 will require a multidisciplinary collaborative management approach for optimal care in the hospital setting. Laboratory and radiologic studies provide critical information on disease severity, management options, and overall prognosis. Medical management is mostly supportive with antipyretics, hydration, oxygen supplementation, and other measures as dictated by clinical need. Among its medical complications is a characteristic proinflammatory cytokine storm often associated with end-organ dysfunction, including respiratory failure, liver and renal insufficiency, cardiac injury, and coagulopathy. Specific recommendations for the management of these medical complications are discussed. Despite the issuance of emergency use authorization for remdesivir, there are still no proven effective antiviral and immunomodulatory therapies, and their use in COVID-19 management should be guided by clinical trial protocols or treatment registries. The medical care of patients with COVID-19 extends beyond their hospitalization. Postdischarge follow-up and monitoring should be performed, preferably using telemedicine, until the patients have fully recovered from their illness and are released from home quarantine protocols.

Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Hospitalization , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Care Team , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2