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2.
Immunity ; 55(10): 1779-1798, 2022 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031360

ABSTRACT

Immunocompromised individuals and particularly those with hematologic malignancies are at increased risk for SARS-CoV-2-associated morbidity and mortality due to immunologic deficits that limit prevention, treatment, and clearance of the virus. Understanding the natural history of viral infections in people with impaired immunity due to underlying conditions, immunosuppressive therapy, or a combination thereof has emerged as a critical area of investigation during the COVID-19 pandemic. Studies focused on these individuals have provided key insights into aspects of innate and adaptive immunity underlying both the antiviral immune response and excess inflammation in the setting of COVID-19. This review presents what is known about distinct states of immunologic vulnerability to SARS-CoV-2 and how this information can be harnessed to improve prevention and treatment strategies for immunologically high-risk populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adaptive Immunity , Antiviral Agents , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(4): 567-574, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699244

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neutropenia is commonly encountered in cancer patients. Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, filgrastim), a cytokine that initiates proliferation and differentiation of mature granulocytes, is widely given to oncology patients to counteract neutropenia, reducing susceptibility to infection. However, the clinical impact of neutropenia and G-CSF use in cancer patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unknown. METHODS: An observational cohort of 379 actively treated cancer patients with COVID-19 was assembled to investigate links between concurrent neutropenia and G-CSF administration on COVID-19-associated respiratory failure and death. These factors were encoded as time-dependent predictors in an extended Cox model, controlling for age and underlying cancer diagnosis. To determine whether the degree of granulocyte response to G-CSF affected outcomes, the degree of response to G-CSF, based on rise in absolute neutrophil count (ANC) 24 hours after growth factor administration, was also incorporated into a similar Cox model. RESULTS: In the setting of active COVID-19 infection, outpatient receipt of G-CSF led to an increased number of hospitalizations (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-10.0, P value: .017). Furthermore, among inpatients, G-CSF administration was associated with increased need for high levels of oxygen supplementation and death (HR: 3.56, 95% CI: 1.19-10.2, P value: .024). This effect was predominantly seen in patients that exhibited a high response to G-CSF based on their ANC increase post-G-CSF administration (HR: 7.78, 95% CI: 2.05-27.9, P value: .004). CONCLUSIONS: The potential risks versus benefits of G-CSF administration should be considered in neutropenic cancer patients with COVID-19, because G-CSF administration may lead to worsening clinical and respiratory status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Neutropenia , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Filgrastim/therapeutic use , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/therapeutic use , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neutropenia/complications , Neutropenia/drug therapy , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Blood Cancer Discov ; 2(6): 577-585, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518190

ABSTRACT

Cellular therapies including allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) and autologous hematopoietic cell transplant (auto-HCT) and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy render patients severely immunocompromised for extended periods after therapy, and data on responses to COVID-19 vaccines are limited. We analyzed anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG Ab (spike Ab) titers and neutralizing Ab among 217 recipients of cellular treatments (allo-HCT, n = 149; auto-HCT, n = 61; CAR T-cell therapy, n = 7). At 3 months after vaccination, 188 patients (87%) had positive spike Ab levels and 139 (77%) had positive neutralization activity compared with 100% for both in 54 concurrent healthy controls. Time from cellular therapy to vaccination and immune recovery post-cellular therapy were associated with response. Vaccination against COVID-19 is an important component of post-cellular therapy care, and predictors of quantitative and qualitative response are critical in informing clinical decisions about optimal timing of vaccines and the requirement for booster doses. Significance: Identifying predictors of response to vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 in patients following cellular therapy is critical to managing this highly vulnerable patient population. To date, this is the most comprehensive study evaluating quantitative and qualitative responses to vaccination, providing parameters most predictive of response and potentially informing booster vaccination strategies.See related article by Chung et al., p. 568. This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 549.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
8.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 28(1): 55.e1-55.e5, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458807

ABSTRACT

There are limited data on outcomes of patients with prior Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who proceeded to autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Whether these patients are more susceptible to poor outcomes and recurrence of COVID-19 is unknown. We report a retrospective analysis of outcomes of 15 consecutive patients with hematologic malignancies who experienced COVID-19 and subsequently underwent autologous (n = 8) or allogeneic (n = 7) HCT between June 17, 2020, and February 17, 2021. The cohort included patients with asymptomatic past infections or symptomatic COVID-19 disease. Data were obtained from chart review. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize patient characteristics. Among eight patients who underwent autologous HCT, four had a diagnosis of multiple myeloma and four had a diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Four of these eight patients did not test positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody at any point during the course of treatment. The other four patients had detectable anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies before undergoing autologous HCT, but only two of these patients remained anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody-positive at their last follow-up. One patient died from progression of disease. Seven patients with prior COVID-19 underwent allogeneic HCT for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 3), acute myelogenous leukemia (n = 1), chronic myelogenous leukemia in lymphoid blast crisis (n = 1), myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 1), or myelofibrosis (n = 1). Three of the seven patients tested positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies following the initial COVID-19 diagnosis; however, only one of these patients retained anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody following allogeneic HCT. One patient died of infection (fungal and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia) occurring in the context of ongoing treatment for graft-versus-host disease. None of the 15 patients had recurrent COVID-19 infection. Based on our experience, autologous and allogeneic HCT can be safely performed in selected patients with previous COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(7): 533-539, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240475

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has significantly impacted the practice of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and likely affected outcomes of HCT recipients. Early reports document substantially higher case fatality rates for HCT recipients than seen in faced by the general population. Currently we do not have a clear picture of how much of this threat is present within the first year after HCT and how infection rates and outcomes vary with time after HCT. There are important because center-specific survival estimates for reporting purposes focus on 1-year post-HCT mortality. Transplantation centers have dramatically changed their practices in response to the pandemic. At many centers, quality assurance processes and procedures were disrupted, changes that likely affected team performance. Centers have been affected unevenly by the pandemic through time, location, and COVID-19 burdens. Assessment of center-specific survival depends on the ability to adjust for risk factors, such as COVID-19, that are outside center control using consistent methods so that team performance based on controllable risk factors can be ascertained. The Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplantation Research (CIBMTR) convened a working group for the 2020 Center Outcomes Forum to assess the impact of COVID-19 on both patient-specific risks and center-specific performance. This committee reviewed the factors at play and developed recommendations for a process to determine whether adjustments in the methodology to assess center-specific performance are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Bone Marrow , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(8): 697.e1-697.e5, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228096

ABSTRACT

As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, most centers performing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) have switched to the use of cryopreserved grafts. Previous investigators have suggested that cryopreserved allografts may heighten risk of nonengraftment. To date, no study has investigated the effect of cryopreservation of CD34-selected hematopoietic progenitor cells (CD34+ HPCs) used as the sole graft source. In this study, we sought to evaluate outcomes after unrelated donor or matched sibling allo-HCT with cryopreserved CD34+ HPCs. This was a single-center analysis of adult patients with hematologic malignancies who underwent allo-HCT with cryopreserved CD34-selected allo-HCT grafts between January 2010 and June 2017. All patients received ablative conditioning and antirejection prophylaxis with rabbit antithymocyte globulin. G-CSF-mobilized leukapheresis products underwent CD34 selection using the CliniMACS Reagent System. Cells were then cryopreserved in DMSO (final concentration 7.5%) to -90 °C using a controlled-rate freezing system before being transferred to vapor-phase liquid nitrogen storage. In internal validation, this method has shown 92% mean CD34+ cell viability and 99.7% mean CD34+ cell recovery. Engraftment was defined as the first of 3 consecutive days of an absolute neutrophil count of ≥0.5. Platelet recovery was recorded as the first of 7 consecutive days with a platelet count ≥20 K/µL without transfusion. Kaplan-Meier methodology was used to estimate overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS), and cumulative incidence functions were used to estimate rates of relapse, nonrelapse mortality (NRM), and acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). A total of 64 patients received a cryopreserved CD34-selected graft. The median CD34+ cell count before cryopreservation was 6.6 × 106/kg (range, 1.4 to 16.1 × 106/kg), and the median CD3+ cell count was 2.0 × 103/kg (range, 0 to 21.1 × 106/kg). All patients were engrafted, at a median of 11 days post-HCT (range, 8 to 14 days). One patient had poor graft function in the setting of cytomegalovirus viremia, necessitating a CD34-selected boost on day +57. The median time to platelet recovery was 16 days (range, 13 to 99 days). The estimated 2-year OS was 70% (95% confidence interval [CI], 58% to 83%) with cryopreserved grafts versus 62% (95% CI, 57% to 67%) with fresh grafts (hazard ratio [HR], 0.86; 95% CI, 0.54 to 1.35; P = .5). The estimated 2-year RFS in the 2 groups was 59% (95% CI, 48% to 74%) versus 56% (95% CI, 51% to 61%; HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.51; P > .9). The cumulative incidence of relapse at 2 years was 29% (95% CI, 17% to 41%) versus 23% (95% CI, 19% to 27%; P = .16), and the cumulative incidence of NRM at 2 years was 17% (95% CI, 9% to 28%) versus 23% (95% CI, 19% to 28%; P = .24). The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD by day +100 was 16% with cryopreserved grafts (95% CI, 8% to 26%) and 16% (95% CI, 13% to 20%; P = .97) with fresh grafts. Moderate to severe chronic GVHD by day +365 occurred in only 1 recipient of a cryopreserved graft (2%). Our data show that in patients with hematologic malignancies who received cryopreserved allogeneic CD34+ HPCs, engraftment, GVHD, and survival outcomes were consistent with those seen in recipients of fresh allogeneic CD34+ HPC grafts at our center. Our laboratory validation and clinical experience demonstrate the safety of our cryopreservation procedure for CD34-selected allografts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Adult , Cryopreservation , Humans , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Lancet Haematol ; 8(3): e185-e193, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180145

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients are considered at high risk of poor outcomes after COVID-19 on the basis of their immunosuppressed status, but data from large studies in HSCT recipients are lacking. This study describes the characteristics and outcomes of HSCT recipients after developing COVID-19. METHODS: In response to the pandemic, the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) implemented a special form for COVID-19-related data capture on March 27, 2020. All patients-irrespective of age, diagnosis, donor type, graft source, or conditioning regimens-were included in the analysis with data cutoff of Aug 12, 2020. The main outcome was overall survival 30 days after a COVID-19 diagnosis. Overall survival probabilities were calculated using Kaplan-Meier estimator. Factors associated with mortality after COVID-19 diagnosis were examined using Cox proportional hazard models. FINDINGS: 318 HSCT recipients diagnosed with COVID-19 were reported to the CIBMTR. The median time from HSCT to COVID-19 diagnosis was 17 months (IQR 8-46) for allogeneic HSCT recipients and 23 months (8-51) for autologous HSCT recipients. The median follow-up of survivors was 21 days (IQR 8-41) for allogeneic HSCT recipients and 25 days (12-35) for autologous HSCT recipients. 34 (18%) of 184 allogeneic HSCT recipients were receiving immunosuppression within 6 months of COVID-19 diagnosis. Disease severity was mild in 155 (49%) of 318 patients, while severe disease requiring mechanical ventilation occurred in 45 (14%) of 318 patients-ie, 28 (15%) of 184 allogeneic HSCT recipients and 17 (13%) of 134 autologous HSCT recipients. At 30 days after the diagnosis of COVID-19, overall survival was 68% (95% CI 58-77) for recipients of allogeneic HSCT and 67% (55-78) for recipients of autologous HSCT. Age 50 years or older (hazard ratio 2·53, 95% CI 1·16-5·52; p=0·020); male sex (3·53; 1·44-8·67; p=0·006), and development of COVID-19 within 12 months of transplantation (2·67, 1·33-5·36; p=0·005) were associated with a higher risk of mortality among allogeneic HSCT recipients, and a disease indication of lymphoma was associated with a higher risk of mortality compared with plasma cell disorder or myeloma (2·41, [1·08-5·38]; p=0·033) in autologous HSCT recipients. INTERPRETATION: Recipients of autologous and allogeneic HSCT who develop COVID-19 have poor overall survival. These data emphasise the need for stringent surveillance and aggressive treatment measures in HSCT recipients who develop COVID-19. FUNDING: American Society of Hematology; Leukemia and Lymphoma Society; National Cancer Institute; National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute; National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; National Institutes of Health; National Cancer Institute; Health Resources and Services Administration; Office of Naval Research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Survival Rate , Transplantation, Autologous , Transplantation, Homologous , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
13.
J Clin Invest ; 130(12): 6656-6667, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112389

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDUnderstanding outcomes and immunologic characteristics of cellular therapy recipients with SARS-CoV-2 is critical to performing these potentially life-saving therapies in the COVID-19 era. In this study of recipients of allogeneic (Allo) and autologous (Auto) hematopoietic cell transplant and CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR T) therapy at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, we aimed to identify clinical variables associated with COVID-19 severity and assess lymphocyte populations.METHODSWe retrospectively investigated patients diagnosed between March 15, 2020, and May 7, 2020. In a subset of patients, lymphocyte immunophenotyping, quantitative real-time PCR from nasopharyngeal swabs, and SARS-CoV-2 antibody status were available.RESULTSWe identified 77 patients with SARS-CoV-2 who were recipients of cellular therapy (Allo, 35; Auto, 37; CAR T, 5; median time from cellular therapy, 782 days; IQR, 354-1611 days). Overall survival at 30 days was 78%. Clinical variables significantly associated with the composite endpoint of nonrebreather or higher oxygen requirement and death (n events = 25 of 77) included number of comorbidities (HR 5.41, P = 0.004), infiltrates (HR 3.08, P = 0.032), and neutropenia (HR 1.15, P = 0.04). Worsening graft-versus-host disease was not identified among Allo recipients. Immune profiling revealed reductions and rapid recovery in lymphocyte populations across lymphocyte subsets. Antibody responses were seen in a subset of patients.CONCLUSIONIn this series of Allo, Auto, and CAR T recipients, we report overall favorable clinical outcomes for patients with COVID-19 without active malignancy and provide preliminary insights into the lymphocyte populations that are key for the antiviral response and immune reconstitution.FUNDINGNIH grant P01 CA23766 and NIH/National Cancer Institute grant P30 CA008748.


Subject(s)
Adoptive Transfer , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Allografts , Autografts , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
14.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(5): 438.e1-438.e6, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083120

ABSTRACT

An evidence-based triage plan for cellular therapy distribution is critical in the face of emerging constraints on healthcare resources. We evaluated the impact of treatment delays related to COVID-19 on patients scheduled to undergo hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) or chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy at our center. Data were collected in real time between March 19 and May 11, 2020, for patients who were delayed to cellular therapy. We evaluated the proportion of delayed patients who ultimately received cellular therapy, reasons for not proceeding to cellular therapy, and changes in disease and health status during delay. A total of 85 patients were delayed, including 42 patients planned for autologous HCT, 36 patients planned for allogeneic HCT, and 7 patients planned for CAR-T therapy. Fifty-six of these patients (66%) since received planned therapy. Five patients died during the delay. The most common reason for not proceeding to autologous HCT was good disease control in patients with plasma cell dyscrasias (75%). The most common reason for not proceeding to allogeneic HCT was progression of disease (42%). All patients with acute leukemia who progressed had measurable residual disease (MRD) at the time of delay, whereas no patient without MRD at the time of delay progressed. Six patients (86%) ultimately received CAR-T therapy, including 3 patients who progressed during the delay. For patients with high-risk disease such as acute leukemia, and particularly those with MRD at the time of planned HCT, treatment delay can result in devastating outcomes and should be avoided if at all possible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Time-to-Treatment , Adult , Aged , Allografts , Amyloidosis/therapy , Anemia, Aplastic/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Civil Defense , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Disease Progression , Evidence-Based Practice/organization & administration , Female , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient , Leukemia/mortality , Leukemia/pathology , Leukemia/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Myelodysplastic-Myeloproliferative Diseases/mortality , Myelodysplastic-Myeloproliferative Diseases/therapy , Neoplasm, Residual , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/therapy , New York City/epidemiology , Resource Allocation , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Transplantation, Autologous , Triage/organization & administration , Young Adult
15.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 26(12): 2181-2189, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-722012

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has impacted many facets of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in both developed and developing countries. Realizing the challenges as a result of this pandemic affecting the daily practice of the HCT centers and the recognition of the variability in practice worldwide, the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (WBMT) and the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research's (CIBMTR) Health Services and International Studies Committee have jointly produced an expert opinion statement as a general guide to deal with certain aspects of HCT, including diagnostics for SARS-CoV-2 in HCT recipient, pre- and post-HCT management, donor issues, medical tourism, and facilities management. During these crucial times, which may last for months or years, the HCT community must reorganize to proceed with transplantation activity in those patients who urgently require it, albeit with extreme caution. This shared knowledge may be of value to the HCT community in the absence of high-quality evidence-based medicine. © 2020 American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow Transplantation , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans
17.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 26(7): 1239-1246, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-100212

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly impacted the delivery of cellular therapeutics, including chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells. This impact has extended beyond patient care to include logistics, administration, and distribution of increasingly limited health care resources. Based on the collective experience of the CAR T-cell Consortium investigators, we review and address several questions and concerns regarding cellular therapy administration in the setting of COVID-19 and make general recommendations to address these issues. Specifically, we address (1) necessary resources for safe administration of cell therapies; (2) determinants of cell therapy utilization; (3) selection among patients with B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas and B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia; (4) supportive measures during cell therapy administration; (5) use and prioritization of tocilizumab; and (6) collaborative care with referring physicians. These recommendations were carefully formulated with the understanding that resource allocation is of the utmost importance, and that the decision to proceed with CAR T cell therapy will require extensive discussion of potential risks and benefits. Although these recommendations are fluid, at this time it is our opinion that the COVID-19 pandemic should not serve as reason to defer CAR T cell therapy for patients truly in need of a potentially curative therapy.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/methods , Lymphoma, B-Cell/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/therapy , T-Lymphocytes/transplantation , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Health Care Rationing/ethics , Health Care Rationing/organization & administration , Humans , Immunotherapy, Adoptive/ethics , Lymphoma, B-Cell/immunology , Lymphoma, B-Cell/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/immunology , Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/pathology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/genetics , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/cytology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Tissue Donors/supply & distribution , United States/epidemiology
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