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1.
Microbiology Spectrum ; : e0264121, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001793

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern (VOC) Delta was first detected in India in October 2020. The first imported cases of the Delta variant in Brazil were identified in April 2021 in the southern region, followed by more cases in different regions during the following months. By early September 2021, Delta was already the dominant variant in the southeastern (87%), southern (73%), and northeastern (52%) Brazilian regions. This study aimed to understand the spatiotemporal dissemination dynamics of Delta in Brazil. To this end, we employed a combination of maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian methods to reconstruct the evolutionary relationship of 2,264 VOC Delta complete genomes (482 from this study) recovered across 21 of the 27 Brazilian federal units. Our phylogeographic analyses identified three major transmission clusters of Delta in Brazil. The clade BR-I (n = 1,560) arose in Rio de Janeiro in late April 2021 and was the major cluster behind the dissemination of the VOC Delta in the southeastern, northeastern, northern, and central-western regions. The AY.101 lineage (n = 207) that arose in the Parana state in late April 2021 and aggregated the largest fraction of sampled genomes from the southern region. Lastly, the AY.46.3 lineage emerged in Brazil in the Sao Paulo state in early June 2021 and remained mostly restricted to this state. In the rapid turnover of viral variants characteristic of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, Brazilian regions seem to occupy different stages of an increasing prevalence of the VOC Delta in their epidemic profiles. This process demands continuous genomic and epidemiological surveillance toward identifying and mitigating new introductions, limiting their dissemination, and preventing the establishment of more significant outbreaks in a population already heavily affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. IMPORTANCE Amid the SARS-CoV-2 continuously changing epidemic profile, this study details the space-time dynamics of the emergence of the Delta lineage across Brazilian territories, pointing out its multiple introductions in the country and its most prevalent sublineages. Some of these sublineages have their emergence, alongside their genomic composition and geographic distribution, detailed here for the first time. A special focus is given to the emergence process of Delta outside the country's south and southeast regions, the most populated and subjects of most published SARS-CoV-2 studies in Brazil. In summary, the study allows a better comprehension of the evolution process of a SARS-CoV-2 lineage that would be associated with a significant recrudescence of the pandemic in Brazil.

2.
Humanidades & Inovacao ; 9(6):241-251, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1975933

ABSTRACT

In 2020 there was the impact of a pandemic that changed the routine of many countries, including Brazil, causing most governments to decide to implement measures of social isolation. As a result, only essential services remained in place (sectors such as health, transport, food). Thus, for many areas it was necessary to adopt the Home Office. The objective of this work is to raise general aspects about the new professional routines and seek information on factors that facilitate the adaptation process to the Home Office modality. An exploratory, quantitative research was carried out through a questionnaire with closed questions. As a result, it was possible to validate the investment in employee training to meet current needs. Faced with uncertain scenarios, this study can help organizations of any nature in situations of need for continuous isolation and social distancing, in order to reduce the problems faced during the pandemic.

3.
Revista Cubana de Enfermeria ; 38, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1970395

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Reflect on care is to recognize it in the ontological perspective of its existence, so that health and law professionals can develop a human and empathic practice, beyond the technique. Objective: To reflect on the care of the judicialization of health in the current scenario of COVID-19, from the thinking Merleau-Pontyano. Methods: This is a theoretical-reflective analysis, held in May 2021, constructed from readings on care from the perspective of the judicialization of health during the period of COVID-19, available in scientific articles in electronic databases LILACS, MEDLINE, IBECS and BDENF, and based on the concept of care proposed by the philosopher Merleau-Ponty in his literary works phenomenologicals. Results: It is expected to strengthen the interdisciplinarity of the legal field with health, through the reflection on the notion of intersubjectivity of Merleau-Ponty, as a reference for research and actions aimed at human care, broadening the look beyond technicality and in order to mobilize the feeling of human dignity. Conclusion: In times of pandemic, the effective solution to the current problem is the attentive listening of individuals on the care and attention received both in medical care and in the judicial sphere, in order to meet their expectations and remedy much of the pr oblems arising from poor public service provision, and thus contribute to the reduction of the demand for judicialization and to the well-being of the human being, through dignified treatment and care. © 2022, Editorial Ciencias Medicas. All rights reserved.

4.
HUMANIDADES & INOVACAO ; 9(5):120-129, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1965270

ABSTRACT

Airports are dynamic places and a significant number of people walk around it daily and use the aircraft as a way of transport. It is considered efficient, safe and time is saved these days by shortening distances between cities, states and countries, for work or leisure. The study aims to understand the perception of the airport health team about communication regarding the new coronavirus. It consists of a descriptive study with a qualitative approach and as a data collection technique, the phenomenological interview. The method suggested by Amedeo Giorgi and the analysis took place in the light of the Merleau-Ponty framework. As a result, the category communication and intersubjectivity of care at the airport and aircraft emerged. It is concluded that the deponents point out that objective, clear and safe communication is important during the health problems calls, whether for clinical, traumatic cases as well as infectious and contagious diseases.

5.
2021 International Conference on Computational Science and Computational Intelligence, CSCI 2021 ; : 330-336, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1948724

ABSTRACT

Bioinformatics tools for online sequence analysis of variants have been used worldwide for the phylogenetic approach of SARS-Cov-2 and their variants. The purpose of this work is to contribute to the settlement of the SARS-CoV-2 genetic of the South America pandemic, presenting the ORF1a-1b evaluation. We proposed and reviewed two online bioinformatics pipelines for viral phylodynamic and phylogeographic analysis with an interactive visualization platform. The phylodynamics evaluation of South America shows a strong viral capacity to evoke immunity and an impressive multiplicity of variants in rapid expansion with mutations of potential importance, including ORF 1a-1b. They showed stately vital for infection and lethality, spreading and raising your frequency in South America from 1% to 20-30% in one year of pandemic occurrence. © 2021 IEEE.

6.
African Journal of Neurological Sciences ; 40(2):86-88, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1866093

ABSTRACT

Introduction The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first known by its respiratory symptoms. Neurological complications are increasingly seen and described. Our case emphasizes the difficulties of differential diagnosis between encephalitis and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in SARS-COV2 patients. Case report A healthy 62 years old man tested positive for COVID-19 during a travel procedure. He was admitted to hospital because of a sudden drop of oxygen saturation from 99% to 89% with pulmonary CT scan showing a parenchymal bilateral ground-glass lesions and consolidative opacities of about 50% of lung while the patient remained asymptomatic. After he has been discharged from hospital he developed isolated executive disorders. Post COVID-19 encephalitis or PTSD were questioning. Discussion and conclusion Our patient had an acute hypoxemia which is well known to be associated with executive disorders such as in acute respiratory distress. But these signs appeared after the COVID-19 came negative hence the executive disorders were likely to be related to direct brain infection or to a non-infectious condition like the PTSD. Functional neuroimaging is then the gold standard to rule out a brain damage.

7.
Handbook of Research on Reinventing Economies and Organizations Following a Global Health Crisis ; : 323-341, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1810435

ABSTRACT

The numbers of COVID-19 increase daily, both confirmed cases and deaths. All over the world, shock waves are felt with impacts on economies in general and the financial sector in particular. Aiming to assess the relationship between confirmed cases and deaths and the behaviour of stock markets, the authors perform a dynamic analysis, based on the Pearson correlation coefficient, for 10 of the most affected countries in the world. As expected, they find evidence that the number of COVID-19 cases had a negative effect on stock markets, and that the current second wave is penalizing them. They also find that deaths have a more relevant impact than the number of confirmed cases. © 2021, IGI Global.

8.
Value in Health ; 25(1):S7, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1649529

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Assess payer perceptions of COVID-19 pandemic’s impact on health systems, focusing on HTA, pricing, reimbursement and market access (PRMA) of new, branded medicines in the EU4 and UK. Methods: In June 2021, MME Advisors conducted a virtual, national payer / advisor board with representatives from France (2), Germany (2), Italy (1), Spain (1), and the UK (2) - to discuss key topics within the pandemic’s context, such as: • Disruption to healthcare systems • HTA impact: backlog, re-prioritization, framework • PRMA impact: net price pressure, conditional pricing/RWE and time to market • Differences and similarities within oncology, rare diseases, ATMPs and general medicines Results: Unlike the significant disruptions seen during the height of the pandemic in 2020, payers saw impact ranging from moderate (Italy) to high (Spain) as of June 2021. Disruption by disease state varied: oncology was highly disrupted everywhere but Germany. Most payers did not anticipate shifts in long term priorities or budget cuts to healthcare post pandemic. HTA impact was minimal, with no need to re-prioritize by therapy area or alter plans to adjust frameworks. Likelihood of stricter HTA criteria varied with payers in Italy anticipating more scrutiny for oncology and in Germany for rare diseases/ATMPs. While time to market was expected to remain mostly stable, delays anticipated in Spain. Majority of payers anticipated increasing pressure on drugs’ net prices;however, they were divided on increases in conditional pricing/RWE. Conclusions: Perceived COVID-19 impact varied by country based on infrastructure and adaptability. Germany less impacted, whereas in other markets (e.g., Spain) COVID-19 seemed to have accelerated changes, rather than drive PRMA policy. Given the importance of healthcare, overall budget cuts were not anticipated, although the need to deploy funds to diverse areas (e.g., healthcare worker salaries, hospital capacity) could complicate future scenarios, especially for high-cost therapies. Therefore, continued monitoring is warranted.

10.
10th International Conference on Complex Networks and Their Applications, COMPLEX NETWORKS 2021 ; 1015:16-26, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1626517

ABSTRACT

An important task in combating COVID-19 involves the quick and correct diagnosis of patients, which is not only critical to the patient’s prognosis, but can also help to optimize the configuration of hospital resources. This work aims to classify chest radiographic images to help the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with COVID-19. In comparison to images of healthy lungs, chest images infected by COVID-19 present geometrical deformations, like the formation of filaments. Therefore, fractal dimension is applied here to characterize the levels of complexity of COVID-19 images. Moreover, real data often contains complex patterns beyond physical features. Complex networks are suitable tools for characterizing data patterns due to their ability to capture the spatial, topological and functional relationship between the data. Therefore, a complex network-based high-level data classification technique, capable of capturing data patterns, is modified and applied to chest radiographic image classification. Experimental results show that the proposed method can obtain high classification precision on X-ray images. Still in this work, a comparative study between the proposed method and the state-of-the-art classification techniques is also carried out. The results show that the performance of the proposed method is competitive. We hope that the present work generates relevant contributions to combat COVID-19. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

11.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine ; 78(SUPPL 1):A118-A119, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1571284

ABSTRACT

Introduction The Brazilian vectorial 'control' is characterized by the intensive use of pesticides (agrotoxics), such as organo-chlorines, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, benzoy-lureas;some of them banned worldwide or restricted by international agreements. Continuous exposure to these neuro-toxic and/or carcinogenic products has resulted in damage to the health of Endemic Workers, leading to a process of illness and deaths. Thus, because they have chronic diseases and are immunocompromised, due to exposure to agrotoxics, this population is more susceptible to COVID-19, a situation that is aggravated by workplaces and working conditions, which place them at risk, due to frequent circulation and the need for entry into residences. Method This descriptive study was part of a multicenter research with Endemic Workers from the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. To investigate the work during the pandemic we used an online questionnaire, structured with open and closed questions. Results Preliminary results from the 140 responses to the questionnaire demonstrate that: 78% of the Endemic Workers reported diagnosed disease and from these, 70% had comor-bidities. The most frequent are hypertension (49%), diabetes (22%), respiratory problems (22%) and malfunction of the liver and kidneys (17%). Although 88% did not have a diagnosis of COVID-19, 64% reported having co-workers and/or family members with COVID-19. Regarding remote work: 2% reported working at home, 29% were working in scale and/or alternate time and 53% were working full time. Workers who stayed the longest time in remote work (five months) represented only 8%, with 31% remaining in full time presential work during the period in which isolation and detachment measures began in Brazil. Conclusion Protective measures of the health of these workers and assisting this population to prevent the transmission of SARS-Cov-2, are necessary to implement health protection policies, including other exposures at work, such as agrotoxics.

12.
European Heart Journal ; 42(SUPPL 1):1468, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1554487

ABSTRACT

Objective: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may have indirect consequences in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) outcomes due to difficulties in healthcare access, but also due to reperfusion delays. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance indicators in STEMI during the early phase of the lockdown following the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The patient delay and the system delay were evaluated in 312 patients with suspected STEMI, in the period of the first State of Emergency in Portugal, through a survey called Moment COVID implemented within 18th March to 2 May 2020, in 18 national centers of Interventional Cardiology where PPCI is carried out 24/7. These patients were compared with a historical cohort of 267 patients from the 5th year after integration of SFL Initiative in Portugal (Moment 2015) in which the same survey was applied. Patients with late presentation of STEMI (>12 hours of symptoms onset) were excluded from this analysis. Results: In Moment COVID there was a trend towards a longer patient delay (incremental median 20 min;p=0.059) and a significant longer system-delay (incremental median 17 min;p=0.033) compared to the historical cohort of Moment 2015. Consequently, times to revascularization tended to be longer (incremental median 26 min;p=0.074). Indeed, in Moment COVID patients were less compliant with the times recommended by the European guidelines: door-to-balloon time <60 min was achieved in 47.6% of patients compared to 57.0% (p=0.052) in Moment 2015 and system-delay <90 min in 13.9% compared to 21.8% (p=0.033). Conclusion: These results from a multicentric national analysis demonstrated a trend to longer time from symptom onset to request healthcare system assistance and a significantly longer time from first medical contact to revascularization among patients with STEMI during COVID-19 pandemic. This delay for treatment could negatively impact the STEMI prognosis at the long-term.

13.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21265569

ABSTRACT

IntroductionAs a result of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic the year 2020 brought major changes on the delivery of health care and face to face physician patient communication was significantly reduced and the practice of remote telehealth care using computer technology is assuming a standard of care, particularly, with COVID-19 patients with attempts to reduce viral spread. ObjectiveTo describe the clinical practice experience using telemedicine towards COVID-19 and the respective clinical outcomes. MethodsWe performed a pilot open-label non-randomized, controlled clinical trial. The patients were divided into four groups, according severity of symptoms: (1) asymptomatic, (2) mild symptoms, (3) moderate symptoms and (4) severe symptoms, and were followed up for five days, counted from the beginning of the symptoms. A drug intervention was performed in group 3, for which the protocol followed as suggested by the International Pulmonology Societys consensus for adults with moderate symptoms: first day (attack phase) hydroxychloroquine sulfate 400 mg 12/12h; second to fifth day (maintenance phase) 200 mg (half pill) 12/12h. The medication was associated with azithromycin 500mg once a day for five days. For children with moderate symptoms were used: hydroxychloroquine sulfate 6.5 mg/kg/dose every 12 hours in the first day and 3.25 mg/kg/dose every 12 hours from day 2 to 5. The therapeutic response was telemonitored. Group 4 patients were directly oriented to seek hospital care. During the use of the drugs, the patients were telemonitored daily. ResultsOne hundred eighty-seven patients were seen with mean age of 37,6 years ({+/-}15,6). The most frequent symptom was cough (57,6%), followed by malaise (60,3%), fever (41,1%), headache (56,0%), muscle pain (51,1%). Of all the patients that sought telemedicine service in our center, 23% were asymptomatic despite contact with people with probable diagnostic of COVID-19; 29,4% reported mild symptoms, 43,9% moderate symptoms, and 3,7% severe symptoms. It was possible to observe in patients treated their symptoms of COVID-19 (group 3) with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin for five days, presented statistically better improvement of the symptoms when compared to those that did not follow the protocol (p = 0.039). Three patients were hospitalized and discharged after recovery. ConclusionsOur study showed that patients with COVID-19 who had delivery of health care through telemedicine initiated in early stages of the disease presented satisfactory clinical response, reducing the need of face-to-face consultations and hospitalizations. Our results indicate that the use of telemedicine with diagnosis and drug treatment protocols is a safe and effective strategy to reduce overload of health services and the exposure of healthcare providers and the general population to infected patients in a pandemic situation. Trial registrationRBR-658khm Human Research Ethics Committee number: 30246520.0.0000.0069

14.
Journal of Thoracic Oncology ; 16(10):S883-S884, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1474794

ABSTRACT

Introduction: There are currently no predictive biomarkers for long-term survival after neoadjuvant chemoimmunotherapy. However, the identification of non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who obtain long-term benefit from chemoimmunotherapy is essential to optimize therapies. Methods: Using samples from NADIM clinical trial (NCT03081689), in which resectable stage IIIA NSCLC patients were treated with neoadjuvant chemo-immunotherapy with nivolumab, we have evaluated the capacity of ctDNA levels before treatment initiation to predict overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) by calculating Harrell’s C-statistic and we compare its predictive value with classical survival surrogates as the pathological response and clinical response assessed according to RECIST criteria v.1.1. The ctDNA was analyzed by NGS, using the Oncomine Pan-Cancer Cell-Free Assay™ (Thermo Fisher Scientific®). To explore the prognostic value of the amount of ctDNA at baseline, for each positive plasma sample, we calculated the sum of the mutant allele frequency (MAF) for all detected mutations. Patients who died from COVID19 were excluded from this analysis. Results: In our study, clinical responses based on RECIST criteria were not predictive for OS or PFS. On the contrary, in the multivariate analysis, patients with low ctDNA levels (<1% MAF), in the baseline sample, had significantly improved PFS and OS than patients in whom the opposite situation occurred (adjusted HR: 0.22;95%CI: 0.06-0.75;P=0.016 and adjusted HR: 0.04;95%CI: 0.00-0.45;P=0.008 for PFS and OS, respectively). The adjusted C-statistic (c) to predict PFS for ctDNA was 0.68 (95%CI: 0.51-0.84), which was superior to that of RECIST criteria (c=0.61;95%CI: 0.45-0.78) and similar to that of pathological response (c=0.68;95%CI: 0.52-0.84). Similarly, baseline ctDNA levels predicted OS (c=0.85;95%CI: 0.72-0.99) better than RECIST criteria (c=0.68;95%CI: 0.44-0.93). Conclusion: Pre-treatment ctDNA levels predicted more accurately long-term survival than radiological assessments in NADIM study and might be useful for the design of new clinical trials.

15.
Journal of Thoracic Oncology ; 16(10):S883, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1474793

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Neoadjuvant chemoimmunotherapy been shown to be highly effective in resectable stage IIIA NSCLC. Now we provide long term survival data Methods: This was an open-label, multicentre, single-arm phase 2 trial in which patients with histologically or cytologically documented stage IIIA NSCLC and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1 and who were deemed locally to be surgically resectable by a multidisciplinary clinical team were treated with neoadjuvant intravenous paclitaxel (200 mg/m2) and carboplatin (area under curve 6;6 mg/mL per min) plus nivolumab (360 mg) on day 1 of each 21-day cycle, for three cycles before surgical resection, followed by adjuvant intravenous nivolumab monotherapy for 1 year (240 mg every 2 weeks for 4 months, followed by 480 mg every 4 weeks for 8 months). Here we report progression-free survival (PFS) and Overall survival (OS) at 36 and 42 months, assessed in the modified intention-to-treat population (ITT), which included all patients who received neoadjuvant treatment, and in the per-protocol population (PP), which included all patients who had tumour resection and received at least one cycle of adjuvant treatment. Results: Median follow-up time was 37.9 months (95%CI: 36.7-40.7), with a 94% maturity at 36 months. Among the ITT population (N=46), 37 patients, constituting the PP population, received subsequent adjuvant therapy. Of them, 27 (58.7%) patients completed the adjuvant treatment (16 cycles), 10 (21.7%) patients received between 3 and 15 cycles of adjuvant therapy, and 9 (19.6%) patients did not receive adjuvant therapy. At the time of data cutoff (March 2021), progression disease was diagnosed in 14 patients and 9 deaths were recorded in the ITT population. Of these, three deaths corresponded to patients who did not undergo surgery and had disease progression, four deaths corresponded to patients who underwent surgery and had disease progression, and the two remaining deaths corresponded to patients who were diagnosed as being disease free but died from COVID19 infection. Notably, among patients who could not undergo surgery (N=5), one of them is still alive and with no evidence of disease. PFS at 36 and 42 months in the ITT population were 69.6% (95%CI: 54.1-80.7), in both cases. Similarly, PFS at 36 and 42 in the PP population were 81.1% (95%CI: 64.4-90.5) in both cases. The percentage of patients who were alive at 36 and 42 months in the modified ITT population were 81.86% (95% CI: 66.8-90.6) and 78.94% (95%CI: 63.1-88.6), respectively. Likewise, OS at 36 and 42 months in the PP population was 91.0% (95%CI: 74.2-97.0) and 87.3% (95%CI: 69.3-95.1), respectively. Conclusion: The efficacy of nivolumab in combination with platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with resectable stage IIIA NSCLC is clearly supported by long term survival data. Keywords: NADIM trial, neoadjuvant chemo-therapy, long term survival

16.
Anesthesia and Analgesia ; 133(3 SUPPL 2):1730, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1445029

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe pulmonary conditions in patients undergoing surgery place them at greater risk of adverse outcomes. Alternatives to general anaesthesia are encouraged, namely when in need of emergency interventions and advanced postoperative care is compromised, nowadays worsened due to the COVID pandemic. We present an example of an underused anaesthetic technique, continuous spinal anaesthesia (CSA), to successfully circumvent the perioperative risk of major abdominal surgery in this kind of patients. Case Report: A 73 year-old man, ASA IV, with severe COPD under domiciliary oxygen therapy, bronchiectasis, lung cancer (never gathering surgery, radio or chemotherapy conditions) and a recent (<2 weeks) hospitalization for pneumonia with respiratory failure, presents with need for emergency exploratory laparotomy due to suspected colonic volvulus originating shock signs. There were no ICU beds available. CSA was decided as anaesthetic management. Dural puncture was made at L1-L2 level, using a 18G Tuohy needle, and the catheter was introduced 3cm intrathecally. Small doses of prilocaine 2% slowly titrated to a total of 50mg were injected through the catheter and satisfactory sensitive blockade was achieved. Coincident hemodynamic alterations were easily treated as they developed. An infusion of 0,7 mcg/kg/h of dexmedetomidine was maintained for patient comfort. The procedure, a xifo-pubic incision, right hemicolectomy and ileocolic anastomosis, lasted for 50 minutes with further requirement of 20mg prilocaine. At the end, 100mcg of morphine were administered intrathecally and the catheter was removed. The patient was comfortable after surgery and safely discharged from anesthesia care. Discussion: CSA remains a useful anaesthetic alternative for abdominal surgery in patients with important pulmonary comorbidities at substantial risk for postoperative complications. This technique not only allows better control of level, intensity and duration of spinal anaesthesia, but also minimizes the risk of sudden hemodynamic collapse and avoids further respiratory compromise in these frail patients.

17.
Revista Edapeci-Educacao a Distancia E Praticas Educativas Comunicacionais E Interculturais ; 21(1):72-84, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1326141

ABSTRACT

The selection of digital content can be an ally in the teaching-learning process of Chemistry, as the sources chosen by students are not always reliable. In addition, it is common for teachers to report that they do not have time for this. The present work is an experience report on the use of an active methodology in the hybrid teaching of Chemistry in a high school class enrolled at the Joaquim Ramos School of Basic Education in 2019. The objective was to verify the hypothesis that the selected video classes could enrich students' learning outside the classroom. Therefore, Chemistry video classes were selected and indicated so that 15 students enrolled in the 1st year of High School could attend them before the face-to-face class. Pre- and post-living questionnaires of the inverted class were applied and from the answers of the questionnaires applied to the students it was concluded that most of the research subjects felt a positive learning experience. As this work was carried out before the outbreak of COVID-19, it offers a broader consideration of the relevant challenges that arise when using active methodologies, especially in high school, serving as an incentive for the dissemination of hybrid education in the face of the current situation education.

18.
Infect Genet Evol ; 93: 104846, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209164

ABSTRACT

The Severe acute respiratory syndrome may be caused by coronavirus disease which has resulted in a global pandemic. Polymorphisms in the population play a role in susceptibility to severity. We aimed to perform a systematic review related to the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the development of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Twenty-eight eligible articles published were identified in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, PMC Central and Portal BVS and additional records, with 20 studies performed in China. Information on study characteristics, genetic polymorphisms, and comorbidities was extracted. Study quality was assessed by the STrengthening the REporting of Genetic Association (STREGA) guideline. Few studies investigated the presence of polymorphisms in HLA, ACE1, OAS-1, MxA, PKR, MBL, E-CR1, FcγRIIA, MBL2, L-SIGN (CLEC4M), IFNG, CD14, ICAM3, RANTES, IL-12 RB1, TNFA, CXCL10/IP-10, CD209 (DC-SIGN), AHSG, CYP4F3 and CCL2 with the susceptibility or protection to SARS-Cov. This review provides comprehensive evidence of the association between genetic polymorphisms and susceptibility or protection to severity SARS-CoV. The literature about coronavirus infection, susceptibility to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and genetic variations is scarce. Further studies are necessary to provide more concrete evidence, mainly related to Covid-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Chemokines/genetics , Cytokines/genetics , Female , Genetic Association Studies , Genetic Markers , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , HLA Antigens/genetics , Humans , Male , Mannose-Binding Lectin/genetics
19.
Mundo Amazonico ; 12(1):65-81, 2021.
Article in Spanish | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1178597

ABSTRACT

This study analyzes the non-compliance with preventive measures of contagion of the new coronavirus, Covid-19, by residents in the municipality of Tabatinga, in the interior of the state of Amazonas. The results show that, taking into account the different existing factors, the social and cultural behavior rooted in the people who live and transit here, fruit of the local culture, may be responsible for the lack of respect for the rules and determinations of the authorities. In addition, the free movement of people between the border cities of Santa Rosa (Peru) and Leticia (Colombia) coupled with an inefficient inspection contribute to the worsening of the problem. As a result, the social isolation measures proposed by federal, state and municipal decrees have had low effectiveness in the city of Tabatinga - AM, since the population maintained the habit of moving freely through the city even at prohibited times and places, causing agglomerations and contributing to the increase in the number of Covid-19 cases in the city. Therefore, the understanding about the social behavior of citizens living in the city of Tabatinga becomes important so that the public power can take effective measures that effectively contribute to retaining the number of infected people, avoiding overcrowding in the public health network, in particular. the beds of the Intensive Care Units - ICUs.

20.
Cureus ; 13(3): e13819, 2021 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138925

ABSTRACT

Background While public health strategies to contain the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic are primarily focused on social distancing and isolation, emerging evidence suggest that in some regions social isolation failed to lead to further decrease in the number of COVID-19 deaths in the long run. This apparent paradox was particularly observed in the northern region of Brazil, in the state of Amazonas. We hypothesized that the emergence of new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mutations, leading to more transmissible and pathogenic variants, could explain the lack of further reductions in COVID-19 new cases and related deaths in some regions. Our objective is to determine if social isolation is associated with the emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants, particularly the P.1 lineage and E484K mutants, in Brazil and in the state of Amazonas. Materials and methods We assessed the prevailing SARS-CoV-2 genomes present in Brazil available on the GISAID (Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data) database collected between June 1, 2020, and January 31, 2021. Data regarding demographics, lineage, and prevalence of P.1 lineage and E484K mutations were obtained. Social isolation was measured using the Social Isolation Index (SII), which quantifies the percentage of individuals that stayed within a distance of 450 meters from their homes on a given day, between February 1, 2020, and January 24, 2021. The number of daily COVID-19 deaths was obtained from the Brazilian Ministry of Health (OpenDataSUS, 2021) between March 12, 2020, and January 10, 2021. SII was correlated with the prevalence P.1 lineage and E484K mutations in the eight following weeks. All univariate associations were estimated using the Spearman Correlation Index. 3D surfaces were employed to reflect the relationship between time, social isolation, and prevalence of genomic variants simultaneously. Results A total of 773 and 77 samples were obtained in Brazil and in the Amazonas state, respectively. In the state of Amazonas, SII on a given week was positively, significantly, and moderately or strongly (r > 0.6) correlated with the prevalence of both P.1 lineage and other E484K variants in the six following weeks after the SII on a given week. Conversely, in overall Brazil, correlations between SII and P.1 lineage and E484K variants were weaker and shorter, or negative, respectively. When SII was below 40%, P.1 lineage or E484K variants were not detected in the following weeks. When SII was above 40%, apparently exponential positive correlations between SII and prevalence of both P.1 lineage and E484K variants were observed. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that SII above 40% is associated with the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 E484K variants and P.1 lineage in the state of Amazonas, which was not observed in overall Brazil.

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