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1.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327225

ABSTRACT

The antiviral endoribonuclease, RNase L, is a vital component of the mammalian innate immune response that destroys host and viral RNA to reduce viral gene expression. Herein, we show that a consequence of RNase L-mediated decay of cytoplasmic host RNAs is the widespread re-localization of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, due to the presence of nuclear RNA. Concurrently, we observe global alterations to host RNA processing in the nucleus, including alterations of splicing and 3' end formation, with the latter leading to downstream of gene (DoG) transcripts. While affecting many host mRNAs, these alterations are pronounced in mRNAs encoding type I and type III interferons and coincide with the retention of their mRNAs in the nucleus. Similar RNA processing defects also occur during infection with either dengue virus or SARS-CoV-2 when RNase L is activated. These findings reveal that the distribution of RBPs between the nucleus and cytosol is fundamentally dictated by the availability of RNA in each compartment and thus viral infections that trigger cytoplasmic RNA degradation alter RNA processing due to the nuclear influx of RNA binding proteins.

3.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 11 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542801

ABSTRACT

Nestled within the Rocky Mountain National Forest, 114 scientists and students gathered at Colorado State University's Mountain Campus for this year's 21st annual Rocky Mountain National Virology Association meeting. This 3-day retreat consisted of 31 talks and 30 poster presentations discussing advances in research pertaining to viral and prion diseases. The keynote address provided a timely discussion on zoonotic coronaviruses, lessons learned, and the path forward towards predicting, preparing, and preventing future viral disease outbreaks. Other invited speakers discussed advances in SARS-CoV-2 surveillance, molecular interactions involved in flavivirus genome assembly, evaluation of ethnomedicines for their efficacy against infectious diseases, multi-omic analyses to define risk factors associated with long COVID, the role that interferon lambda plays in control of viral pathogenesis, cell-fusion-dependent pathogenesis of varicella zoster virus, and advances in the development of a vaccine platform against prion diseases. On behalf of the Rocky Mountain Virology Association, this report summarizes select presentations.


Subject(s)
Virology , Animals , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prion Diseases/diagnosis , Prion Diseases/prevention & control , Prions/immunology , Prions/isolation & purification , Prions/pathogenicity , Vaccines , Virology/organization & administration , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/classification , Viruses/immunology , Viruses/isolation & purification , Viruses/pathogenicity
4.
RNA ; 27(11): 1318-1329, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1329126

ABSTRACT

The transcriptional induction of interferon (IFN) genes is a key feature of the mammalian antiviral response that limits viral replication and dissemination. A hallmark of severe COVID-19 disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 is the low presence of IFN proteins in patient serum despite elevated levels of IFN-encoding mRNAs, indicative of post-transcriptional inhibition of IFN protein production. Here, we performed single-molecule RNA visualization to examine the expression and localization of host mRNAs during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our data show that the biogenesis of type I and type III IFN mRNAs is inhibited at multiple steps during SARS-CoV-2 infection. First, translocation of the interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) transcription factor to the nucleus is limited in response to SARS-CoV-2, indicating that SARS-CoV-2 inhibits RLR-MAVS signaling and thus weakens transcriptional induction of IFN genes. Second, we observed that IFN mRNAs primarily localize to the site of transcription in most SARS-CoV-2 infected cells, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 either inhibits the release of IFN mRNAs from their sites of transcription and/or triggers decay of IFN mRNAs in the nucleus upon exiting the site of transcription. Lastly, nuclear-cytoplasmic transport of IFN mRNAs is inhibited during SARS-CoV-2 infection, which we propose is a consequence of widespread degradation of host cytoplasmic basal mRNAs in the early stages of SARS-CoV-2 replication by the SARS-CoV-2 Nsp1 protein, as well as the host antiviral endoribonuclease, RNase L. Importantly, IFN mRNAs can escape SARS-CoV-2-mediated degradation if they reach the cytoplasm, making rescue of mRNA export a viable means for promoting the immune response to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Interferons/genetics , RNA Stability , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , A549 Cells , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Endoribonucleases/genetics , Endoribonucleases/metabolism , Humans , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence/methods , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Interferons/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Single Molecule Imaging
5.
Virology ; 558: 28-37, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1057461

ABSTRACT

To help fight COVID-19, new molecular tools specifically targeting critical components of the causative agent of COVID-19, SARS-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), are desperately needed. The SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein is critical for viral replication, integral to viral particle assembly, and a major diagnostic marker for infection and immune protection. Currently the limited available antibody reagents targeting the nucleocapsid protein are not specific to SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein, and sequences for these antibodies are not publicly available. In this work we developed and characterized a series of new mouse monoclonal antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein, with a specific clone, mBG86, targeting only SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein. The monoclonal antibodies were validated in ELISA, Western blot, and immunofluorescence analyses. The variable regions from six select clones were cloned and sequenced, and preliminary epitope mapping of the sequenced clones was performed. Overall, these new antibody reagents will be of significant value in the fight against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cloning, Molecular , Escherichia coli , Female , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/immunology
6.
Viruses ; 13(1)2020 12 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004759

ABSTRACT

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic and multiple devastating forest fires, the 2020 meeting of the Rocky Mountain Virology Association was held virtually. The three-day gathering featured talks describing recent advances in virology and prion research. The keynote presentation described the measles virus paradox of immune suppression and life-long immunity. Special invited speakers presented information concerning visualizing antiviral effector cell biology in mucosal tissues, uncovering the T-cell tropism of Epstein-Barr virus type 2, a history and current survey of coronavirus spike proteins, a summary of Zika virus vaccination and immunity, the innate immune response to flavivirus infections, a discussion concerning prion disease as it relates to multiple system atrophy, and clues for discussing virology with the non-virologist. On behalf of the Rocky Mountain Virology Association, this report summarizes selected presentations.


Subject(s)
Societies, Scientific , Virology , Animals , Anniversaries and Special Events , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Flavivirus Infections/immunology , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , Immunity , Pandemics , Prions , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination , Zika Virus
7.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-920839

ABSTRACT

The global COVID-19 pandemic has caused massive disruptions in every society around the world. To help fight COVID-19, new molecular tools specifically targeting critical components of the causative agent of COVID-19, SARS-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), are desperately needed. The SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein is a major component of the viral replication processes, integral to viral particle assembly, and is a major diagnostic marker for infection and immune protection. Currently available antibody reagents targeting the nucleocapsid protein were primarily developed against the related SARS-CoV virus and are not specific to SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein. Therefore, in this work we developed and characterized a series of new mouse monoclonal antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein. The anti-nucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies were tested in ELISA, western blot, and immunofluorescence analyses. The variable regions from the heavy and light chains from five select clones were cloned and sequenced, and preliminary epitope mapping of the sequenced clones was performed. Overall, the new antibody reagents described here will be of significant value in the fight against COVID-19.

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