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Front Pediatr ; 9: 752993, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779952


Objectives: Studies of household transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) focused on households with children are limited. We investigated household secondary attack rate (SAR), transmission dynamics, and contributing factors in households with children. Materials and Methods: In this prospective case-ascertained study in Los Angeles County, California, all households members were enrolled if ≥1 member tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Nasopharyngeal PCRs, serology, and symptom data were obtained over multiple visits. Results: A total of 489 individuals in 105 households were enrolled from June to December 2020. The majority (77.3%) reported a household annual income of <$50,000, and most (92.9%) were of Hispanic/Latinx ethnicity. Children <18 years old accounted for 46.9% index cases, of whom 45.3% were asymptomatic. Household index cases were predominantly children during low community transmission and adults during the high community transmission period (χ2 = 7.647, p = 0.0036. The mean household SAR was 77.0% (95% CI: 69.4-84.6%). Child and adult index cases both efficiently transmitted SARS-CoV-2 within households [81.9%, (95% CI: 72.1-91.9%) vs. 72.4% (95% CI: 59.8-85.1%), p = 0.23]. Household income and pets were significantly associated with higher SAR in the multivariable analysis of household factors (p = 0.0013 and 0.004, respectively). Conclusions: The SAR in households with children in an urban setting with a large ethnic minority population is much higher than previously described. Children play important roles as index cases. SAR was disproportionately impacted by household income. Vaccination and public health efforts need special focus on children and vulnerable communities to help mitigate SARS-CoV-2 spread.

Pediatrics ; 149(2)2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607590


BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific antibodies have been detected in human milk up to 6 weeks post-coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination. We evaluated SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, neutralization activity, effect of pasteurization, and persistence through 6 months after vaccination. METHODS: This prospective longitudinal study enrolled 30 pregnant or lactating women. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and neutralization capacity were analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay compared at prevaccination and 1, 3, and 6 months postvaccination, and through Holder pasteurization. RESULTS: Human milk SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG levels peaked at 1 month postvaccination and persisted above prevaccination levels for at least 6 months (P = .005). SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA was detected at 1 and 3 months (both P < .001) but waned by 6 months compared with baseline (P = .07). Milk SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG and IgA correlated with serum IgG at the same time point (R2 = 0.37, P < .001 and R2 = 0.19, P < .001). Neutralization activity was seen in 83.3%, 70.4%, and 25.0% of milk samples at 1, 3, and 6 months postvaccination. Neutralization most strongly correlated with SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG (R2 = 0.57, P < .001). Pre- and postpasteurization samples showed similar IgG (0.84 vs 1.07, P = .36) and neutralizing activity (57.7% vs 58.7% inhibition, P = .27), but lower IgM and IgA levels postpasteurization (0.09 vs 0.06, P = .004 and 0.21 vs 0.18, P = .043). CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that human milk SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies may be available to milk-fed infants for up to 6 months. In addition, donor milk from vaccinated mothers retain IgG and neutralizing activity.

Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Vaccines , Milk, Human/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Breast Feeding , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Lactation , Longitudinal Studies , Pasteurization , Prospective Studies