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1.
Eur Radiol ; 2022 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729285

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the frequency of ipsilateral axillary adenopathy on breast MRI after COVID-19 vaccination. To investigate the duration, outcomes, and associated variables of vaccine-related adenopathy. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, our database was queried for patients who underwent breast MRI following COVID-19 vaccination from January 22, 2021, to March 21, 2021. The frequency of ipsilateral axillary adenopathy and possible associated variables were evaluated, including age, personal history of ipsilateral breast cancer, clinical indication for breast MRI, type of vaccine, side of vaccination, number of doses, and number of days between the vaccine and the MRI exam. The outcomes of the adenopathy were investigated, including the duration of adenopathy and biopsy results. RESULTS: A total of 357 patients were included. The frequency of adenopathy on breast MRI was 29% (104/357 patients). Younger patients and shorter time intervals from the second dose of the vaccine were significantly associated with the development of adenopathy (p = 0.002 for both). Most adenopathy resolved or decreased on follow-up, with 11% of patients presenting persistence of adenopathy up to 64 days after the second dose of the vaccine. Metastatic axillary carcinoma was diagnosed in three patients; all three had a current ipsilateral breast cancer diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccine-related adenopathy is a frequent event after COVID-19 vaccination; short-term follow-up is an appropriate clinical approach, except in patients with current ipsilateral breast cancer. Adenopathy may often persist 4-8 weeks after the second dose of the vaccine, thus favoring longer follow-up periods. KEY POINTS: • MRI-detected ipsilateral axillary adenopathy is a frequent benign finding after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. • Axillary adenopathy following COVID-19 vaccination often persists > 4 weeks after vaccination, favoring longer follow-up periods. • In patients with concurrent ipsilateral breast cancer, axillary adenopathy can represent metastatic carcinoma and follow-up is not appropriate.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(4): 567-574, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699244

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neutropenia is commonly encountered in cancer patients. Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, filgrastim), a cytokine that initiates proliferation and differentiation of mature granulocytes, is widely given to oncology patients to counteract neutropenia, reducing susceptibility to infection. However, the clinical impact of neutropenia and G-CSF use in cancer patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unknown. METHODS: An observational cohort of 379 actively treated cancer patients with COVID-19 was assembled to investigate links between concurrent neutropenia and G-CSF administration on COVID-19-associated respiratory failure and death. These factors were encoded as time-dependent predictors in an extended Cox model, controlling for age and underlying cancer diagnosis. To determine whether the degree of granulocyte response to G-CSF affected outcomes, the degree of response to G-CSF, based on rise in absolute neutrophil count (ANC) 24 hours after growth factor administration, was also incorporated into a similar Cox model. RESULTS: In the setting of active COVID-19 infection, outpatient receipt of G-CSF led to an increased number of hospitalizations (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-10.0, P value: .017). Furthermore, among inpatients, G-CSF administration was associated with increased need for high levels of oxygen supplementation and death (HR: 3.56, 95% CI: 1.19-10.2, P value: .024). This effect was predominantly seen in patients that exhibited a high response to G-CSF based on their ANC increase post-G-CSF administration (HR: 7.78, 95% CI: 2.05-27.9, P value: .004). CONCLUSIONS: The potential risks versus benefits of G-CSF administration should be considered in neutropenic cancer patients with COVID-19, because G-CSF administration may lead to worsening clinical and respiratory status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Neutropenia , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Filgrastim/therapeutic use , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/therapeutic use , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neutropenia/complications , Neutropenia/drug therapy , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Eur Radiol ; 32(4): 2661-2671, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491098

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the degree of parenchymal involvement on chest radiograph (CXR) at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis and its early radiologic evolution can predict adverse events including hospitalization, intubation, and death in patients with cancer. METHODS: Retrospective study of 627 COVID-19-positive patients between March and April 2020, of which 248 had baseline CXR within 72 h of diagnosis and 64 patients had follow-up wihtin72 h. CXRs were classified as abnormal (i.e., radiologic findings suggestive of COVID-19 infection were noted), normal, or indeterminate. Baseline and follow-up severity scores were calculated based on lung regions in abnormal CXRs. Statistical analysis was performed to determine associations between abnormal CXR or severity score with adverse events. RESULTS: Of 248 patients (median age = 65) with a baseline CXR, 172/248 (69%) had an abnormal baseline study, which was associated with hospitalization (p < 0.001), intubation (p = 0.001), and death (p = 0.005). For patients with solid neoplasms, when adjusted for stage, it was associated with hospitalization (p = 0.0002), intubation (p = 0.019), and death (p = 0.03). The median baseline severity score was 3 (range = 1-10); the greater the score, the higher the likelihood of adverse outcome (p < 0.003 for all). A baseline severity score > 9 predicted > 50% probability of intubation and a score of ≥ 10 predicted > 50% of probability of death. The baseline severity score was not correlated with cancer-related treatment. Early radiologic progression was not correlated with hospitalization, intubation, or death. CONCLUSION: The degree of parenchymal involvement on CXR within 72 h of COVID-19 diagnosis is associated with adverse outcomes in patients with cancer. KEY POINTS: • In patients with cancer, the presence and severity of radiologic manifestation of COVID-19 on chest radiographs within 72 h of COVID-19 diagnosis are associated with hospitalization, intubation, and death. • Early radiologic progression on chest radiographs is not correlated with adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Aged , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasms/therapy , Radiography, Thoracic , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Cancer Invest ; 40(1): 17-25, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488066

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Our goal was to identify discrete clinical characteristics associated with safe discharge from an emergency department/urgent care for patients with a history of cancer and concurrent COVID-19 infection during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and prior to widespread vaccination. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 255 adult patients with a history of cancer who presented to Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) urgent care center (UCC) from March 1, 2020 to May 31, 2020 with concurrent COVID-19 infection. We evaluated associations between patient characteristics and 30-day mortality from initial emergency department (ED) or urgent care center (UCC) visit and the absence of a severe event within 30 days. External validation was performed on a retrospective data from 29 patients followed at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center that presented to the local emergency department. A late cohort of 108 additional patients at MSKCC from June 1, 2020 to January 31, 2021 was utilized for further validation. RESULTS: In the MSKCC cohort, 30-day mortality and severe event rate was 15% and 32% respectively. Using stepwise regression analysis, elevated BUN and glucose, anemia, and tachypnea were selected as the main predictors of 30-day mortality. Conversely, normal albumin, BUN, calcium, and glucose, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio <3, lack of (severe) hypoxia, lack of bradycardia or tachypnea, and negative imaging were selected as the main predictors of an uneventful course as defined as a Lack Of a Severe Event within Thirty Days (LOSETD). Utilizing this information, we devised a tool to predict 30-day mortality and LOSETD which achieved an area under the operating curve (AUC) of 79% and 74% respectively. Similar estimates of AUC were obtained in an external validation cohort. A late cohort at MSKCC was consistent with the prior, albeit with a lower AUC. CONCLUSION: We identified easily obtainable variables that predict 30-day mortality and the absence of a severe event for patients with a history of cancer and concurrent COVID-19. This has been translated into a bedside tool that the clinician may utilize to assist disposition of this group of patients from the emergency department or urgent care setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Neoplasms/complications , Aged , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(4): 567-574, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263655

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neutropenia is commonly encountered in cancer patients. Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, filgrastim), a cytokine that initiates proliferation and differentiation of mature granulocytes, is widely given to oncology patients to counteract neutropenia, reducing susceptibility to infection. However, the clinical impact of neutropenia and G-CSF use in cancer patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unknown. METHODS: An observational cohort of 379 actively treated cancer patients with COVID-19 was assembled to investigate links between concurrent neutropenia and G-CSF administration on COVID-19-associated respiratory failure and death. These factors were encoded as time-dependent predictors in an extended Cox model, controlling for age and underlying cancer diagnosis. To determine whether the degree of granulocyte response to G-CSF affected outcomes, the degree of response to G-CSF, based on rise in absolute neutrophil count (ANC) 24 hours after growth factor administration, was also incorporated into a similar Cox model. RESULTS: In the setting of active COVID-19 infection, outpatient receipt of G-CSF led to an increased number of hospitalizations (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-10.0, P value: .017). Furthermore, among inpatients, G-CSF administration was associated with increased need for high levels of oxygen supplementation and death (HR: 3.56, 95% CI: 1.19-10.2, P value: .024). This effect was predominantly seen in patients that exhibited a high response to G-CSF based on their ANC increase post-G-CSF administration (HR: 7.78, 95% CI: 2.05-27.9, P value: .004). CONCLUSIONS: The potential risks versus benefits of G-CSF administration should be considered in neutropenic cancer patients with COVID-19, because G-CSF administration may lead to worsening clinical and respiratory status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Neutropenia , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Filgrastim/therapeutic use , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/therapeutic use , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neutropenia/complications , Neutropenia/drug therapy , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 391, 2021 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1215099

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Accurately predicting outcomes for cancer patients with COVID-19 has been clinically challenging. Numerous clinical variables have been retrospectively associated with disease severity, but the predictive value of these variables, and how multiple variables interact to increase risk, remains unclear. METHODS: We used machine learning algorithms to predict COVID-19 severity in 348 cancer patients at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York City. Using only clinical variables collected on or before a patient's COVID-19 positive date (time zero), we sought to classify patients into one of three possible future outcomes: Severe-early (the patient required high levels of oxygen support within 3 days of being tested positive for COVID-19), Severe-late (the patient required high levels of oxygen after 3 days), and Non-severe (the patient never required oxygen support). RESULTS: Our algorithm classified patients into these classes with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) ranging from 70 to 85%, significantly outperforming prior methods and univariate analyses. Critically, classification accuracy is highest when using a potpourri of clinical variables - including basic patient information, pre-existing diagnoses, laboratory and radiological work, and underlying cancer type - suggesting that COVID-19 in cancer patients comes with numerous, combinatorial risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we provide a computational tool that can identify high-risk patients early in their disease progression, which could aid in clinical decision-making and selecting treatment options.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Decision Support Systems, Clinical , Machine Learning , Neoplasms/etiology , Risk Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Algorithms , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/virology , New York City/epidemiology , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
7.
Radiology ; 300(2): E323-E327, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099797

ABSTRACT

Vaccination-associated adenopathy is a frequent imaging finding after administration of COVID-19 vaccines that may lead to a diagnostic conundrum in patients with manifest or suspected cancer, in whom it may be indistinguishable from malignant nodal involvement. To help the medical community address this concern in the absence of studies and evidence-based guidelines, this special report offers recommendations developed by a multidisciplinary panel of experts from three of the leading tertiary care cancer centers in the United States. According to these recommendations, some routine imaging examinations, such as those for screening, should be scheduled before or at least 6 weeks after the final vaccination dose to allow for any reactive adenopathy to resolve. However, there should be no delay of other clinically indicated imaging (eg, for acute symptoms, short-interval treatment monitoring, urgent treatment planning or complications) due to prior vaccination. The vaccine should be administered on the side contralateral to the primary or suspected cancer, and both doses should be administered in the same arm. Vaccination information-date(s) administered, injection site(s), laterality, and type of vaccine-should be included in every preimaging patient questionnaire, and this information should be made readily available to interpreting radiologists. Clear and effective communication between patients, radiologists, referring physician teams, and the general public should be considered of the highest priority when managing adenopathy in the setting of COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , COVID-19 , Humans , Periodicals as Topic , Radiology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
8.
Nat Med ; 26(8): 1218-1223, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-616643

ABSTRACT

As of 10 April 2020, New York State had 180,458 cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and 9,385 reported deaths. Patients with cancer comprised 8.4% of deceased individuals1. Population-based studies from China and Italy suggested a higher coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) death rate in patients with cancer2,3, although there is a knowledge gap as to which aspects of cancer and its treatment confer risk of severe COVID-194. This information is critical to balance the competing safety considerations of reducing SARS-CoV-2 exposure and cancer treatment continuation. From 10 March to 7 April 2020, 423 cases of symptomatic COVID-19 were diagnosed at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (from a total of 2,035 patients with cancer tested). Of these, 40% were hospitalized for COVID-19, 20% developed severe respiratory illness (including 9% who required mechanical ventilation) and 12% died within 30 d. Age older than 65 years and treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) were predictors for hospitalization and severe disease, whereas receipt of chemotherapy and major surgery were not. Overall, COVID-19 in patients with cancer is marked by substantial rates of hospitalization and severe outcomes. The association observed between ICI and COVID-19 outcomes in our study will need further interrogation in tumor-specific cohorts.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Neoplasms/mortality , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/pathology , Neoplasms/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
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