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1.
Blood Advances ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1799127

ABSTRACT

Pretransplant respiratory virus infections (RVIs) have been shown to negatively impact hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) outcomes. The impact of and need for delay of HCT for pretransplant infection with human rhinovirus (HRV) or endemic human coronavirus (HCoV) (229E, OC43, NL63, and HKU1) remains controversial. We analyzed the impact of symptomatic RVI within <90 days prior to HCT on overall mortality, posttransplant lower respiratory tract disease (LRD), and days alive and out of hospital (DAOH) by day 100 post HCT in multivariable models. Among 1,643 adult HCT recipients (58% allogeneic recipients), 704 (43%) were tested for RVI before HCT and 307 (44%) tested positive. HRV was most commonly detected (56%). Forty-five (15%) of 307 HCT recipients had LRD with the same virus early after HCT. Pretransplant upper respiratory infection (URI) with influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus, parainfluenza virus, HRV or endemic HCoV was not associated with increased overall mortality or fewer DAOH. However, in allogeneic recipients who received myeloablative conditioning, LRD due to any respiratory virus, including HRV alone, was associated with increased overall mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 10.8 [95% CI 3.29, 35.1] for HRV and 3.21 [95% CI 1.15, 9.01] for all other viruses). HRV LRD was also associated with fewer DAOH. Thus, the presence of LRD due to common respiratory viruses, including HRV, before myeloablative allogeneic HCT was associated with increased mortality and hospitalization. Pretransplant URI due to HRV and endemic HCoV was not associated with these outcomes. Improved management strategies for pretransplant LRD are warranted.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(6): 1089-1092, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703666

ABSTRACT

Across 20 vaccine breakthrough cases detected at our institution, all 20 (100%) infections were due to variants of concern (VOCs) and had a median Ct of 20.2 (IQR, 17.1-23.3). When compared with 5174 contemporaneous samples sequenced in our laboratory, VOCs were significantly enriched among breakthrough infections (P < .05).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Base Sequence , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Washington/epidemiology
3.
Non-conventional in English | MEDLINE, Grey literature | ID: grc-750394

ABSTRACT

There are currently limited data on the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and optimal management of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in hematopoietic cell transplantation and cellular therapy recipients. Given the experience with other respiratory viruses, we anticipate that patients may develop severe clinical disease and thus provide the following general principles for cancer centers across the nation. These guidelines were developed by members of the American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy Infectious Diseases Special Interest Group. Specific practices may vary depending on local epidemiology and testing capacity, and the guidance provided in this document may change as new information becomes available.

4.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(10)2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495513

ABSTRACT

Recipients of chimeric antigen receptor-modified T (CAR-T) cell therapies for B cell malignancies have profound and prolonged immunodeficiencies and are at risk for serious infections, including respiratory virus infections. Vaccination may be important for infection prevention, but there are limited data on vaccine immunogenicity in this population. We conducted a prospective observational study of the humoral immunogenicity of commercially available 2019-2020 inactivated influenza vaccines in adults immediately prior to or while in durable remission after CD19-, CD20-, or B cell maturation antigen-targeted CAR-T-cell therapy, as well as controls. We tested for antibodies to all four vaccine strains using neutralization and hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assays. Antibody responses were defined as at least fourfold titer increases from baseline. Seroprotection was defined as a HAI titer ≥40. Enrolled CAR-T-cell recipients were vaccinated 14-29 days prior to (n=5) or 13-57 months following therapy (n=13), and the majority had hypogammaglobulinemia and cellular immunodeficiencies prevaccination. Eight non-immunocompromised adults served as controls. Antibody responses to ≥1 vaccine strain occurred in 2 (40%) individuals before CAR-T-cell therapy and in 4 (31%) individuals vaccinated after CAR-T-cell therapy. An additional 1 (20%) and 6 (46%) individuals had at least twofold increases, respectively. One individual vaccinated prior to CAR-T-cell therapy maintained a response for >3 months following therapy. Across all tested vaccine strains, seroprotection was less frequent in CAR-T-cell recipients than in controls. There was evidence of immunogenicity even among individuals with low immunoglobulin, CD19+ B cell, and CD4+ T-cell counts. These data support consideration for vaccination before and after CAR-T-cell therapy for influenza and other relevant pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2, irrespective of hypogammaglobulinemia or B cell aplasia. However, relatively impaired humoral vaccine immunogenicity indicates the need for additional infection-prevention strategies. Larger studies are needed to refine our understanding of potential correlates of vaccine immunogenicity, and durability of immune responses, in CAR-T-cell therapy recipients.


Subject(s)
Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests/methods , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Young Adult
5.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(6): ofab193, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286576

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: High morbidity and mortality have been observed in patients with cancer and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, there are limited data on antimicrobial use, coinfections, and viral shedding. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adult patients at the Seattle Cancer Care Alliance diagnosed with COVID-19 between February 28, 2020 and June 15, 2020 to characterize antimicrobial use, coinfections, viral shedding, and outcomes within 30 days after diagnosis. Cycle threshold values were used as a proxy for viral load. We determined viral clearance, defined as 2 consecutive negative results using severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction results through July 30, 2020. RESULTS: Seventy-one patients were included with a median age of 61 years; 59% had a solid tumor. Only 3 patients had documented respiratory bacterial coinfection. Empiric antibiotics for pneumonia were prescribed more frequently early in the study period (February 29-March 28, 2020; 12/34) compared to the later period (March 29-June 15, 2020; 2/36) (P = .002). The median number of days from symptom onset to viral clearance was 37 days with viral load rapidly declining in the first 7-10 days after symptom onset. Within 30 days of diagnosis, 29 (41%) patients were hospitalized and 12 (17%) died. Each additional comorbidity was associated with 45% lower odds of days alive and out of hospital in the month following diagnosis in adjusted models. CONCLUSIONS: Patients at a cancer center, particularly those with multiple comorbidities, are at increased risk of poor outcomes from COVID-19. Prolonged viral shedding is frequently observed among cancer patients, and its implications on transmission and treatment strategies warrant further study.

6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(6): 1089-1092, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281855

ABSTRACT

Across 20 vaccine breakthrough cases detected at our institution, all 20 (100%) infections were due to variants of concern (VOCs) and had a median Ct of 20.2 (IQR, 17.1-23.3). When compared with 5174 contemporaneous samples sequenced in our laboratory, VOCs were significantly enriched among breakthrough infections (P < .05).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Base Sequence , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Washington/epidemiology
7.
Journal of Interprofessional Education & Practice ; : 100448, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1253747

ABSTRACT

Background Shortages of infectious disease (ID) physicians is an identified workforce problem. The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated this care gap, leaving many communities without access to an ID physician. More advanced practice providers (APPs), nurse practitioners/physician assistants, work as healthcare extenders, yet are not well described in ID. Purpose Evaluate collaboration between ID physicians and APPs, and potential barriers to utilization of APPs. Methods Anonymous and voluntary surveys;one for physicians, another for APPs. We collected experience, practice setting, familiarity regarding APPs in ID, use of APPs, and perceived barriers/concerns for utilization of APPs. Discussion Nationwide, 218 ID physicians and 93 APPs in ID responded. 71% (155) of ID physicians use APPs. Of APPs, 53% (49) had > 5 years ID experience. Responses highlighted opportunities for dedicated ID education, collaboration, and clarification of practice scope. Conclusion APPs are an experienced group who provide ID care, working alongside physicians to meet ID workforce needs.

10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e2037640, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092150

ABSTRACT

Importance: Medical research has not equitably included members of racial/ethnic minority groups or female and older individuals. There are limited data on participant demographic characteristics in vaccine trials despite the importance of these data to current trials aimed at preventing coronavirus disease 2019. Objective: To investigate whether racial/ethnic minority groups and female and older adults are underrepresented among participants in vaccine clinical trials. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study examined data from completed US-based vaccine trials registered on ClinicalTrials.gov from July 1, 2011, through June 30, 2020. The terms vaccine, vaccination, immunization, and inoculation were used to identify trials. Only those addressing vaccine immunogenicity or efficacy of preventative vaccines were included. Main Outcomes and Measures: The numbers and percentages of racial/ethnic minority, female, and older individuals compared with US census data from 2011 and 2018. Secondary outcome measures were inclusion by trial phase and year of completion. Results: A total of 230 US-based trials with 219 555 participants were included in the study. Most trials were randomized (180 [78.3%]), included viral vaccinations (159 [69.1%]), and represented all trial phases. Every trial reported age and sex; 134 (58.3%) reported race and 79 (34.3%) reported ethnicity. Overall, among adult study participants, White individuals were overrepresented (77.9%; 95% CI, 77.4%-78.4%), and Black or African American individuals (10.6%; 95% CI, 10.2%-11.0%) and American Indian or Alaska Native individuals (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.3%-0.5%) were underrepresented compared with US census data; enrollment of Asian individuals was similar (5.7%; 95% CI, 5.5%-6.0%). Enrollment of Hispanic or Latino individuals (11.6%; 95% CI, 11.1%-12.0%) was also low even among the limited number of adult trials reporting ethnicity. Adult trials were composed of more female participants (75 325 [56.0%]), but among those reporting age as a percentage, enrollment of participants who were aged 65 years or older was low (12.1%; 95% CI, 12.0%-12.3%). Black or African American participants (10.1%; 95% CI, 9.7%-10.6%) and Hispanic or Latino participants (22.5%; 95% CI, 21.6%-23.4%) were also underrepresented in pediatric trials. Among trials reporting race/ethnicity, 65 (48.5%) did not include American Indian or Alaska Native participants and 81 (60.4%) did not include Hawaiian or Pacific Islander participants. Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found that among US-based vaccine clinical trials, members of racial/ethnic minority groups and older adults were underrepresented, whereas female adults were overrepresented. These findings suggest that diversity enrollment targets should be included for all vaccine trials targeting epidemiologically important infections.


Subject(s)
Clinical Trials as Topic/standards , Patient Selection , Sexism/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , /statistics & numerical data , /statistics & numerical data , Clinical Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , /statistics & numerical data , /statistics & numerical data , Sexism/ethnology , /statistics & numerical data
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(10): 2702-2707, 2020 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059704

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) who serve on the front lines of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have been at increased risk for infection due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in some settings. Healthcare-acquired infection has been reported in similar epidemics, but there are limited data on the prevalence of COVID-19 among HCWs and their associated clinical outcomes in the United States. METHODS: We established 2 high-throughput employee testing centers in Seattle, Washington, with drive-through and walk-through options for symptomatic employees in the University of Washington Medicine system and its affiliated organizations. Using data from these testing centers, we report the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among symptomatic employees and describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes among employees with COVID-19. RESULTS: Between 12 March 2020 and 23 April 2020, 3477 symptomatic employees were tested for COVID-19 at 2 employee testing centers; 185 (5.3%) employees tested positive for COVID-19. The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was similar when comparing frontline HCWs (5.2%) with nonfrontline staff (5.5%). Among 174 positive employees reached for follow-up at least 14 days after diagnosis, 6 reported COVID-related hospitalization; all recovered. CONCLUSIONS: During the study period, we observed that the prevalence of positive SARS-CoV-2 tests among symptomatic HCWs was comparable to that of symptomatic nonfrontline staff. Reliable and rapid access to testing for employees is essential to preserve the health, safety, and availability of the healthcare workforce during this pandemic and to facilitate the rapid return of SARS-CoV-2-negative employees to work.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Health Personnel , Humans , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Washington/epidemiology
12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 70(7): 1421-1428, 2020 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-827292

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Outpatient antibiotic prescribing for acute upper respiratory infections (URIs) is a high-priority target for antimicrobial stewardship that has not been described for cancer patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adult patients at an ambulatory cancer center with URI diagnoses from 1 October 2015 to 30 September 2016. We obtained antimicrobial prescribing, respiratory viral testing, and other clinical data at first encounter for the URI through day 14. We used generalized estimating equations to test associations of baseline factors with antibiotic prescribing. RESULTS: Of 341 charts reviewed, 251 (74%) patients were eligible for analysis. Nearly one-third (32%) of patients were prescribed antibiotics for URIs. Respiratory viruses were detected among 85 (75%) of 113 patients tested. Antibiotic prescribing (P = .001) and viral testing (P < .001) varied by clinical service. Sputum production or chest congestion was associated with higher risk of antibiotic prescribing (relative risk [RR], 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-3.8; P < .001). Viral testing on day 0 was associated with lower risk of antibiotic prescribing (RR, 0.4; 95% CI 0.2-0.8; P = .01), though collinearity between viral testing and clinical service limited our ability to separate these effects on prescribing. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly one-third of hematology-oncology outpatients were prescribed antibiotics for URIs, despite viral etiologies identified among 75% of those tested. Antibiotic prescribing was significantly lower among patients who received an initial respiratory viral test. The role of viral testing in antibiotic prescribing for URIs in outpatient oncology settings merits further study.


Subject(s)
Antimicrobial Stewardship , Neoplasms , Respiratory Tract Infections , Viruses , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies
13.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 56(2): 305-313, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-803158

ABSTRACT

On January 20, 2020, the first patient with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the United States of America was diagnosed in Washington state, which subsequently experienced rapidly increasing numbers of COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations, and deaths. This placed the Seattle Blood and Marrow Transplant Program at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (Fred Hutch) in the national epicenter of this pandemic. Here, we summarize the experience gained during our rapid response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Our efforts were aimed at safely performing urgent and potentially life-saving stem cell transplants in the setting of pandemic-related stresses on healthcare resources and shelter-in-place public health measures. We describe the unique circumstances and challenges encountered, the current state of the program amidst evolving COVID-19 cases in our community, and the guiding principles for recovery. We also estimate the collateral impact of directing clinical resources toward COVID-19-related care on cancer patients in need of stem cell transplantation. Although our experience was influenced by specific regional and institutional factors, it may help inform how transplant programs respond to COVID-19 and future pandemics.


Subject(s)
Blood Transfusion/methods , Bone Marrow Transplantation/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Transplantation Conditioning/methods , Humans , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology
14.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 26(11): 1983-1994, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-692782

ABSTRACT

There are currently limited data on the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and optimal management of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in hematopoietic cell transplantation and cellular therapy recipients. Given the experience with other respiratory viruses, we anticipate that patients may develop severe clinical disease and thus provide the following general principles for cancer centers across the nation. These guidelines were developed by members of the American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy Infectious Diseases Special Interest Group. Specific practices may vary depending on local epidemiology and testing capacity, and the guidance provided in this document may change as new information becomes available.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Clinical Decision-Making , Disease Management , Disinfection/methods , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/virology , Physical Distancing , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Time Factors
15.
Acad Med ; 95(8): 1146-1148, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-54981

ABSTRACT

On January 19, 2020, the first case of a patient with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the United States was reported in Washington State. On February 29, 2020, a patient infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) passed away in a hospital in Seattle-King County, the first reported COVID-19-related death in the United States. That same day, a skilled nursing and rehabilitation facility in the county reported that several of its residents tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and that many staff had symptoms compatible with COVID-19.The University of Washington Medicine health system (UW Medicine), which is based in Seattle-King County and provides quaternary care for the region, was one of several health care organizations called upon to address this growing crisis. What ensued was a series of swiftly enacted decisions and activities at UW Medicine, in partnership with local, state, and national public health agencies, to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic. Tapping into the multipronged mission areas of academic medicine, UW Medicine worked to support the community, innovate in science and clinical practice; lead policy and practice guideline development; and adopt changes as the crisis unfolded. In doing so, health system leaders had to balance their commitments to students, residents and fellows, researchers, faculty, staff, and hospital and health center entities, while ensuring that patients continued to receive cutting-edge, high-quality, safe care. In this Invited Commentary, the authors highlight the work and challenges UW Medicine has faced in responding to the global COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers/organization & administration , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Washington/epidemiology
16.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; : 1-4, 2020 03 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-11181

ABSTRACT

The first confirmed case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the United States was reported on January 20, 2020, in Snohomish County, Washington. At the epicenter of COVID-19 in the United States, the Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, and University of Washington are at the forefront of delivering care to patients with cancer during this public health crisis. This Special Feature highlights the unique circumstances and challenges of cancer treatment amidst this global pandemic, and the importance of organizational structure, preparation, agility, and a shared vision for continuing to provide cancer treatment to patients in the face of uncertainty and rapid change.

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