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1.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(11)2021 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533752

ABSTRACT

Hyponatremia, i.e., the presence of a serum sodium concentration ([Na+]) < 136 mEq/L, is the most frequent electrolyte imbalance in the elderly and in hospitalized patients. Symptoms of acute hyponatremia, whose main target is the central nervous system, are explained by the "osmotic theory" and the neuronal swelling secondary to decreased extracellular osmolality, which determines cerebral oedema. Following the description of neurological and systemic manifestations even in mild and chronic hyponatremia, in the last decade reduced extracellular [Na+] was associated with detrimental effects on cellular homeostasis independently of hypoosmolality. Most of these alterations appeared to be elicited by oxidative stress. In this review, we focus on the role of oxidative stress on both osmolality-dependent and -independent impairment of cell and tissue functions observed in hyponatremic conditions. Furthermore, basic and clinical research suggested that oxidative stress appears to be a common denominator of the degenerative processes related to aging, cancer progression, and hyponatremia. Of note, low [Na+] is able to exacerbate multiple manifestations of senescence and to decrease progression-free and overall survival in oncologic patients.

2.
Nat Hum Behav ; 2021 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526082

ABSTRACT

Developed democracies proliferated over the past two centuries during an unprecedented era of economic growth, which may be ending. Macroeconomic forecasts predict slowing growth throughout the twenty-first century for structural reasons such as ageing populations, shifts from goods to services, slowing innovation, and debt. Long-run effects of COVID-19 and climate change could further slow growth. Some sustainability scientists assert that slower growth, stagnation or de-growth is an environmental imperative, especially in developed countries. Whether slow growth is inevitable or planned, we argue that developed democracies should prepare for additional fiscal and social stress, some of which is already apparent. We call for a 'guided civic revival', including government and civic efforts aimed at reducing inequality, socially integrating diverse populations and building shared identities, increasing economic opportunity for youth, improving return on investment in taxation and public spending, strengthening formal democratic institutions and investing to improve non-economic drivers of subjective well-being.

3.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(1): 137-144, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477604

ABSTRACT

Objective: Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder in hospitalized patients and occurs in about 30% of patients with pneumonia. Hyponatremia has been associated with a worse outcome in several pathologic conditions The main objective of this study was to determine whether serum sodium alterations may be independent predictors of the outcome of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Design and methods: In this observational study, data from 441 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to a University Hospital were collected. After excluding 61 patients (no serum sodium at admission available, saline solution infusion before sodium assessment, transfer from another hospital), data from 380 patients were analyzed. Results: 274 (72.1%) patients had normonatremia at admission, 87 (22.9%) patients had hyponatremia and 19 (5%) patients had hypernatremia. We found an inverse correlation between serum sodium and IL-6, whereas a direct correlation between serum sodium and PaO2/FiO2 ratio was observed. Patients with hyponatremia had a higher prevalence of non-invasive ventilation and ICU transfer than those with normonatremia or hypernatremia. Hyponatremia was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (2.7-fold increase vs normonatremia) and each mEq/L of serum sodium reduction was associated with a 14.4% increased risk of death. Conclusions: These results suggest that serum sodium at admission may be considered as an early prognostic marker of disease severity in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sodium/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Fluorocarbons/blood , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydrocarbons, Brominated/blood , Hypernatremia/epidemiology , Hyponatremia/epidemiology , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS Virus
5.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1865

ABSTRACT

We study optimal targeted social distancing policy in a SIR model with multiple risk groups and uncertain arrival time for a vaccine or cure. If the (expected)

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