Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 29
Filter
1.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 305(5): 1135-1142, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797645

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Pregnant women with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have a higher risk of hospitalization, admission to intensive care unit (ICU) and invasive ventilation, and of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In case of ARDS and critical severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is recommended when other respiratory support strategies (oxygen insufflation, non-invasive ventilation [NIV], invasive ventilation through an endotracheal tube) are insufficient. However, available data on ECMO in pregnant and postpartum women with critical COVID-19 are very limited. METHODS: A case series of three critically ill pregnant women who required ECMO support for COVID-19 in pregnancy and/or in the postpartum period. RESULTS: The first patient tested positive for COVID-19 during the second trimester, she developed ARDS and required ECMO for 38 days. She was discharged in good general conditions and a cesarean-section [CS] at term was performed for obstetric indication. The second patient developed COVID-19-related ARDS at 28 weeks of gestation. During ECMO, she experienced a precipitous vaginal delivery at 31 weeks and 6 days of gestation. She was discharged 1 month later in good general conditions. The third patient, an obese 43-year-old woman, tested positive at 38 weeks and 2 days of gestation. Because of the worsening of clinical condition, a CS was performed, and she underwent ECMO. 143 days after the CS, she died because of sepsis and multiple organ failure (MOF). Thrombosis, hemorrhage and infections were the main complications among our patients. Neonatal outcomes have been positive. CONCLUSION: ECMO should be considered a life-saving therapy for pregnant women with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
2.
3.
Panminerva Med ; 2022 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1743139

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To assess the clinical effectiveness of Tocilizumab (TCZ) in moderate-to-severe hospitalized COVID-19 patients and factors associated with clinical response. METHODS: 508 inpatients with moderate-to-severe SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled. TCZ effect in addition to standard medical therapy was evaluated in terms of death during hospital stay. Unadjusted and adjusted risk of mortality for TCZ treated patients versus TCZ untreated ones was estimated using robust Cox regression model. We considered the combination of TCZ and ICU as time-dependent exposure and created a model using duplication method to assess the TCZ effect in very severe COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: TCZ REDUCED DEATH DURING HOSPITAL STAY IN THE UNADJUSTED MODEL (HR 0.54, 95%CI 0.33- 0.88) and also in the adjusted model, although with loss of statistical significance (HR 0.72, 0.43- 1.20). Better effectiveness was observed in patients with low SpO2/FiO2 ratio (HR 0.35, 0.21-0.61 vs 1.61, 0.54-4.82, p<0.05), and, without statistical significance, in patients with high CRP (HR 0.51, 0.30-0.87 vs 0.41, 0.12-1.37, p =NS) and high IL-6 (HR 0.49, 0.29-0.82 vs 1.00, 0.28-3.55, p=NS). TCZ was effective in patients not admitted to ICU, both in the unadjusted (HR 0.33, 0.14-0.74) and in the adjusted (HR 0.39, 0.17-0.91) model but no benefit was observed in critical ICU-admitted patients both in the unadjusted (HR 0.66, 0.37-1.15) and in the adjusted model (HR 0.95, 0.54-1.68). CONCLUSIONS: our real-life study suggests clinical efficacy of TCZ in moderate-to-severe COVID-19 patients but not in end-stage disease. Thus, to enhance TCZ effectiveness, patients should be selected before grave compromise of clinical conditions.

4.
J Crit Care ; : 153987, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665153

ABSTRACT

PURPOSES: To assess the effects of inhaled Nitric Oxide (iNO) on right ventricle dimension and function and systolic pulmonary arterial pressures in severe Acute Respiratory Distress (ARDS) due to Sars-Cov2 (COVID) infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed the effects of iNO on right ventricle dimension and function and systolic pulmonary arterial pressures in 12 consecutive COVID-related ARDS patients by means of serial echocardiographic exams (baseline, 12 and 24 h since iNO start). RESULTS: Inhaled NO administration did not influence systolic pulmonary arterial pressures nor RV dimension and function. No changes were detectable in ventilatory data with iNO administration. Considering the negligible effect on oxygenation, iNO use was discontinued in all cases. CONCLUSIONS: In COVID-related severe ARDS iNO administrated as rescue therapy is not able to ameliorate oxygenation nor pulmonary hypertension, as assessed by serial echocardiograms. This finding may be explained by the diffuse loss of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction with increased perfusion around alveolar consolidations which characterizes COVID-related severe ARDS.

5.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(1): 137-144, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477604

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder in hospitalized patients and occurs in about 30% of patients with pneumonia. Hyponatremia has been associated with a worse outcome in several pathologic conditions The main objective of this study was to determine whether serum sodium alterations may be independent predictors of the outcome of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. DESIGN AND METHODS: In this observational study, data from 441 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to a University Hospital were collected. After excluding 61 patients (no serum sodium at admission available, saline solution infusion before sodium assessment, transfer from another hospital), data from 380 patients were analyzed. RESULTS: 274 (72.1%) patients had normonatremia at admission, 87 (22.9%) patients had hyponatremia and 19 (5%) patients had hypernatremia. We found an inverse correlation between serum sodium and IL-6, whereas a direct correlation between serum sodium and PaO2/FiO2 ratio was observed. Patients with hyponatremia had a higher prevalence of non-invasive ventilation and ICU transfer than those with normonatremia or hypernatremia. Hyponatremia was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (2.7-fold increase vs normonatremia) and each mEq/L of serum sodium reduction was associated with a 14.4% increased risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that serum sodium at admission may be considered as an early prognostic marker of disease severity in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sodium/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Fluorocarbons/blood , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydrocarbons, Brominated/blood , Hypernatremia/epidemiology , Hyponatremia/epidemiology , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS Virus
6.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 2021 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364615

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support may be considered in experienced centers for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection refractory to conventional treatment. In ECMO patients, echocardiography has emerged as a clinical tool for implantation and clinical management; but to date, little data are available on COVID-related ARDS patients requiring ECMO. The authors assessed the incidence of right ventricular dilatation and dysfunction (RvDys) in patients with COVID-related ARDS requiring ECMO. DESIGN: Single-center investigation. SETTING: Intensive care unit (ICU). PARTICIPANTS: A total of 35 patients with COVID-related ARDS requiring ECMO, consecutively admitted to the ICU (March 1, 2020, to February 28, 2021). INTERVENTIONS: Serial echocardiographic examinations. RvDys was defined as RV end-diastolic area/LV end-diastolic area >0.6 and tricuspid annular plane excursion <15 mm. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The incidence of RvDys was 15/35 (42%). RvDys patients underwent ECMO support after a longer period of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.006) and exhibited a higher mortality rate (p = 0.024) than those without RvDys. In nonsurvivors, RvDys was observed in all patients (n = nine) who died with unfavorable progression of COVID-related ARDS. In survivors, weaned from ECMO, a significant reduction in systolic pulmonary arterial pressures was detectable. CONCLUSIONS: According to the authors' data, in COVID-related ARDS requiring ECMO support, RvDys is common, associated with increased ICU mortality. Overall, the data underscored the clinical role of echocardiography in COVID-related ARDS supported by venovenous ECMO, because serial echocardiographic assessments (especially focused on RV changes) are able to reflect pulmonary COVID disease severity.

9.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e77, 2021 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203371

ABSTRACT

Control of the novel COronaVIrus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) in a hospital setting is a priority. A COVID-19-infected surgeon performed surgical activities before being tested. An exposure risk classification was applied to the identified exposed subjects and high- and medium-risk contacts underwent active symptom monitoring for 14 days at home. All healthcare professionals (HCPs) were tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) at the end of the quarantine and serological tests were performed. Three household contacts and 20 HCPs were identified as high- or medium-risk contacts and underwent a 14-day quarantine. Fourteen HCPs and 19 patients were instead classified as low risk. All the contacts remained asymptomatic and all HCPs tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. About 25-28 days after their last exposure, HCPs underwent serological testing and two of them had positive IgM but negative confirmatory swabs. In a low COVID-19 burden area, the in-hospital transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from an infectious doctor did not occur and, despite multiple and frequent contacts, a hospital outbreak was avoided. This may be linked to the adoption of specific recommendations and to the use of standard personal protective equipment by HCPs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Surgeons , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Contact Tracing/instrumentation , Contact Tracing/methods , Epidemiology , Humans , Infection Control/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/standards
10.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 144(2): 161-169, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199639

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy (CIPNM) is a frequent neurological manifestation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. CIPNM diagnosis is usually limited to clinical evaluation. We compared patients with ARDS from COVID-19 and other aetiologies, in whom a neurophysiological evaluation for the detection of CIPNM was performed. The aim was to determine if there were any differences between these two groups in frequency of CINPM and outcome at discharge from the intensive care unit (ICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a single-centre retrospective study performed on mechanically ventilated patients consecutively admitted (January 2016-June 2020) to the ICU of Careggi Hospital, Florence, Italy, with ARDS of different aetiologies. Neurophysiological evaluation was performed on patients with stable ventilation parameters, but marked widespread hyposthenia (Medical Research Council score <48). Creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and mean morning glycaemic values were collected. RESULTS: From a total of 148 patients, 23 with COVID-19 infection and 21 with ARDS due to other aetiologies, underwent electroneurography/electromyography (ENG/EMG) recording. Incidence of CIPNM was similar in the two groups, 65% (15 of 23) in COVID-19 patients and 71% (15 of 21) in patients affected by ARDS of other aetiologies. At ICU discharge, subjects with CIPNM more frequently required ventilatory support, regardless the aetiology of ARDS. CONCLUSION: ENG/EMG represents a useful tool in the identification of the neuromuscular causes underlying ventilator wean failure and patient stratification. A high incidence of CIPNM, with a similar percentage, has been observed in ARDS patients of all aetiologies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electrodiagnosis , Muscular Diseases , Polyneuropathies , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Electromyography , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Muscular Diseases/diagnosis , Muscular Diseases/epidemiology , Muscular Diseases/etiology , Muscular Diseases/physiopathology , Polyneuropathies/diagnosis , Polyneuropathies/epidemiology , Polyneuropathies/etiology , Polyneuropathies/physiopathology , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies
11.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 175: 108789, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163636

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Due to heterogeneity on the prognostic role of glucose values and glucose variability in Novel Coronavirus (COVID) disease, we aimed at assessing the prognostic role for Intensive Care Unit (ICU) death of admission hyperglycaemia, peak glycemia and glucose variability in critically ill COVID patients: METHODS: 83 patients consecutively admitted for COVID-related Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) from from 1st March to 1st October 2020. RESULTS: Non survivors were older, with more comorbidities and a more severe disease. Corticosteroids were used in the majority of patients (54/83, 65%) with no difference between survivors and non survivors. Mean blood glucose values, (during the first 24 and 48 h, respectively), were comparable between the two subgroups, as well as SD 24 and CV 24. During the first 48 h, survivors showed significantly lower values of SD 48 (p < 0.001) and CV 48, respectively (p < 0.001) than non survivors. CONCLUSIONS: in consecutive COVID-related ARDS patients admitted to ICU hyperglycemia (>180 mg/dl) is more common in non survivors who also showed a significantly higher glucose variability in the first 48 h since ICU admission. Our findings point to the clinical significance of in-ICU glucose control in severe COVID patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , Hyperglycemia/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Hyperglycemia/pathology , Male , Prognosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
12.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(7): 1779-1785, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1126620

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lung ultrasound (LU) is a useful tool for monitoring lung involvement in novel coronavirus (COVID) disease, while information on echocardiographic findings in COVID disease is to date scarce and heterogeneous. We hypothesized that lung and cardiac ultrasound examinations, serially and simultaneously performed, could monitor disease severity in COVID-related ARDS. METHODS: We enrolled 47 consecutive patients with COVID-related ARDS (1st March-31st May 2020). Lung and cardiac ultrasounds were performed on admission, at discharged and when clinically needed. RESULTS: Most patients were mechanically ventilated (75%) and veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was needed in ten patients (21.2%). The in-ICU mortality rate was 27%%. On admission, not survivors showed a higher LUS score (p = 0.006) and a higher incidence of consolidations (p = 0.003), lower values of LVEF (p = 0.027) and a higher RV/LV ratio (0.008). At discharge, a significant reduction in the incidence of subpleural consolidations (p < 0.001) and, thus, in LUS score (p < 0.001) and an increase in patter A findings (p < 0.001) together with reduced systolic pulmonary arterial pressures were detectable. In not survivors at final examination, an increased in LUS score (p < 0.001), and in RV/LV ratio (p < 0.001) associated with a reduction in TAPSE (p = 0.013) were observed. A significant correlation was observed between LUS and systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (p = 0.04). LUS and RV/LV resulted independent predictors of in-ICU death. CONCLUSIONS: In COVID-related ARDS, the combined lung and cardiac ultrasound proved to be an useful clinical tool in monitoring disease progression and in identifying parameters (LU score and RV/LV ratio) able to risk stratifying these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cardiomyopathies/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Cardiomyopathies/etiology , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Severity of Illness Index , Ultrasonography/methods
13.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(2): e1009243, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058312

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic emergence of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) poses a relevant threat to global health. SARS-CoV-2 infection is characterized by a wide range of clinical manifestations, ranging from absence of symptoms to severe forms that need intensive care treatment. Here, plasma-EDTA samples of 30 patients compared with age- and sex-matched controls were analyzed via untargeted nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics and lipidomics. With the same approach, the effect of tocilizumab administration was evaluated in a subset of patients. Despite the heterogeneity of the clinical symptoms, COVID-19 patients are characterized by common plasma metabolomic and lipidomic signatures (91.7% and 87.5% accuracy, respectively, when compared to controls). Tocilizumab treatment resulted in at least partial reversion of the metabolic alterations due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. In conclusion, NMR-based metabolomic and lipidomic profiling provides novel insights into the pathophysiological mechanism of human response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and to monitor treatment outcomes.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Lipidomics , Lipids/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular
18.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e040729, 2020 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-797443

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Several physiological abnormalities that develop during COVID-19 are associated with increased mortality. In the present study, we aimed to develop a clinical risk score to predict the in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients, based on a set of variables available soon after the hospitalisation triage. SETTING: Retrospective cohort study of 516 patients consecutively admitted for COVID-19 to two Italian tertiary hospitals located in Northern and Central Italy were collected from 22 February 2020 (date of first admission) to 10 April 2020. PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive patients≥18 years admitted for COVID-19. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Simple clinical and laboratory findings readily available after triage were compared by patients' survival status ('dead' vs 'alive'), with the objective of identifying baseline variables associated with mortality. These were used to build a COVID-19 in-hospital mortality risk score (COVID-19MRS). RESULTS: Mean age was 67±13 years (mean±SD), and 66.9% were male. Using Cox regression analysis, tertiles of increasing age (≥75, upper vs <62 years, lower: HR 7.92; p<0.001) and number of chronic diseases (≥4 vs 0-1: HR 2.09; p=0.007), respiratory rate (HR 1.04 per unit increase; p=0.001), PaO2/FiO2 (HR 0.995 per unit increase; p<0.001), serum creatinine (HR 1.34 per unit increase; p<0.001) and platelet count (HR 0.995 per unit increase; p=0.001) were predictors of mortality. All six predictors were used to build the COVID-19MRS (Area Under the Curve 0.90, 95% CI 0.87 to 0.93), which proved to be highly accurate in stratifying patients at low, intermediate and high risk of in-hospital death (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19MRS is a rapid, operator-independent and inexpensive clinical tool that objectively predicts mortality in patients with COVID-19. The score could be helpful from triage to guide earlier assignment of COVID-19 patients to the most appropriate level of care.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections , Critical Care , Critical Pathways , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Risk Assessment/methods , Triage , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Critical Care/methods , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Critical Pathways/organization & administration , Critical Pathways/standards , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Triage/methods , Triage/statistics & numerical data
20.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(1): 1-5, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-763782

ABSTRACT

In patients with the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infection, the echocardiographic assessment of the right ventricle (RV) represents a pivotal element in the understanding of current disease status and in monitoring disease progression. The present manuscript is aimed at specifically describing the echocardiographic assessment of the right ventricle, mainly focusing on the most useful parameters and the time of examination. The RV direct involvement happens quite often due to preferential lung tropism of COVID-19 infection, which is responsible for an interstitial pneumonia characterized also by pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction (and thus an RV afterload increase), often evolving in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The indirect RV involvement may be due to the systemic inflammatory activation, caused by COVID-19, which may affect the overall cardiovascular system mainly by inducing an increase in troponin values and in the sympathetic tone and altering the volemic status (mainly by affecting renal function). Echocardiographic parameters, specifically focused on RV (dimensions and function) and pulmonary circulation (systolic pulmonary arterial pressures, RV wall thickness), are to be measured in a COVID-19 patient with respiratory failure and ARDS. They have been selected on the basis of their feasibility (that is easy to be measured, even in short time) and usefulness for clinical monitoring. It is advisable to measure the same parameters in the single patient (based also on the availability of valid acoustic windows) which are identified in the first examination and repeated in the following ones, to guarantee a reliable monitoring. Information gained from a clinically-guided echocardiographic assessment holds a clinical utility in the single patients when integrated with biohumoral data (indicating systemic activation), blood gas analysis (reflecting COVID-19-induced lung damage) and data on ongoing therapies (in primis ventilatory settings).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Echocardiography , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnosis , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/virology , Prone Position , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Stroke Volume , Tricuspid Valve/diagnostic imaging , Vena Cava, Inferior/diagnostic imaging
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL