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1.
Ital J Dermatol Venerol ; 158(2): 117-123, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318688

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the COVID-19 pandemic started, great interest has been given to this disease, especially to its possible clinical presentations. Besides classical respiratory symptoms, dermatological manifestations occur quite often among infected and non-infected patients, particularly in children. A prominent IFN-I response, that is generally higher in children compared to adults, may not only cause chilblain lesions, but it could also prevent infection and viral replication, thus justifying the negative swab results, as well as the absence of relevant systemic symptoms in positive cases. Indeed, reports have emerged describing chilblain-like acral lesions in children and adolescents with either proven or suspected infection. METHODS: Patients aged from 1 to 18 years old were enrolled in this study from 23 Italian dermatological units and were observed for an overall period of 6 months. Clinical pictures were collected along with data on the location and duration of skin lesions, their association with concomitant local and systemic symptoms, presence of nail and/or mucosal involvement, as well as histological, laboratory and imaging findings. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-seven patients were included, of whom 56.9% were females. Mean age was 11.97±3.66 years. The most commonly affected sites were the feet (77 patients, 56.2%). Lesions (48.5%) featured cyanosis, chilblains, blisters, ecchymosis, bullae, erythema, edema, and papules. Concomitant skin manifestations included maculo-papular rashes (30%), unspecified rashes (25%), vesicular rashes (20%), erythema multiforme (10%), urticaria (10%) and erythema with desquamation (5%). Forty-one patients (29.9%) reported pruritus as the main symptom associated with chilblains, and 56 out of 137 patients also reported systemic symptoms such as respiratory symptoms (33.9%), fever (28%), intestinal (27%), headache (5.5%), asthenia (3.5%), and joint pain (2%). Associated comorbid conditions were observed in 9 patients presenting with skin lesions. Nasopharyngeal swabs turned out positive in 11 patients (8%), whereas the remainder were either negative (101, 73%) or unspecified (25, 18%). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 has been credited as the etiology of the recent increase in acro-ischemic lesions. The present study provides a description of pediatric cutaneous manifestations deemed to be potentially associated with COVID-19, revealing a possible association between acral cyanosis and nasopharyngeal swab positivity in children and teenagers. The identification and characterization of newly recognized patterns of skin involvement may aid physicians in diagnosing cases of asymptomatic or pauci-symptomatic COVID patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chilblains , Exanthema , Adult , Female , Humans , Adolescent , Child , Infant , Child, Preschool , Male , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chilblains/diagnosis , Chilblains/etiology , Chilblains/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Erythema/complications , Exanthema/complications , Italy/epidemiology , Blister/complications , Cyanosis/complications
3.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 37(5): 922-931, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2245850

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 lockdown had a dramatic impact on primary care access and resulted in postponed skin cancer screenings. This raises concerns for a diagnostic delay on primary cutaneous melanomas, which can subsequently increase morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of the COVID-19-related restrictions on the melanoma diagnosis in five European skin cancer reference centres in Switzerland, Germany, Austria and Italy. METHODS: A total of 7865 cutaneous melanoma cases were collected between 01 September 2018 and 31 August 2021. The time period was stratified into pre-COVID (pre-lockdown) and post-COVID (lockdown and post-lockdown) according to the established restrictions in each country. The data collection included demographic, clinical and histopathological data from histologically confirmed cutaneous melanomas. Personal and family history of melanoma, and presence of immunosuppression were used to assess the diagnosis delay in high-risk individuals. RESULTS: There was an overall increase of the Breslow tumour thickness (mean 1.25 mm vs. 1.02 mm) during the post-COVID period, as well as an increase in the proportion of T3-T4 melanomas, rates of ulceration and the number of mitotic rates ≥2 (all, p < 0.001). Patients with immunosuppression and personal history of melanoma showed a decrease in the mean log10-transformed Breslow during lockdown and post-COVID. In the multivariate analysis, age at melanoma diagnosis (p < 0.01) and personal history of melanoma (p < 0.01) showed significant differences in the mean Breslow thickness. CONCLUSIONS: The study confirms the diagnostic delay in cutaneous melanomas due to the COVID-19 lockdown. High-risk individuals, such as patients with personal history of melanoma and elderly individuals, were more hesitant to restart their regular skin cancer screenings post-COVID. Further studies with longer follow-up are required to evaluate the consequences of this diagnostic delay in long-term outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Melanoma , Skin Neoplasms , Humans , Aged , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Skin Neoplasms/epidemiology , Skin Neoplasms/pathology , Melanoma/diagnosis , Melanoma/epidemiology , Melanoma/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Delayed Diagnosis , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , COVID-19 Testing
4.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 2022 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2233605

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on the effects of systemic immunomodulatory treatments on COVID-19 outcomes in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). OBJECTIVE: To investigate COVID-19 outcomes in patients with AD treated with or without systemic immunomodulatory treatments, using a global registry platform. METHODS: Clinicians were encouraged to report cases of COVID-19 in their patients with AD in the Surveillance Epidemiology of Coronavirus Under Research Exclusion for Atopic Dermatitis (SECURE-AD) registry. Data entered from 1 April 2020 to 31 October 2021 were analysed using multivariable logistic regression. The primary outcome was hospitalization from COVID-19, according to AD treatment groups. RESULTS: 442 AD patients (mean age 35.9 years, 51.8% male) from 27 countries with strongly suspected or confirmed COVID-19 were included in analyses. 428 (96.8%) patients were treated with a single systemic therapy (n = 297 [67.2%]) or topical therapy only (n = 131 [29.6%]). Most patients treated with systemic therapies received dupilumab (n = 216). Fourteen patients (3.2%) received a combination of systemic therapies. Twenty-six patients (5.9%) were hospitalized. No deaths were reported. Patients treated with topical treatments had significantly higher odds of hospitalization, compared with those treated with dupilumab monotherapy (odds ratio (OR) 4.65 [95%CI 1.71-14.78]), including after adjustment for confounding variables (adjusted OR (aOR) 4.99 [95%CI 1.4-20.84]). Combination systemic therapy which did not include systemic corticosteroids was associated with increased odds of hospitalization, compared with single agent non-steroidal immunosuppressive systemic treatment (OR 8.09 [95%CI 0.4-59.96], aOR 37.57 [95%CI 1.05-871.11]). Hospitalization was most likely in patients treated with combination systemic therapy which included systemic corticosteroids (OR 40.43 [95%CI 8.16-207.49], aOR 45.75 [95%CI 4.54-616.22]). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the risk of COVID-19 complications appears low in patients with AD, even when treated with systemic immunomodulatory agents. Dupilumab monotherapy was associated with lower hospitalization than other therapies. Combination systemic treatment, particularly combinations including systemic corticosteroids, was associated with the highest risk of severe COVID-19.

6.
Drugs R D ; 22(3): 245-252, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031052

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of upadacitinib in atopic dermatitis (AD) have been defined in clinical trials, but no real-world data are currently available. We aimed to assess the safety and effectiveness of upadacitinib in a real-world AD patient cohort that mostly included patients who failed the available systemic therapies, including dupilumab. METHODS: Prospective cohort study collecting data on upadacitinib-treated AD adult patients completing at least 16 weeks of therapy. RESULTS: Forty-three patients showed rapid and marked response to upadacitinib with significant reduction of all disease severity scores since the first follow-up visit. At week 16, Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) 75, EASI 90, and EASI 100 response was observed in 97.5%, 82.1%, and 69.2% of patients, respectively. EASI 90 response reflected the achievement of a clear or almost clear condition (POEM 0-2), self-evaluated by 79.5% of patients. Patients' quality of life improved as suggested by the achievement of DLQI 0/1 by 38.5% of patients at week 4, and by 76.9% at week 16. CONCLUSION: Elevated effectiveness and favorable safety of upadacitinib were confirmed in patients unresponsive to dupilumab, who were not included in upadacitinib trials.


Subject(s)
Dermatitis, Atopic , Adult , Cohort Studies , Dermatitis, Atopic/drug therapy , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring , Humans , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
7.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(9)2022 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010344

ABSTRACT

Limited data concerning the development of autoimmune skin diseases after COVID-19 vaccination are currently available. Recently, a few reports described the development, worsening or recurrence of alopecia areata after the administration of COVID-19 vaccines. High variability in terms of disease onset following vaccination as well as the heterogeneous topical and/or systemic treatment approaches have been described. Methods: All patient-related data and images were obtained as part of clinical routine. Diagnosis of alopecia areata was established according to clinical and trichoscopic findings, along with the exclusion of common differential diagnoses. Results. Twenty-four patients, 20 females (83.3%) and four males (16.7%), with a mean age of 39.1 years (age range: 14-66 years), were examined for the occurrence of alopecia areata within 16 weeks after COVID-19 vaccination. Out of 24, 14 patients (58.3%) experienced a patchy alopecia areata, while an extensive disease occurred in 10/24 patients (41.7%): six patients with whole scalp involvement (alopecia areata totalis) and four patients with the whole body affected (alopecia areata universalis). Twelve patients reported a history of autoimmune disease (50%). Treatment with topical corticosteroid was performed in almost all patients with patchy alopecia areata, whilst it was associated with systemic drugs (corticosteroids, minoxidil, cyclosporin) in the case of generalized alopecia areata and alopecia areata universalis. Mean baseline values of Severity of Alopecia Tool (SALT) score decreased from 43.4 to 36.6 after 12 weeks of treatment, with evidence of hair regrowth in 16/21 patients. Conclusion. This study described the occurrence of alopecia areata after COVID-19 vaccination and its management that implicates the use of both topical and systemic therapies.

9.
Dermatol Ther (Heidelb) ; 12(8): 1753-1775, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926102

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Psoriasis affects children with a considerable burden in early life. Treating pediatric psoriasis is challenging also because of the lack of updated specific guidelines. With the recent approval of several biologics for pediatric psoriasis and the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, the management of young psoriatic patients is facing major changes. A revision of treatment recommendations is therefore needed. METHODS: In September 2021, a board of six Italian dermatologists convened to update treatment recommendations. The board issued evidence- and consensus-based statements covering relevant areas of pediatric psoriasis, namely: assessment of psoriasis severity, management of children with psoriasis, and treatment of pediatric psoriasis. To reach consensus, the statements were submitted to a panel of 24 experts in a Delphi process performed entirely via videoconference. A treatment algorithm was produced. RESULTS: There was full consensus that psoriasis severity is determined by the extension/severity of skin lesions, site of lesions, and impact on patient quality of life. Agreement was reached on the need for a multidisciplinary approach to pediatric psoriasis and the importance of patient/parents education. The relevance of vaccinations, including COVID-19 vaccination, for psoriatic children was acknowledged by all participants. Management issues that initially failed to reach consensus included the screening for psoriasis comorbidities and early treatment with biologics to prevent them and the use of telemedicine to facilitate patient follow-up. There was full consensus that topical corticosteroids are the first choice for the treatment of mild pediatric psoriasis, while phototherapy and systemic therapy are used in children with moderate-severe psoriasis. According to the proposed treatment algorithm, biologics are the first line of systemic therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Targeted systemic therapies are changing the treatment of moderate-severe pediatric psoriasis, while topical corticosteroids continue to be the first choice for mild disease. Children-centered research is needed to further improve the treatment of pediatric psoriasis.

10.
Ital J Dermatol Venerol ; 157(Suppl. 1 to No. 1): 1-78, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737523

ABSTRACT

SIDeMaST (Società Italiana di Dermatologia Medica, Chirurgica, Estetica e delle Malattie Sessualmente Trasmesse) contributed to the development of the present guideline on the systemic treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis. With the permission of EuroGuiDerm, SIDeMaST adapted the guideline to the Italian healthcare context to supply a reliable and affordable tool to Italian physicians who take care of patients affected by moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. The content of the guideline includes general information on the scope and purpose, health questions covered, target users and strength/limitations of the guideline, suggestions for disease severity grading and treatment goals. It presents the general treatment recommendations as well as detailed management and monitoring recommendations for the individual drugs including acitretin, cyclosporine, fumarates, methotrexate, adalimumab, apremilast, brodalumab, certolizumab pegol, etanercept, guselkumab, infliximab, ixekizumab, risankizumab, secukinumab, tildrakizumab and ustekinumab. Moreover, the guideline provides guidance for specific clinical situations such as patient with concomitant psoriatic arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, a history of malignancies, a history of depression, diabetes, viral hepatitis, disease affecting the heart or the kidneys as well as concomitant neurological disease. Advice on how to screen for tuberculosis and recommendations on how to manage patients with a positive tuberculosis test result are given. It further covers treatment for pregnant women or those with childbearing potential. Information on vaccination, immunogenicity and systemic treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic is also provided.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psoriasis , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Psoriasis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Ustekinumab/therapeutic use
12.
Dermatol Ther ; 35(3): e15276, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583589

ABSTRACT

In the context of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, it is important to ensure the quality of cancer treatment as well as patients and health professionals' safety. Individual-based treatment options should be considered in patients with advanced epithelial skin cancer, who are typically elderly and frail. Aim of this study was to assess feasibility and safety of Contact Skin Radiation Therapy (CSRT) to treat basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) during SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Patients with advanced and difficult-to-treat BCC or SCC were discussed at skin multidisciplinary tumor board (S-MDTB) from February the 21st to May the 4th (phase 1 Italian Pandemic) and retrospectively analyzed. Patient's triage following internal recommendations was daily performed. CSRT was delivered in 8 fractions of 5 Gy each, twice a day. Beyond the clinical outcomes, treatment success indicators, such as the completion of CSRT without SARS-CoV-2 occurrence, were identified to evaluate the feasibility of CSRT during pandemic. A post-treatment psychological assessment regarding patient's safety perception was performed. Six male patients (median age 80 years; range 62-92) with histologically confirmed BCC or SCC were treated with CSRT. Complete clinical remission was achieved in 5/6 patients (83.4%). No high-grade acute toxicities occurred during treatment. No patients or healthcare personnel developed SARS-CoV-2 infection. All the treatment success indicators were achieved. CSRT represents a safe, and feasible treatment option even during the pandemic emergency period. Hypofractionation could be an option to reduce total number of fractions and, consequently, infective risk exposition.


Subject(s)
Brachytherapy , COVID-19 , Skin Neoplasms , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Neoplasms/therapy
16.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 84(5): 1356-1363, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1131418

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is associated with a wide range of skin manifestations. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics of COVID-19-associated skin manifestations and explore the relationships among the 6 main cutaneous phenotypes and systemic findings. METHODS: Twenty-one Italian Dermatology Units were asked to collect the demographic, clinical, and histopathologic data of 200 patients with COVID-19-associated skin manifestations. The severity of COVID-19 was classified as asymptomatic, mild, moderate, or severe. RESULTS: A chilblain-like acral pattern was significantly associated with a younger age (P < .0001) and, after adjusting for age, significantly associated with less severe COVID-19 (P = .0009). However, the median duration of chilblain-like lesions was significantly longer than that of the other cutaneous manifestations taken together (P < .0001). Patients with moderate/severe COVID-19 were more represented than those with asymptomatic/mild COVID-19 among the patients with cutaneous manifestations other than chilblain-like lesions, but only the confluent erythematous/maculo-papular/morbilliform phenotype was significantly associated with more severe COVID-19 (P = .015), and this significance disappeared after adjustment for age. LIMITATIONS: Laboratory confirmation of COVID-19 was not possible in all cases. CONCLUSIONS: After adjustment for age, there was no clear-cut spectrum of COVID-19 severity in patients with COVID-19-related skin manifestations, although chilblain-like acral lesions were more frequent in younger patients with asymptomatic/pauci-symptomatic COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Skin Diseases, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Age of Onset , Aged , Chilblains/virology , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Skin Diseases, Viral/pathology
17.
Eur J Dermatol ; 31(1): 55-59, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112539

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, the global population has been experiencing an unprecedented challenge due to Corona virus disease (COVID-19). A pandemic was declared by the World Health Organization on March 11th 2020, with an escalation of new cases worldwide. Dermatology units experienced a reorganization of regular activity, also providing clinical diagnosis and medical assistance to COVID-19-positive patients who developed cutaneous manifestations. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Italian dermatologic clinical practice. MATERIALS & METHODS: This was a prospective online survey, consisting of a questionnaire with 35 multiple-choice questions uploaded on the website of the Italian Society of Dermatology and Venereology - SIDeMaST. RESULTS: A total of 136 dermatologists, 78 women (57%) and 58 men (43%), participated in the survey. The mean age was 58 ± 14 years. In total, 60% of participants reported an impact of the pandemic on their practice, in most cases consisting of a remarkable reduction in routine clinical activity (58%). Concern regarding possible infection was evaluated with a score ranging from 0 (no concern) to 5 (extremely concerned): the fear of becoming infected was high (≥3 in 40%), as was the fear of infecting families, colleagues or patients (≥3 points in 45%). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic is having a strong impact on dermatology practice in Italy. The identification of critical points may help scientific societies to improve the clinical scenario and create specific strategies to overcome the emergency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Dermatology/organization & administration , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , COVID-19/transmission , Dermatologists/psychology , Fear , Female , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases, Viral/diagnosis , Skin Diseases, Viral/therapy
18.
Allergy ; 76(6): 1813-1824, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1078930

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few and small studies have described the management of immunomodulant/immunosuppressive therapies or phototherapy in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: A national registry, named DA-COVID-19 and involving 35 Italian dermatology units, was established in order to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the management of adult AD patients treated with systemic immunomodulant/immunosuppressive medications or phototherapy. Demographic and clinical data were obtained at different timepoints by teledermatology during COVID-19 pandemic, when regular visits were not allowed due to sanitary restrictions. Disease severity was assessed by both physician- and patient-reported assessment scores evaluating itch intensity, sleep disturbances, and AD severity. RESULTS: A total of 1831 patients were included, with 1580/1831 (86.3%) continuing therapy during pandemic. Most patients were treated with dupilumab (86.1%, 1576/1831) that was interrupted in only 9.9% (156/1576) of cases, while systemic immunosuppressive compounds were more frequently withdrawn. Treatment interruption was due to decision of the patient, general practitioner, or dermatologist in 39.9% (114/286), 5.6% (16/286), and 30.1% (86/286) of cases, respectively. Fear of increased susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection (24.8%, 71/286) was one of the main causes of interruption. Sixteen patients (0.9%) resulted positive to SARS-CoV-2 infection; 3 of them (0.2%) were hospitalized but no cases of COVID-related death occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Most AD patients continued systemic treatments during COVID pandemic and lockdown period, without high impact on disease control, particularly dupilumab-treated patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dermatitis, Atopic , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Dermatitis, Atopic/drug therapy , Dermatitis, Atopic/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
19.
JAMA Dermatol ; 156(12): 1333-1343, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1008230

ABSTRACT

Importance: Baricitinib, an oral selective Janus kinase 1 and 2 inhibitor, effectively reduced disease severity in moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD) in 2 phase 3 monotherapy studies. Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of 4 mg and 2 mg of baricitinib in combination with background topical corticosteroid (TCS) therapy in adults with moderate to severe AD who previously had an inadequate response to TCS therapy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 randomized clinical trial, BREEZE-AD7 (Study of Baricitinib [LY3009104] in Combination With Topical Corticosteroids in Adults With Moderate to Severe Atopic Dermatitis) was conducted from November 16, 2018, to August 22, 2019, at 68 centers across 10 countries in Asia, Australia, Europe, and South America. Patients 18 years or older with moderate to severe AD and an inadequate response to TCSs were included. After completing the study, patients were followed up for up to 4 weeks or enrolled in a long-term extension study. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive 2 mg of baricitinib once daily (n = 109), 4 mg of baricitinib once daily (n = 111), or placebo (n = 109) for 16 weeks. The use of low-to-moderate potency TCSs was allowed. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was the proportion of patients achieving a validated Investigator Global Assessment for Atopic Dermatitis (vIGA-AD) score of 0 (clear) or 1 (almost clear), with a 2-point or greater improvement from baseline at week 16. Results: Among 329 patients (mean [SD] age, 33.8 [12.4] years; 216 [66%] male), at week 16, a vIGA-AD score of 0 (clear) or 1 (almost clear) was achieved by 34 patients (31%) receiving 4 mg of baricitinib and 26 (24%) receiving 2 mg of baricitinib compared with 16 (15%) receiving placebo (odds ratio vs placebo, 2.8 [95% CI, 1.4-5.6]; P = .004 for the 4-mg group; 1.9 [95% CI, 0.9-3.9]; P = .08 for the 2-mg group). Treatment-emergent adverse events were reported in 64 of 111 patients (58%) in the 4-mg group, 61 of 109 patients (56%) in the 2-mg group, and 41 of 108 patients (38%) in the placebo group. Serious adverse events were reported in 4 patients (4%) in the 4-mg group, 2 (2%) in the 2-mg group, and 4 (4%) in the placebo group. The most common adverse events were nasopharyngitis, upper respiratory tract infections, and folliculitis. Conclusions and Relevance: A dose of 4 mg of baricitinib in combination with background TCS therapy significantly improved the signs and symptoms of moderate to severe AD, with a safety profile consistent with previous studies of baricitinib in AD. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03733301.


Subject(s)
Azetidines/administration & dosage , Dermatitis, Atopic/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Purines/administration & dosage , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Administration, Cutaneous , Administration, Oral , Adult , Azetidines/adverse effects , Dermatitis, Atopic/diagnosis , Dermatitis, Atopic/immunology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Double-Blind Method , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Female , Folliculitis/chemically induced , Folliculitis/epidemiology , Folliculitis/immunology , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Humans , Janus Kinase 1/antagonists & inhibitors , Janus Kinase 1/metabolism , Janus Kinase 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Janus Kinase 2/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharyngitis/chemically induced , Nasopharyngitis/epidemiology , Nasopharyngitis/immunology , Purines/adverse effects , Pyrazoles/adverse effects , Respiratory Tract Infections/chemically induced , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/immunology , Sulfonamides/adverse effects , Young Adult
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