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1.
Kidney international reports ; 7(2):S424-S425, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1695179
2.
Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences ; 18(1):316-323, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1695178

ABSTRACT

Pharmacotherapeutics are being repurposed and used as off-label at various stages of COVID-19 infection. Clinical trials are being initiated or are ongoing to investigate the effectiveness and safety of these pharmacotherapeutics. This review article outlines the current pharmacotherapeutics and the controversies surrounding their use. The pharmacotherapeutics that were discussed are hydroxychloroquine, favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, interferons, tocilizumab, and steroids. We also discussed the special consideration for pharmacotherapeutics in COVID-19 infection. No pharmacotherapeutics have been found to be effective and approved for the treatment of COVID-19 infection. However, there are clinical trials that have eliminated the possibilities of use of some pharmacotherapeutics while others had shown promising preliminary results of its use. © 2022 UPM Press. All rights reserved.

3.
Kidney International Reports ; 7(2):S424-S425, 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1693512
4.
International Journal of Stroke ; 16(2_SUPPL):159-159, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1519506
5.
Med J Malaysia ; 76(5):757-761, 2021.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1400084

ABSTRACT

The novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had rapidly spread and became a worldwide pandemic since its detection in Wuhan, China. The disease has caused significant morbidity and mortality, particularly among patients with comorbidities. The current treatment involves supportive management alongside antiviral therapy and immunosuppressant therapy in severely affected patients. We describe a case of a patient with underlying lupus nephritis (LN) who presented with severe COVID-19 infection and concomitant LN flare with acute kidney injury (AKI). The patient was treated with antiviral therapy, Favipiravir, considering his risk of developing severe COVID-19 infection. As the patients would usually have AKI alongside LN flare, we administered initial steroid therapy at a lower dose (Methylprednisolone 50mg daily) and oral hydroxychloroquine despite the initial concerns on immunosuppressant usage in COVID-19 infections. Although our patient recovered relatively well from COVID- 19 infection, he continued to have positive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) nasopharyngeal swab for COVID-19 up to 29 days of illness. His kidney function stabilised despite having persistent nephrotic range proteinuria. Hence, the attending team decided to pulse the patient with a high dose steroid (IV Methylprednisolone 250mg OD for three days) after two weeks of illness despite the persistent positive swab. The patient's condition continued to improve, and this case illustrates an approach in treating COVID-19 with concomitant active immune-mediated glomerulonephritis. We find that it is safe to institute high dose immunosuppressant in recovered COVID-19 patients two weeks after the illness.

6.
Medical Journal of Malaysia ; 76(4):454-460, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323682

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Knowledge and adequate practice of preventive measures among health care workers (HCWs) are important to reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among doctors and nurses in the medical department in Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia between November 18, 2020 and December 18, 2020 during the third wave of COVID-19 epidemic in Malaysia. We studied the knowledge and practice of preventive measures of COVID-19 among doctors and nurses in the COVID-19 or sudden acute respiratory infection (SARI) wards and general medical wards. Data was collected using a validated self-designed google form online-questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 407 subjects completed the study and 80.8% were females;55.8% were aged between 30-39 years;46.4% were medical doctors. The main source of COVID-19 knowledge was the Ministry of Health Malaysia (MOH) website (35.1%). Majority (97%) had sufficient knowledge and 82% practiced proper preventive measures. Doctors had a higher mean knowledge score compared to nurses (p < 0.001). HCWs working in COVID-19 or SARI wards scored higher in knowledge questions compared to those in the general medical wards (p = 0.020). Nurses practiced better preventive measures (p < 0.001). Good knowledge could not be predicted based on professions (OR: 0.222, 95% CI: 0.048 - 1.028, p = 0.054). Majority were unable to recall the proper steps of donning (85.8%) and doffing (98.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Although majority had good knowledge and practiced proper preventive measures, there was a poor recall in donning and doffing steps regardless of place of practice. The MOH website is a useful platform for tailored continuous medical education and regular updates on COVID-19. Regular training and retraining on donning and doffing of PPE is needed to bridge this gap.

7.
Sains Malaysiana ; 50(4):1165-1173, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1259794

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the 2019-20 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak a pandemic on 11th of March 2020. The Ministry of Health, Malaysia has made preparations for the involvement of all government hospitals, including some teaching hospitals. This report elaborates and discusses the early establishment of the Hospital Canselor Tuanku Muhriz Crisis Preparedness and Response Centre (HCTM CPRC), highlighting how teaching hospitals function in handling the clinical and epidemiological management of COVID-19 among hospital staff. The setting comprises of four critical functions of the HCTM CPRC, namely case investigation, close contact tracing, surveillance for data reporting and risk communication. This report highlighted that a CPRC in teaching hospitals benefits not only the patients and the hospital administration but also all hospital staff, especially in managing COVID-19 pandemic emergency crisis. © 2021 Penerbit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. All rights reserved.

8.
Med J Malaysia ; 75(5): 485-489, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-757705

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has the potential to affect the mental health of health care workers (HCWs). It is known that HCWs who serve as front-liners during the COVID-19 pandemic experience stress and have the fear of contracting the infection. Little is known of how being a positive contact affects HCWs. OBJECTIVE: We examined the experience of HCWs who were quarantined following a close unprotected contact with a COVID-19 positive colleague and explore the psychological impact especially as the timing of the quarantine coincided with the Eid (annual Muslim festival) celebration in Malaysia. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional on-line questionnaire study, involving HCWs exposed to a COVID-19 positive colleague in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, a teaching hospital. Data on demographics, levels of depression, anxiety and stress using a validated depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS-21) questionnaire, aspects of quarantine, wearing of masks, hand hygiene practice and swab experience were collected. RESULTS: Twenty-two HCWs participated. Eighteen (81.8%) were between 30-39 years and 17 (77.3%) were women. Majority 19 (86.3%) were Malays. There were twelve (54.5%) medical officers, 5 (22.7%) specialists and 5(22.7%) allied health staff. Eighteen out of 22 (81.8%) felt they were able to do home quarantine adequately. All tested negative with a mean (Standard Deviation) hour of contact of 2.56±2.38 hours. Eighteen reported their biggest concern was infecting their families. CONCLUSION: HCWs undergoing contact swabbing and quarantine are vulnerable to depression, anxiety and stress. The ability of the HCW to adequately home quarantine should not be taken for granted. Psychological support should be offered to HCWs who are positive contacts.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Occupational Exposure , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Malaysia , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
The Medical journal of Malaysia ; 75(4):368-371, 2020.
Article in English | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-690900

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID- 19) was first reported in Malaysia in March 2020. We describe here the clinical characteristics and computed tomography (CT) patterns in asymptomatic young patients who had laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study where 25 male in-patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in Hospital Canselor Tuanku Muhriz. Demographics, clinical data and CT images of these patients were reviewed by 2 senior radiologists. RESULTS: In total there were 25 patients (all males;mean age [±SD], 21.64±2.40 years;range, 18-27 years). Patients with abnormal chest CT showed a relatively low normal absolute lymphocytes count (median: 2.2 x 109/L) and absolute monocyte count (median: 0.5 x 109/L). Lactate dehydrogenase was elevated in 5 (20%) of the patients. The procalcitonin level was normal while elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, platelet and C-reactive protein were common. Baseline chest CT showed abnormalities in 6 patients. The distribution of the lesions were;upper lobe 3 (12%) lower lobe 3 (12%) with peripheral distribution 4 (16%). Of the 25 patients included, 4 (16%) had ground glass opacification (GGO), 1 (4%) had a small peripheral subpleural nodule, and 1 (4%) had a dense solitary granuloma. Four patients had typical CT features of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: We found that the CT imaging showed peripheral GGO in our patients. They remained clinically stable with no deterioration of their respiratory symptoms suggesting stability in lung involvement. We postulate that rapid changes in CT imaging may not be present in young, asymptomatic, non-smoking COVID-19 patients. Thus the use of CT thoraxfor early diagnosis may be reserved for patients in the older agegroups, and not in younger patients.

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