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1.
Lancet ; 398(10302): 786-802, 2021 08 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747481

ABSTRACT

Chronic kidney disease is a progressive disease with no cure and high morbidity and mortality that occurs commonly in the general adult population, especially in people with diabetes and hypertension. Preservation of kidney function can improve outcomes and can be achieved through non-pharmacological strategies (eg, dietary and lifestyle adjustments) and chronic kidney disease-targeted and kidney disease-specific pharmacological interventions. A plant-dominant, low-protein, and low-salt diet might help to mitigate glomerular hyperfiltration and preserve renal function for longer, possibly while also leading to favourable alterations in acid-base homoeostasis and in the gut microbiome. Pharmacotherapies that alter intrarenal haemodynamics (eg, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway modulators and SGLT2 [SLC5A2] inhibitors) can preserve kidney function by reducing intraglomerular pressure independently of blood pressure and glucose control, whereas other novel agents (eg, non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists) might protect the kidney through anti-inflammatory or antifibrotic mechanisms. Some glomerular and cystic kidney diseases might benefit from disease-specific therapies. Managing chronic kidney disease-associated cardiovascular risk, minimising the risk of infection, and preventing acute kidney injury are crucial interventions for these patients, given the high burden of complications, associated morbidity and mortality, and the role of non-conventional risk factors in chronic kidney disease. When renal replacement therapy becomes inevitable, an incremental transition to dialysis can be considered and has been proposed to possibly preserve residual kidney function longer. There are similarities and distinctions between kidney-preserving care and supportive care. Additional studies of dietary and pharmacological interventions and development of innovative strategies are necessary to ensure optimal kidney-preserving care and to achieve greater longevity and better health-related quality of life for these patients.


Subject(s)
Healthy Lifestyle , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diet therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans
2.
N Engl J Med ; 385(25): 2325-2335, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575626

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), the use of recombinant human erythropoietin and its derivatives for the treatment of anemia has been linked to a possibly increased risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, and other adverse events. Several trials have suggested that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors (PHIs) are as effective as erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) in increasing hemoglobin levels. METHODS: In this randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial, we assigned patients with CKD who were undergoing dialysis and who had a hemoglobin level of 8.0 to 11.5 g per deciliter to receive an oral HIF-PHI (daprodustat) or an injectable ESA (epoetin alfa if they were receiving hemodialysis or darbepoetin alfa if they were receiving peritoneal dialysis). The two primary outcomes were the mean change in the hemoglobin level from baseline to weeks 28 through 52 (noninferiority margin, -0.75 g per deciliter) and the first occurrence of a major adverse cardiovascular event (a composite of death from any cause, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke), with a noninferiority margin of 1.25. RESULTS: A total of 2964 patients underwent randomization. The mean (±SD) baseline hemoglobin level was 10.4±1.0 g per deciliter overall. The mean (±SE) change in the hemoglobin level from baseline to weeks 28 through 52 was 0.28±0.02 g per deciliter in the daprodustat group and 0.10±0.02 g per deciliter in the ESA group (difference, 0.18 g per deciliter; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.12 to 0.24), which met the prespecified noninferiority margin of -0.75 g per deciliter. During a median follow-up of 2.5 years, a major adverse cardiovascular event occurred in 374 of 1487 patients (25.2%) in the daprodustat group and in 394 of 1477 (26.7%) in the ESA group (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.07), which also met the prespecified noninferiority margin for daprodustat. The percentages of patients with other adverse events were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with CKD undergoing dialysis, daprodustat was noninferior to ESAs regarding the change in the hemoglobin level from baseline and cardiovascular outcomes. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline; ASCEND-D ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02879305.).


Subject(s)
Anemia/drug therapy , Barbiturates/therapeutic use , Darbepoetin alfa/therapeutic use , Epoetin Alfa/therapeutic use , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Hematinics/therapeutic use , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Aged , Anemia/etiology , Barbiturates/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Darbepoetin alfa/adverse effects , Epoetin Alfa/adverse effects , Female , Glycine/adverse effects , Glycine/therapeutic use , Hematinics/adverse effects , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-Proline Dioxygenases/antagonists & inhibitors , Intention to Treat Analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Stroke/epidemiology
3.
N Engl J Med ; 385(25): 2313-2324, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575625

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Daprodustat is an oral hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor. In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who are not undergoing dialysis, the efficacy and safety of daprodustat, as compared with the conventional erythropoiesis-stimulating agent darbepoetin alfa, are unknown. METHODS: In this randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial with blinded adjudication of cardiovascular outcomes, we compared daprodustat with darbepoetin alfa for the treatment of anemia in patients with CKD who were not undergoing dialysis. The primary outcomes were the mean change in the hemoglobin level from baseline to weeks 28 through 52 and the first occurrence of a major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE; a composite of death from any cause, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke). RESULTS: Overall, 3872 patients were randomly assigned to receive daprodustat or darbepoetin alfa. The mean (±SD) baseline hemoglobin levels were similar in the two groups. The mean (±SE) change in the hemoglobin level from baseline to weeks 28 through 52 was 0.74±0.02 g per deciliter in the daprodustat group and 0.66±0.02 g per deciliter in the darbepoetin alfa group (difference, 0.08 g per deciliter; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.03 to 0.13), which met the prespecified noninferiority margin of -0.75 g per deciliter. During a median follow-up of 1.9 years, a first MACE occurred in 378 of 1937 patients (19.5%) in the daprodustat group and in 371 of 1935 patients (19.2%) in the darbepoetin alfa group (hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.19), which met the prespecified noninferiority margin of 1.25. The percentages of patients with adverse events were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with CKD and anemia who were not undergoing dialysis, daprodustat was noninferior to darbepoetin alfa with respect to the change in the hemoglobin level from baseline and with respect to cardiovascular outcomes. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline; ASCEND-ND ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02876835.).


Subject(s)
Anemia/drug therapy , Barbiturates/therapeutic use , Darbepoetin alfa/therapeutic use , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Hematinics/therapeutic use , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Aged , Anemia/etiology , Barbiturates/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Darbepoetin alfa/adverse effects , Female , Glycine/adverse effects , Glycine/therapeutic use , Hematinics/adverse effects , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-Proline Dioxygenases/antagonists & inhibitors , Intention to Treat Analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Stroke/epidemiology
5.
Diabetes ; 69:N.PAG-N.PAG, 2020.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1456235

ABSTRACT

The benefits of CANA for HF in people with T2D at CV risk appeared to be statistically mediated by erythrocyte concentration, serum urate, and urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR) in the CANVAS Program. CANA reduced the risk of HF in patients with T2D and CKD in CREDENCE. We explored potential mediators of CANA's effects on the composite of hospitalized HF (HHF) and CV death. Mediation analyses are hypothesis-generating observational analyses that calculate the effect of selected biomarkers on the overall treatment effect using time-varying Cox regression. We compared hazard ratios for the effect of randomized treatment from an unadjusted model versus a model adjusted for the average post-randomization level of the biomarker of interest. 62 routine clinical biomarkers and vital sign indicators were collected on all participants and tested as potential mediators. When multiple potential mediators represented a single pathway, those with the strongest univariable mediation were tested in multivariable models. 12 biomarkers, including 3 markers of volume/erythropoiesis (hematocrit [24%], hemoglobin [32%], erythrocytes [27%]), 2 markers of kidney function (UACR [28%], eGFR from wk 3 [7.4%]), and serum albumin (39%), serum protein (24%), lactate dehydrogenase (13%), systolic BP (10%), urine pH (8%), serum urate (7%) and gamma glutamyltransferase (4%), mediated the effect of CANA on HHF/CV death in univariable models. In the multivariable model, hemoglobin, UACR, serum urate and systolic BP maximized cumulative mediation (74%). A diverse set of potential mediators of CANA's effect on HHF/CV death were identified with serum albumin, hemoglobin (or its analogues) and UACR being the most important. The extent to which these mediators reflect underlying inflammatory, nutritional, volume-related or cardiorenal pathways is unclear and underscores the need for further research into the mechanisms of benefit of SGLT2 inhibitors. Disclosure: J. Li: Employee;Self;George Institute. B. Neal: Research Support;Self;Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Merck Schering Plough, Roche Pharma, Servier, Zydus Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Other Relationship;Self;Abbott, Janssen, Novartis, Pfizer, Roche, and Servier. H.L. Heerspink: Consultant;Self;AbbVie Inc., AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, CSL Behring, Gilead Sciences, Inc., Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Merck & Co., Inc., Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, Mundipharma International, Retrophin, Inc. C. Arnott: Employee;Self;George Institute for Global Health. C. Cannon: None. R. Agarwal: Other Relationship;Self;AbbVie Inc., Akebia Therapeutics, Amgen, AstraZeneca, Bayer Inc., Bird Rock Bio, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Celgene, Daiichi Sankyo, Eli Lilly and Company, GlaxoSmithKline plc., Ironwood Pharmaceuticals, Johnson & Johnson, Merck & Co., Inc., Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, OPKO Health, Inc., Reata, Relypsa, Inc., Sandoz, Sanofi, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, ZS Pharma. G. Bakris: Consultant;Self;Alnylam, Merck & Co., Inc., Relypsa, Inc., Teijin Pharma Limited. Other Relationship;Self;Bayer AG, Novo Nordisk Inc., Vascular Dynamics. D.M. Charytan: Advisory Panel;Self;Allena Pharmaceuticals, AstraZeneca, Merck & Co., Inc., PLC Medical. Employee;Self;BAIM Institute. Research Support;Self;Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Other Relationship;Self;Baim, Amgen, Medtronic/Covidien, Zoll, Fresenius, Daiichi Sankyo, Douglas and London, Eli Lilly, Merck, Gilead, and Novo Nordisk. D. de Zeeuw: Advisory Panel;Self;AbbVie Inc., Bayer AG, Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Fresenius Medical Care, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation. T. Greene: Other Relationship;Self;Janssen, Durect, and Pfizer. A. Levin: Consultant;Self;Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Research Support;Self;AstraZeneca K.K., Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Gilead Sciences, Inc. R. Oh: Employee;Self;Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. C.A. Pollock: Advisory Panel;Self;AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma euticals, Inc., Eli Lilly and Company, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Vifor Pharma Group. Research Support;Self;Diabetes Australia. Speaker's Bureau;Self;AstraZeneca, Cipla Inc., MedErgy, Medscape, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, Novartis AG, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Vifor Pharma Group. Other Relationship;Self;Amgen, George Institute for Global Health, Gilead Sciences, Inc., Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. D.C. Wheeler: Advisory Panel;Self;Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Reata. Consultant;Self;AstraZeneca, Bayer AG, GlaxoSmithKline, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Speaker's Bureau;Self;Amgen, Astellas Pharma Inc., Mundipharma International, Napp Pharmaceuticals. Y. Yavin: Employee;Self;Janssen Research & Development, LLC. H. Zhang: Employee;Self;Renal Division of Peking University First Hospital. B. Zinman: Advisory Panel;Self;Abbott, Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Eli Lilly and Company, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Novo Nordisk Inc., Sanofi-Aventis. G. Di Tanna: Employee;Self;George Institute for Global Health. V. Perkovic: Other Relationship;Self;See Other Relationship field. K.W. Mahaffey: Consultant;Self;Medscape, Mitsubishi, Myokardia, NIH, Novartis, Novo Nordisk, Portola, Radiometer, Regeneron, SmartMedics, Springer Publishing, UCSF. Research Support;Self;Afferent, Amgen, Apple, Inc, AstraZeneca, Cardiva Medical, Inc, Daiichi, Ferring, Google (Verily), Johnson & Johnson, Luitpold, Medtronic, Merck, NIH, Novartis, Sanofi, St. Jude, Tenax. M. Jardine: Other Relationship;Self;See Other Relationship field. Funding: Janssen Research & Development, LLC [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Diabetes is the property of American Diabetes Association and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

6.
Diabetes ; 69:N.PAG-N.PAG, 2020.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1456230

ABSTRACT

Background: The sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor canagliflozin reduced the risk of first hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) in the CREDENCE trial. The prevention of recurrent events is important to patients, clinicians and payers. In this post-hoc analysis, we evaluated the effect of canagliflozin on total HHF events. Methods: The CREDENCE trial compared canagliflozin or matching placebo and followed patients for a median of 2.6 years. The study included 4401 participants with type 2 diabetes, substantial albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 30 to <90 ml/min/1.73 m2 receiving renin-angiotensin system blockade. Negative binomial regression models were performed to assess the effect of canagliflozin on the total number of HHF events. Results: The mean age of participants was 63 years, with a mean eGFR of 56.3 ml/min/1.73 m2, while 50% had a history of previous cardiovascular disease and 15% had a history of heart failure. During the trial, 230 people experienced 326 total HHF events, with 166 having 1 event, 43 having 2 events, 15 having 3 events, and 6 having ≥4 events;thus, 42% of those experiencing at least 1 event went on to suffer a recurrent event during the follow up. Canagliflozin reduced first HHF events by 39% (hazard ratio [HR], 0.61;95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47-0.80;P <0.001;number needed to treat [NNT], 46;95% CI 29-124) and total HHF events by 36% (event rates of 22.0 and 34.8 participants with an event/1000 patient-years with canagliflozin and placebo, respectively;incidence rate ratio [RR], 0.64;95% CI 0.56-0.73;P <0.001). Conclusions: Canagliflozin significantly reduced first and recurrent HHF events. These findings provide further support for the benefit of continuing canagliflozin therapy after an index heart failure presentation to prevent recurrent HHF events. Disclosure: J. Li: Employee;Self;George Institute. M.J. Jardine: Other Relationship;Self;See Other Relationship field. B. Neal: Research Support;Self;Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Merck Schering Plough, Roche Pharma, Servier, Zydus Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Other Relationship;Self;Abbott, Janssen, Novartis, Pfizer, Roche, and Servier. H.L. Heerspink: Consultant;Self;AbbVie Inc., AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, CSL Behring, Gilead Sciences, Inc., Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Merck & Co., Inc., Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, Mundipharma International, Retrophin, Inc. C. Cannon: None. R. Agarwal: Other Relationship;Self;AbbVie Inc., Akebia Therapeutics, Amgen, AstraZeneca, Bayer Inc., Bird Rock Bio, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Celgene, Daiichi Sankyo, Eli Lilly and Company, GlaxoSmithKline plc., Ironwood Pharmaceuticals, Johnson & Johnson, Merck & Co., Inc., Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, OPKO Health, Inc., Reata, Relypsa, Inc., Sandoz, Sanofi, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, ZS Pharma. G. Bakris: Consultant;Self;Alnylam, Merck & Co., Inc., Relypsa, Inc., Teijin Pharma Limited. Other Relationship;Self;Bayer AG, Novo Nordisk Inc., Vascular Dynamics. D.M. Charytan: Advisory Panel;Self;Allena Pharmaceuticals, AstraZeneca, Merck & Co., Inc., PLC Medical. Employee;Self;BAIM Institute. Research Support;Self;Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Other Relationship;Self;Baim, Amgen, Medtronic/Covidien, Zoll, Fresenius, Daiichi Sankyo, Douglas and London, Eli Lilly, Merck, Gilead, and Novo Nordisk. D. de Zeeuw: Advisory Panel;Self;AbbVie Inc., Bayer AG, Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Fresenius Medical Care, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation. R. Edwards: Employee;Self;Janssen. T. Greene: Other Relationship;Self;Janssen, Durect, and Pfizer. A. Levin: Consultant;Self;Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Research Support;Self;AstraZeneca K.K., Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Gilead Sciences, Inc. C.A. Pollock: Advisory Panel;Self;AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Eli Lilly and Company, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Vifor Pharma Group. Research Support;Self;Diabetes Australia. Speaker's Bureau;Self;AstraZeneca, Cipla Inc., MedErgy, Medscape, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, Novartis AG, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Vifor Pharma Group. Other Relationship;Self;Amgen, George Institute for Global Health, Gilead Sciences, Inc., Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. N. Rosenthal: None. D.C. Wheeler: Advisory Panel;Self;Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Reata. Consultant;Self;AstraZeneca, Bayer AG, GlaxoSmithKline, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Speaker's Bureau;Self;Amgen, Astellas Pharma Inc., Mundipharma International, Napp Pharmaceuticals. H. Zhang: Employee;Self;Renal Division of Peking University First Hospital. B. Zinman: Advisory Panel;Self;Abbott, Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Eli Lilly and Company, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Novo Nordisk Inc., Sanofi-Aventis. V. Perkovic: Other Relationship;Self;See Other Relationship field. K.W. Mahaffey: Consultant;Self;Medscape, Mitsubishi, Myokardia, NIH, Novartis, Novo Nordisk, Portola, Radiometer, Regeneron, SmartMedics, Springer Publishing, UCSF. Research Support;Self;Afferent, Amgen, Apple, Inc, AstraZeneca, Cardiva Medical, Inc, Daiichi, Ferring, Google (Verily), Johnson & Johnson, Luitpold, Medtronic, Merck, NIH, Novartis, Sanofi, St. Jude, Tenax. C. Arnott: Employee;Self;George Institute for Global Health. Funding: Janssen Research & Development, LLC [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Diabetes is the property of American Diabetes Association and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

7.
Diabetes ; 69:N.PAG-N.PAG, 2020.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1456229

ABSTRACT

Background: Canagliflozin (CANA) slows progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in people with type 2 diabetes. CANA also induces a reversible acute decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), which is believed to be a hemodynamic effect. Predictors of the initial decline and its association with long-term eGFR trajectories and safety outcomes are unknown. Methods: This post-hoc study of the CREDENCE trial included 4289 patients with type 2 diabetes and CKD who had eGFR measured at both baseline and week 3. Participants were categorized by percentage decline in eGFR at week 3: >10%, ≤10% to >0%, and ≤0%. Baseline characteristics associated with acute eGFR declines >10% were evaluated using logistic regression. Long-term eGFR decline and safety outcomes were estimated in each eGFR decline category by linear mixed effects models and Cox regression after adjustment for laboratory measures and medication use. Results: More participants in the CANA (956 [45%]) versus placebo (PBO) group (450 [21%]) had an acute eGFR decline >10% (p<0.001). A >30% decline occurred infrequently (89 [4%] with CANA and 39 [2%] with PBO;p<0.001). In the CANA but not in the PBO group, older age (OR CANA 1.17, 95% CI 1.05-1.31;per 10 years) and history of heart failure (OR CANA 0.77, 0.59-0.99) were associated with a higher and lower likelihood of an acute eGFR decline >10%, respectively (both p for interaction <0.05). Following the initial eGFR change, long-term eGFR trajectories as well as overall safety profiles were similar across eGFR decline categories (all p values >0.05). Results were consistent when other decline thresholds (>20%) were used and in subgroup analysis by baseline eGFR (30-<45, 45-<60, and 60-<90 ml/min/1.73 m2). Conclusions: Although acute eGFR declines >10% occurred in nearly half of all patients following initiation of CANA, the benefit of CANA compared with placebo was observed regardless of the acute eGFR decline and safety profiles were similar. Disclosure: M. Oshima: Research Support;Self;Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Program for Fostering Globally Talented Researchers. M.J. Jardine: Other Relationship;Self;See Other Relationship field. R. Agarwal: Other Relationship;Self;AbbVie Inc., Akebia Therapeutics, Amgen, AstraZeneca, Bayer Inc., Bird Rock Bio, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Celgene, Daiichi Sankyo, Eli Lilly and Company, GlaxoSmithKline plc., Ironwood Pharmaceuticals, Johnson & Johnson, Merck & Co., Inc., Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, OPKO Health, Inc., Reata, Relypsa, Inc., Sandoz, Sanofi, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, ZS Pharma. G. Bakris: Consultant;Self;Alnylam, Merck & Co., Inc., Relypsa, Inc., Teijin Pharma Limited. Other Relationship;Self;Bayer AG, Novo Nordisk Inc., Vascular Dynamics. C. Cannon: None. D.M. Charytan: Advisory Panel;Self;Allena Pharmaceuticals, AstraZeneca, Merck & Co., Inc., PLC Medical. Employee;Self;BAIM Institute. Research Support;Self;Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Other Relationship;Self;Baim, Amgen, Medtronic/Covidien, Zoll, Fresenius, Daiichi Sankyo, Douglas and London, Eli Lilly, Merck, Gilead, and Novo Nordisk. D. de Zeeuw: Advisory Panel;Self;AbbVie Inc., Bayer AG, Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Fresenius Medical Care, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation. R. Edwards: Employee;Self;Janssen. T. Greene: Other Relationship;Self;Janssen, Durect, and Pfizer. A. Levin: Consultant;Self;Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Research Support;Self;AstraZeneca K.K., Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Gilead Sciences, Inc. K.W. Mahaffey: Consultant;Self;Medscape, Mitsubishi, Myokardia, NIH, Novartis, Novo Nordisk, Portola, Radiometer, Regeneron, SmartMedics, Springer Publishing, UCSF. Research Support;Self;Afferent, Amgen, Apple, Inc, AstraZeneca, Cardiva Medical, Inc, Daiichi, Ferring, Google (Verily), Johnson & Johnson, Luitpold, Medtronic, Merck, NIH, Novartis, Sanofi, St. Jude, Tenax. B. Neal: Research Support;Self;Janssen Research & Development LLC, Merck Schering Plough, Roche Pharma, Servier, Zydus Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Other Relationship;Self;Abbott, Janssen, Novartis, Pfizer, Roche, and Servier. C.A. Pollock: Advisory Panel;Self;AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Eli Lilly and Company, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Vifor Pharma Group. Research Support;Self;Diabetes Australia. Speaker's Bureau;Self;AstraZeneca, Cipla Inc., MedErgy, Medscape, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, Novartis AG, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Vifor Pharma Group. Other Relationship;Self;Amgen, George Institute for Global Health, Gilead Sciences, Inc., Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. N. Rosenthal: None. D.C. Wheeler: Advisory Panel;Self;Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Reata. Consultant;Self;AstraZeneca, Bayer AG, GlaxoSmithKline, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Speaker's Bureau;Self;Amgen, Astellas Pharma Inc., Mundipharma International, Napp Pharmaceuticals. H. Zhang: Employee;Self;Renal Division of Peking University First Hospital. B. Zinman: Advisory Panel;Self;Abbott, Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Eli Lilly and Company, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Novo Nordisk Inc., Sanofi-Aventis. V. Perkovic: Other Relationship;Self;See Other Relationship field. H.L. Heerspink: Consultant;Self;AbbVie Inc., AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, CSL Behring, Gilead Sciences, Inc., Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Merck & Co., Inc., Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, Mundipharma International, Retrophin, Inc. Funding: Janssen Research & Development, LLC [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Diabetes is the property of American Diabetes Association and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

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