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Ann Ig ; 34(5): 478-489, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954748


Objectives: The severe acute respiratory syndrome (COVID-19) due to SARS-CoV-2 was first reported in China in December 2019 and has generated a worldwide pandemic. The objective of the research is to examine and describe (a) the symptoms that persist after the end of the acute stage and (b) their relationship with the severity of the disease. Study Design: This study is a cross-sectional study conducted in the Kingdom of Bahrain on COVID-19 infected patients using an online survey questionnaire with a total number of 52 patient responses (29 females and 23 males). Method: A scale (0 no symptoms to 10 very high symptoms intensity) was assessed in patients after 3 months to detect the relevance of specific symptoms post-COVID-19 such as emotional and physical health, headache, dyspnoea, pain (muscles/joints/chest), anosmia, vertigo, neurologic symptoms, sarcopenia, delirium. Results: The most common COVID-19 symptoms were reported to be fever (69.2%), headache (59.6%), and cough (50.0%). Data analysis showed that BMI was not correlated with any post-acute COVID-19 symptoms. Regarding the post-acute COVID-19 symptoms, this study showed that an increase of intensity of headache was associated with an increase of delirium; an increase of intensity of dyspnoea was associated with an increase of pulmonary dysfunction. The increase of anosmia and dysgeusia was associated with an increase in delirium. In addition, the increase of neurological symptoms and delirium were associated with the increase of sarcopenia. The most common persistent post-COVID-19 symptoms observed in this study were emotional stress, followed by loss of smell and taste, and neurological symptoms. Conclusions: Therefore, follow-up and rehabilitation care for COVID-19 patients must be focused on addressing the needs of these people in the longer term.

COVID-19 , Delirium , Sarcopenia , Anosmia , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
Ann Ig ; 34(4): 398-409, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1893301


Background: The severe, acute respiratory syndrome COVID-19 that was first reported in China in December 2019 quickly became a global pandemic that has resulted in over 100 million infections and more than 2 million deaths. Study Design: This study aimed to assess the awareness level of university students regarding the possibility of becoming infected with COVID-19. In order to achieve this objective, we assessed the students' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors using an online survey questionnaire offered to a total of 300 students. Results: A positive response regarding awareness of COVID-19 symptoms was registered by more than 70% of the students, whereas 62% felt that wearing a mask did not give full protection against infection, approximately 30% agreed that antibiotics and antivirals did not treat COVID-19, and 62% agreed that vitamin C was helpful in treating common symptoms of COVID-19. Moreover, around 31% of the students believed that COVID-19 is a man-made virus. Students who had gotten infected with SARS-CoV-2 believed that wearing a mask gives full protection (p=0.018). In response to survey questions related to attitude, 80% of students cancelled and postponed meetings with friends, and 90% agreed that mask-wearing is the most precautionary measure used to prevent the infection. In addition, 82% avoided coughing in public, 82% avoided contact if they felt flu-like symptoms and 80% washed their hands far more often due to the pandemic. Interestingly, 76% carried hand sanitizer, 66.5% avoided shaking hands, and 42.7% were taking vitamin C supplements. Conclusions: This study showed that the participants had a positive awareness of COVID-19 transmission, symptoms, and treatments misconceptions and mistaken beliefs related to treatments and the origin of the virus were also common and should be addressed. This study thus provides a baseline for a population-based surveillance program that could help local authorities to improve pandemic preparation plans, particularly with regard to governmental education and media campaigns.

COVID-19 , Ascorbic Acid , Bahrain , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities