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1.
Pathogens ; 11(8):869, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023965

ABSTRACT

As of 15 June, there have been, globally, a total of 2103 laboratory-confirmed cases and one probable case of Monkeypox, including one death. We report two cases of vesicular infectious diseases, one of those is the first case of Monkeypox in the Campania Region. The report, therefore, highlights a recrudescent infection disease that could represent a challenge in differential diagnosis with other vesicular infectious diseases such as Varicella Zoster Virus, during a pandemic season that does not seem to end. Indeed, varicella should be carefullu considered in differential diagnosis according to its vesicular or pustular rash to have a prompt diagnosis and public health response in case of monkeypox infection.

2.
Diagnostics ; 12(8):1856, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1969136

ABSTRACT

Purpose: We aimed to assess the role of lung ultrasound (LUS) in the diagnosis and prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, by comparing it with High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT). Patients and methods: All consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalized in COVID Centers were enrolled. LUS and HRCT were carried out on all patients by expert operators within 48–72 h of admission. A four-level scoring system computed in 12 regions of the chest was used to categorize the ultrasound imaging, from 0 (absence of visible alterations with ultrasound) to 3 (large consolidation and cobbled pleural line). Likewise, a semi-quantitative scoring system was used for HRCT to estimate pulmonary involvement, from 0 (no involvement) to 5 (>75% involvement for each lobe). The total CT score was the sum of the individual lobar scores and ranged from 0 to 25. LUS scans were evaluated according to a dedicated scoring system. CT scans were assessed for typical findings of COVID-19 pneumonia (bilateral, multi-lobar lung infiltration, posterior peripheral ground glass opacities). Oxygen requirement and mortality were also recorded. Results: Ninety-nine patients were included in the study (male 68.7%, median age 71). 40.4% of patients required a Venturi mask and 25.3% required non-invasive ventilation (C-PAP/Bi-level). The overall mortality rate was 21.2% (median hospitalization 30 days). The median ultrasound thoracic score was 28 (IQR 20–36). For the CT evaluation, the mean score was 12.63 (SD 5.72), with most of the patients having LUS scores of 2 (59.6%). The bivariate correlation analysis displayed statistically significant and high positive correlations between both the CT and composite LUS scores and ventilation, lactates, COVID-19 phenotype, tachycardia, dyspnea, and mortality. Moreover, the most relevant and clinically important inverse proportionality in terms of P/F, i.e., a decrease in P/F levels, was indicative of higher LUS/CT scores. Inverse proportionality P/F levels and LUS and TC scores were evaluated by univariate analysis, with a P/F–TC score correlation coefficient of −0.762, p < 0.001, and a P/F–LUS score correlation coefficient of −0.689, p < 0.001. Conclusions: LUS and HRCT show a synergistic role in the diagnosis and disease severity evaluation of COVID-19.

3.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(6)2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911282

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection after vaccination can occur because COVID-19 vaccines do not offer 100% protection. The study aim was to assess duration of vaccination coverage, disease symptoms and type of hospitalization among non-vaccinated and vaccinated subjects to evaluate the vaccination trend over time. A retrospective cohort study was carried out among people testing COVID-19 positive in Campania Region using information from the Health Information System of Campania Region (Sinfonia). Vaccination status was assessed considering: no vaccination, partial vaccination and effective vaccination. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to evaluate the association between ICU admissions caused by COVID-19 and gender, age groups and vaccine type. Vaccine coverage duration trends were investigated using segmented linear regression and breakpoint estimations. Vaccination coverage was assessed by analyzing COVID-19 positive subjects in the 9 months after an effective dose vaccination. A significant risk of hospitalization in the ICU was caused by vaccination status: subjects non-vaccinated (OR: 7.14) and partially vaccinated (OR: 3.68) were 3 and 7 times more at risk of hospitalization, respectively, than subjects effectively vaccinated. Regarding subjects with an effective vaccination, the vaccine's ability to protect against infection in the months following vaccination decreased. The risk of contracting COVID-19 after vaccination was higher 5 months (ß = 1441, p < 0.001) and 7 months (ß = 3110, p < 0.001) after administration of an effective dose. COVID-19 vaccines were demonstrated to protect from symptomatic infection by significantly reducing hospitalization risk, and their full protection against SARS-CoV-2 was demonstrated to decrease after 5 months regardless of age, gender or vaccine type.

4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(4)2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820428

ABSTRACT

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, all countries with a global mobilization started to produce and authorize vaccines, prioritizing healthcare professionals (HCPs) to reduce transmission. The aim of this study was to assess post-vaccination infections' occurrence among HCPs and their correlation with symptom onset. A retrospective cohort study was carried out in the Campania Region from December 2020 to April 2021. Data were retrieved from the Regional Health Information System of the Campania Region (Sinfonia). The study cohort included subjects that had all received at least one vaccine dose. Risk ratios (RRs) adjusted for age and sex (95% confidence intervals) were performed to assess differences in the prevalence between HCPs who tested positive or negative for COVID-19. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between symptoms and vaccination status. Findings revealed that HCPs had a lower risk of contracting COVID-19 after receiving at least one vaccine dose, and this risk decreased with age. Furthermore, not having full vaccination coverage may predict a severe/critical evolution of the disease. This study provides a snapshot of the initial state of the Italian vaccination campaign on HCPs. A surveillance approach using Big Data matched to clinical conditions could offer a real analysis in the categorization of subjects most at risk.

5.
Vaccines ; 10(4):511, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1762560

ABSTRACT

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, all countries with a global mobilization started to produce and authorize vaccines, prioritizing healthcare professionals (HCPs) to reduce transmission. The aim of this study was to assess post-vaccination infections' occurrence among HCPs and their correlation with symptom onset. A retrospective cohort study was carried out in the Campania Region from December 2020 to April 2021. Data were retrieved from the Regional Health Information System of the Campania Region (Sinfonia). The study cohort included subjects that had all received at least one vaccine dose. Risk ratios (RRs) adjusted for age and sex (95% confidence intervals) were performed to assess differences in the prevalence between HCPs who tested positive or negative for COVID-19. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between symptoms and vaccination status. Findings revealed that HCPs had a lower risk of contracting COVID-19 after receiving at least one vaccine dose, and this risk decreased with age. Furthermore, not having full vaccination coverage may predict a severe/critical evolution of the disease. This study provides a snapshot of the initial state of the Italian vaccination campaign on HCPs. A surveillance approach using Big Data matched to clinical conditions could offer a real analysis in the categorization of subjects most at risk.

6.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329526

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 infection after vaccination can occur because COVID-19 vaccines do not offer 100% protection. The aim of this study was to assess vaccination coverage among people nasopharyngeal swabs, disease symptoms and type of hospitalisation (Intensive Care Unit) between the non-vaccinated and the effective dose vaccinated and to evaluate vaccination trend over time. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was carried out among people tested positive for COVID-19 in Campania Region using collected information from Health Information System of Campania Region (Sinfonia). The status of vaccination was assess according to the following timetable: non-vaccinated;Ineffective dose vaccination;Effective dose vaccination. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were conducted to evaluate the association between Intensive Care Unit (ICU) to COVID-19 and gender, age groups and vaccine. To determine vaccine coverage in subjects who received an effective dose, trend changes over time were investigated using segmented linear regression models and breakpoints estimations. Vaccination coverage was assessed by analysing the trend in the percentage of covid 19 positive subjects in the 9 months after vaccination with an effective dose stratified by age group and type of vaccine. Statistical analyses were performed using R platform Results: A significant association with the risk of hospitalisation in Intensive Care Unit was the vaccination status of the subjects: subjects with ineffective dose (adjusted OR: 3.68) and subjects no-vaccination (adjusted OR: 7.14) were at three- and seven-times higher risk of hospitalisation in Intensive Care Unit, respectively, than subjects with an effective dose. Regarding subjects with an effective dose of vaccine, the vaccine's ability to protect against infection in the months following vaccination decreased. The first breakpoints is evident five months after vaccination (β =1.441, p<0.001). This increase was most evident after the seventh month after vaccination (β =3.110, p<0.001). Conclusions: COVID19 vaccines protect from symptomatic infection by significantly reducing the risk of ICU hospitalization for severe disease. However, it seems they have trend to decrease their fully protection against SARS-COV-2 after five months regardless age, sex or type of vaccine. Therefore it seems clear that those not undergoing vaccine had higher risk to develop clinically significant disease and being at risk of ICU stay. Thus, considering highest percentage of asymptomatic patients and that few data about their capacity to transmit SARS-CoV-2, third dose vaccination should be introduced as soon as possible, Finally, a surveillance approach based on the use of integrated BIG Data system to match all clinical conditions too, offer a precise and real analysis with low incidence of errors in the categorization of subjects.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318412

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has wrought havoc on healthcare systems worldwide. Age, chronic diseases, use of drugs acting on the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), male sex and genetic predisposition have been postulated as risk factors for adverse outcomes in COVID-19 cases. A retrospective drug-utilisation study was carried out using information collected routinely in a healthcare database (CaReDB) in Campania (Southern Italy). We wished to discover the prevalence of drug utilisation (monotherapy and polytherapy) in COVID-19 vs . non-COVID-19 patients in Campania (~6 million inhabitants). The study cohort was 1,532 individuals who tested positive for COVID-19. Drugs were grouped according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system. We noted a higher prevalence of use of drugs in the ATC category C01, B01 and M04, and this was probably linked to related comorbidities (i.e., cardiovascular, metabolic). Nevertheless, the prevalence of use of drugs acting on the RAS, such as antihypertensive drugs, was not higher among COVID-19 patients compared with that in non-COVID-19 patients. These results highlight the need for further case–control studies to define the effect of medications and comorbidities on susceptibility to, and associated mortality from, COVID-19.

8.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 58: 103455, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586960

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several concerns exist on the immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in multiple sclerosis (MS) subjects due to their immunomodulating disease modifying therapies (DMTs). Here we report a comparison of the humoral response to BNT162b2-mRNA coronavirus (COVID)-19 vaccine and the immunological phenotype in a cohort of 125 MS subjects undergoing different DMTs, with no history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: We collected serum and blood samples at the first day of vaccine (T0) and 21 days after the second vaccine dose (T1) from 125 MS subjects, undergoing eight different DMTs. Sera were tested using the Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2-IgG assay for the detection of IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The anti-spike IgG titres from MS subjects were compared with 24 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC). Percentage and absolute number of B and T lymphocytes were evaluated by cytofluorimetric analysis in the same study cohort. RESULTS: When compared with SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels in HC (n = 24, median 1089 (IQR 652.5-1625) U/mL), we observed an increased secretion of SARS-CoV-2 IgG in interferon-beta 1a (IFN)-treated MS subjects (n = 22, median 1916 (IQR 1024-2879) U/mL) and an impaired humoral response in MS subjects undergoing cladribine (CLAD) (n = 10, median 396.9 (IQR 37.52-790.9) U/mL), fingolimod (FTY) (n = 19, median 7.9 (IQR 4.8-147.6) U/mL) and ocrelizumab (OCRE) (n = 15, median 0.67 (IQR 0.4-5.9) U/mL) treatment. Moreover, analysis of geometric mean titre ratio (GMTR) between different DMT's groups of MS subjects revealed that, when compared with IFN-treated MS subjects, intrinsic antibody production was impaired in teriflunomide (TERI)-, natalizumab (NAT)-, CLAD-, FTY- and OCRE-, while preserved in DMF- and GA-treated MS subjects. CONCLUSION: Humoral response to BNT162b2-mRNA-vaccine was increased in IFN-treated MS subjects while clearly blunted in those under CLAD, FTY and OCRE treatment. This suggests that the DMTs could have a key role in the protection from SARS-CoV-2 related disease and complication in MS subjects, underlying a novel aspect that should be considered in the selection of the most appropriate therapy under COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Synthetic
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512336

ABSTRACT

This study aims to identify baseline medications that, as a proxy for the diseases they are dispensed for, are associated with increased risk of mortality in COVID-19 patients from two regions in Spain and Italy using real-world data. We conducted a cross-country, retrospective, observational study including 8570 individuals from both regions with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between 4 March and 17 April 2020, and followed them for a minimum of 30 days to allow sufficient time for the studied event, in this case death, to occur. Baseline demographic variables and all drugs dispensed in community pharmacies three months prior to infection were extracted from the PRECOVID Study cohort (Aragon, Spain) and the Campania Region Database (Campania, Italy) and analyzed using logistic regression models. Results show that the presence at baseline of potassium-sparing agents, antipsychotics, vasodilators, high-ceiling diuretics, antithrombotic agents, vitamin B12, folic acid, and antiepileptics were systematically associated with mortality in COVID-19 patients from both countries. Treatments for chronic cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, systemic inflammation, and processes with increased risk of thrombosis as proxies for the conditions they are intended for can serve as timely indicators of an increased likelihood of mortality after the infection, and the assessment of pharmacological profiles can be an additional approach to the identification of at-risk individuals in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
10.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470991

ABSTRACT

Different and several public health strategies have been planned to reduce transmission of pandemic due to SARS-CoV-2 since it started. None drugs have been confirmed as able to prevent viral transmission. Hydroxychloroquine with its immunomodulatory properties has been proposed as potential anti-viral drug in particular for prevention once viral exposure has been happen or in first phases of infection. Furthermore, in several immunological systemic disease hydroxychloroquine was able to reduce the number of thrombotic complications. So, because COVID-19 was associated to immunological imbalance and to thrombotic complications, we retrospectively analyzed the rate of infection in those patients being under treatment with this drug during COVID-19 epidemic outbreak from 8 March until 28 April in particular comparing those with pre-exposure to this treatment and those that were not taking this medication before SARS-CoV-2 viral infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Treatment Failure , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
11.
J Cardiovasc Dev Dis ; 8(10)2021 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444237

ABSTRACT

Major adverse cardiac events, defined as death or myocardial infarction, are common causes of perioperative mortality and major morbidity in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. Reduction of perioperative cardiovascular risk in relation to non-cardiac surgery requires a stepwise patient evaluation that integrates clinical risk factors, functional status and the estimated stress of the planned surgical procedure. Major guidelines on preoperative cardiovascular risk assessment recommend to establish, firstly, the risk of surgery per se (low, moderate, high) and the related timing (elective vs. urgent/emergent), evaluate the presence of unstable cardiac conditions or a recent coronary revascularization (percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting), assess the functional capacity of the patient (usually expressed in metabolic equivalents), determine the value of non-invasive and/or invasive cardiovascular testing and then combine these data in estimating perioperative risk for major cardiac adverse events using validated scores (Revised Cardiac Risk Index (RCRI) or National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP)). This stepwise approach has the potential to guide clinicians in determining which patients could benefit from cardiovascular therapy and/or coronary artery revascularization before non-cardiac surgery towards decreasing the incidence of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Finally, it should be highlighted that there is a need to implement specific strategies in the 2019 Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic to minimize the risk of transmission of COVID-19 infection during the preoperative risk assessment process.

12.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256903, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406751

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During COVID-19 pandemic, the use of several drugs has represented the worldwide clinical practice. However, though the current increase of knowledge about the disease, there is still no effective treatment for the usage of drugs. Thus, we retrospectively assessed use and effects of therapeutic regimens in hospitalized patients on in-hospital mortality. METHODS: COVOCA is a retrospective observational cohort study on 18 COVID centres throughout Campania Region Hospitals. We included adult patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, discharged/dead between March/June 2020. RESULTS: 618 patients were included, with an overall in-hospital cumulative mortality incidence of 23.1%. Most prescribed early treatments were antivirals (72%), antibiotics (65%) and hydroxychloroquine/anticoagulants (≈50%). Tocilizumab, indeed, was largely prescribed late during hospitalization. Multivariable models, with a cut-off at day 2 for early COVID-19 therapy administration, did not disclose any significant association of a single drug administration on the clinical outcome. DISCUSSION: COVOCA represents the first multicenter database in Campania region. None drug class used during the pandemic significantly modified the outcome, regardless of therapy beginning, both overall and net of those already in non-invasive ventilation (NIV)/ orotracheal intubation (OTI) at hospitalization. Our cumulative incidence of mortality seems lower than other described during the same period, particularly in Northern Italy.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Respiratory Therapy , Retrospective Studies
13.
J Clin Med ; 10(18)2021 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403845

ABSTRACT

We hypothesized that the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in urine during a severe COVID-19 infection may be the expression of the worsening disease evolution. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify if the COVID-19 disease severity is related to the viral presence in urine samples. We evaluated the clinical evolution in acute COVID-19 patients admitted in the sub-intensive care and intensive care units between 28 of December 2020 and 15th of February 2021 and being positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the respiratory tract, including repeated endotracheal aspirates (ETA), sputum, nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) and urine. We found that those subjects with SARS-COV-2 in the urine at admittance (8 out of 60 eligible patients) had a more severe disease than those with negative SARS-CoV-2 in urine. Further, they showed an increase in fibrinogen and (C-reactive Protein) CRP serum levels, requiring mechanic ventilation. Of those with positive SARS-CoV-2 in the urine, 50% died. According to our preliminary results, it seems that the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the urine characterizes patients with a more severe disease and is also related to a higher death rate.

14.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390782

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: According to recent guidelines, all hospitalized patients with COVID-19 should receive pharmacological prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism (VTE), unless there are specific contraindications. However, the optimal preventive strategy in terms of intensity of anticoagulation for these patients is not well established. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of individualized regimens of enoxaparin on the development of VTE and on the risk of major bleeding complications during hospitalization in patients with COVID-19 infection. METHODS: All consecutive patients admitted to the medical wards of six Italian hospitals between 15 September and 15 October 2020 with COVID-19 infection of moderate severity were administered enoxaparin in subcutaneous daily doses adjusted to the Padua Prediction Score stratification model: No heparin in patients scoring less than 4, 4000 IU daily in those scoring 4, 6000 IU in those scoring 5, and 8000 in those scoring six or more. Objective tests were performed in patients developing clinical symptoms of deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism. Bleeding complications were defined according to the ISTH classification. RESULTS: From the 154 eligible patients, enoxaparin was administered in all: 4000 IU in 73 patients, 6000 IU in 53, and 8000 IU in the remaining 28. During the course of hospitalization, 27 patients (17.5%) died. VTE developed in 14 of the 154 patients (9.1%; 95% CI, 4.6% to 13.6%), and was fatal in 1. Major bleeding complications developed in 35 patients (22.7%; 95% CI, 16.1% to 29.3%), and were fatal in 8. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the use of risk-adjusted doses of enoxaparin, the rate of VTE events was consistent with that reported in contemporary studies where fixed-dose low-molecular-weight heparin was used. The unexpectedly high risk of bleeding complications should induce caution in administering enoxaparin in doses higher than the conventional low ones.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Heparin/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hemorrhage/etiology , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8913, 2021 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203448

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has substantially challenged healthcare systems worldwide. By investigating population characteristics and prescribing profiles, it is possible to generate hypotheses about the associations between specific drug-utilisation profiles and susceptibility to COVID-19 infection. A retrospective drug-utilisation study was carried out using routinely collected information from a healthcare database in Campania (Southern Italy). We aimed to discover the prevalence of drug utilisation (monotherapy and polytherapy) in COVID-19 versus non-COVID-19 patients in Campania (~ 6 million inhabitants). The study cohort comprised 1532 individuals who tested positive for COVID-19. Drugs were grouped according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system. We noted higher prevalence rates of the use of drugs in the ATC categories C01, B01 and M04, which was probably linked to related comorbidities (i.e., cardiovascular and metabolic). Nevertheless, the prevalence of the use of drugs acting on the renin-angiotensin system, such as antihypertensive drugs, was not higher in COVID-19 patients than in non-COVID-19 patients after adjustments for age and sex. These results highlight the need for further case-control studies to define the effects of medications and comorbidities on susceptibility to and associated mortality from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Utilization Review , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
17.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0237202, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067386

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic spread rapidly worldwide increasing exponentially in Italy. To date, there is lack of studies describing clinical characteristics of the people at high risk of infection. Hence, we aimed (i) to identify clinical predictors of SARS-CoV-2 infection risk, (ii) to develop and validate a score predicting SARS-CoV-2 infection risk, and (iii) to compare it with unspecific scores. METHODS: Retrospective case-control study using administrative health-related database was carried out in Southern Italy (Campania region) among beneficiaries of Regional Health Service aged over than 30 years. For each person with SARS-CoV-2 confirmed infection (case), up to five controls were randomly matched for gender, age and municipality of residence. Odds ratios and 90% confidence intervals for associations between candidate predictors and risk of infection were estimated by means of conditional logistic regression. SARS-CoV-2 Infection Score (SIS) was developed by generating a total aggregate score obtained from assignment of a weight at each selected covariate using coefficients estimated from the model. Finally, the score was categorized by assigning increasing values from 1 to 4. Discriminant power was used to compare SIS performance with that of other comorbidity scores. RESULTS: Subjects suffering from diabetes, anaemias, Parkinson's disease, mental disorders, cardiovascular and inflammatory bowel and kidney diseases showed increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Similar estimates were recorded for men and women and younger and older than 65 years. Fifteen conditions significantly contributed to the SIS. As SIS value increases, risk progressively increases, being odds of SARS-CoV-2 infection among people with the highest SIS value (SIS = 4) 1.74 times higher than those unaffected by any SIS contributing conditions (SIS = 1). CONCLUSION: Conditions and diseases making people more vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified by the current study. Our results support decision-makers in identifying high-risk people and adopting of preventive measures to minimize the spread of further epidemic waves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Decision-Making , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Risk Factors
18.
Future Sci OA ; 7(4): FSO673, 2021 Jan 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052460

ABSTRACT

The Italian municipality of Ariano Irpino (Avellino, Campania, Italy) was locked down by the regional authorities from March until April 2020 after several citizens tested positive for SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A serological mass screening campaign targeting the Ariano Irpino population using the Roche Cobas Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 assay was organized by the Zoo-Prophylactic Institute of Southern Italy (Portici, Italy) and conducted in cooperation with the Local Health Unit (Azienda Sanitaria Locale - ASL - Avellino, Avellino, Italy), the Department of Public Health of University Federico II (Naples, Italy) and Department of Health Services of Azienda Ospedaliera dei Colli-Cotugno and Monaldi Hospital (Naples, Italy) in May 2020. A total of 13,218 asymptomatic individuals were reviewed in this analysis. A total of 738 citizens tested positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (398 females, 340 males). The overall prevalence in the sample was 5.6% (95% CI: 5.2-6.0). Among seropositive citizens, 101 cases tested positive on RT-PCR (0.76% of the overall population). Among citizens aged 14-18, 18-65 and >65 years, the seroprevalence was equal to 6.1 (95% CI: 4.1-8.7), 5.6 (95% CI: 5.1-6.1) and 4% (95% CI: 3.3-4.8), respectively. In the pediatric cohort (<14 years old), seroprevalence was 13% (95% CI: 10.2-16.2). A serological-based screening strategy could be a cost-effective public health intervention to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic.

19.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243700, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Italy has been the first Western country to be heavily affected by the spread of SARS-COV-2 infection and among the pioneers of the clinical management of pandemic. To improve the outcome, identification of patients at the highest risk seems mandatory. OBJECTIVES: Aim of this study is to identify comorbidities and clinical conditions upon admission associated with in-hospital mortality in several COVID Centers in Campania Region (Italy). METHODS: COVOCA is a multicentre retrospective observational cohort study, which involved 18 COVID Centers throughout Campania Region, Italy. Data were collected from patients who completed their hospitalization between March-June 2020. The endpoint was in-hospital mortality, assessed either from data at discharge or death certificate, whilst all exposure variables were collected at hospital admission. RESULTS: Among 618 COVID-19 hospitalized patients included in the study, 143 in-hospital mortality events were recorded, with a cumulative incidence of about 23%. At multivariable logistic analysis, male sex (OR 2.63, 95%CI 1.42-4.90; p = 0.001), Chronic Liver Disease (OR 5.88, 95%CI 2.39-14.46; p<0.001) and malignancies (OR 2.62, 95%CI 1.21-5.68; p = 0.015) disclosed an independent association with a poor prognosis, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and Respiratory Severity Scale allowed to identify at higher mortality risk. Sensitivity analysis further enhanced these findings. CONCLUSION: Mortality of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 appears strongly affected by both clinical conditions on admission and comorbidities. Originally, we observed a very poor outcome in subjects with a chronic liver disease, alongside with an increase of hepatic damage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Chronic Disease , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
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