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1.
Mol Genet Metab ; 138(4): 107552, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253818

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plasma concentration decline is a biomarker for acute inflammatory diseases, including coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Phenotypic changes in LDL during COVID-19 may be equally related to adverse clinical outcomes. METHODS: Individuals hospitalized due to COVID-19 (n = 40) were enrolled. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 2, 4, 6, and 30 (D0, D2, D4, D6, and D30). Oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity were measured. In a consecutive series of cases (n = 13), LDL was isolated by gradient ultracentrifugation from D0 and D6 and was quantified by lipidomic analysis. Association between clinical outcomes and LDL phenotypic changes was investigated. RESULTS: In the first 30 days, 42.5% of participants died due to Covid-19. The serum ox-LDL increased from D0 to D6 (p < 0.005) and decreased at D30. Moreover, individuals who had an ox-LDL increase from D0 to D6 to over the 90th percentile died. The plasma Lp-PLA2 activity also increased progressively from D0 to D30 (p < 0.005), and the change from D0 to D6 in Lp-PLA2 and ox-LDL were positively correlated (r = 0.65, p < 0.0001). An exploratory untargeted lipidomic analysis uncovered 308 individual lipids in isolated LDL particles. Paired-test analysis from D0 and D6 revealed higher concentrations of 32 lipid species during disease progression, mainly represented by lysophosphatidyl choline and phosphatidylinositol. In addition, 69 lipid species were exclusively modulated in the LDL particles from non-survivors as compared to survivors. CONCLUSIONS: Phenotypic changes in LDL particles are associated with disease progression and adverse clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients and could serve as a potential prognostic biomarker.


Subject(s)
1-Alkyl-2-acetylglycerophosphocholine Esterase , COVID-19 , Humans , Lipoproteins, LDL , Biomarkers , Lysophosphatidylcholines
2.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 36(5): 925-930, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256386

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has, to date, been diagnosed in over 130 million persons worldwide and is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Several variants of concern have emerged including those in the United Kingdom, South Africa, and Brazil. SARS-CoV-2 can cause a dysregulated inflammatory response known as a cytokine storm, which can progress rapidly to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multi-organ failure, and death. Suppressing these cytokine elevations may be key to improving outcomes. Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) is a simple, non-invasive procedure whereby a blood pressure cuff is inflated and deflated on the upper arm for several cycles. "RIC in COVID-19" is a pilot, multi-center, randomized clinical trial, designed to ascertain whether RIC suppresses inflammatory cytokine production. METHODS: A minimum of 55 adult patients with diagnosed COVID-19, but not of critical status, will be enrolled from centers in the United Kingdom, Brazil, and South Africa. RIC will be administered daily for up to 15 days. The primary outcome is the level of inflammatory cytokines that are involved in the cytokine storm that can occur following SARS-CoV-2 infection. The secondary endpoint is the time between admission and until intensive care admission or death. The in vitro cytotoxicity of patient blood will also be assessed using primary human cardiac endothelial cells. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this pilot study will provide initial evidence on the ability of RIC to suppress the production of inflammatory cytokines in the setting of COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04699227, registered January 7th, 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Critical Care , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Cytokines , Endothelial Cells , Humans , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
3.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 2022 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2128802

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 may develop a hyperinflammatory, dysregulated cytokine "storm" that rapidly progresses to acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiple organ dysfunction, and even death. Remote ischaemic conditioning (RIC) has elicited anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective benefits by reducing cytokines following sepsis in animal studies. Therefore, we investigated whether RIC would mitigate the inflammatory cytokine cascade induced by COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, multicentre, randomized, sham-controlled, single-blind trial in Brazil and South Africa. Non-critically ill adult patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were randomly allocated (1:1) to receive either RIC (intermittent ischaemia/reperfusion applied through four 5-min cycles of inflation (20 mmHg above systolic blood pressure) and deflation of an automated blood-pressure cuff) or sham for approximately 15 days. Serum was collected following RIC/sham administration and analyzed for inflammatory cytokines using flow cytometry. The endpoint was the change in serum cytokine concentrations. Participants were followed for 30 days. RESULTS: Eighty randomized participants (40 RIC and 40 sham) completed the trial. Baseline characteristics according to trial intervention were overall balanced. Despite downward trajectories of all cytokines across hospitalization, we observed no substantial changes in cytokine concentrations after successive days of RIC. Time to clinical improvement was similar in both groups (HR 1.66; 95% CI, 0.938-2.948, p 0.08). Overall RIC did not demonstrate a significant impact on the composite outcome of all-cause death or clinical deterioration (HR 1.19; 95% CI, 0.616-2.295, p = 0.61). CONCLUSION: RIC did not reduce the hypercytokinaemia induced by COVID-19 or prevent clinical deterioration to critical care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04699227.

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e224-e233, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017763

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The public health impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has motivated a rapid search for potential therapeutics, with some key successes. However, the potential impact of different treatments, and consequently research and procurement priorities, have not been clear. METHODS: Using a mathematical model of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission, COVID-19 disease and clinical care, we explore the public-health impact of different potential therapeutics, under a range of scenarios varying healthcare capacity, epidemic trajectories; and drug efficacy in the absence of supportive care. RESULTS: The impact of drugs like dexamethasone (delivered to the most critically-ill in hospital and whose therapeutic benefit is expected to depend on the availability of supportive care such as oxygen and mechanical ventilation) is likely to be limited in settings where healthcare capacity is lowest or where uncontrolled epidemics result in hospitals being overwhelmed. As such, it may avert 22% of deaths in high-income countries but only 8% in low-income countries (assuming R = 1.35). Therapeutics for different patient populations (those not in hospital, early in the course of infection) and types of benefit (reducing disease severity or infectiousness, preventing hospitalization) could have much greater benefits, particularly in resource-poor settings facing large epidemics. CONCLUSIONS: Advances in the treatment of COVID-19 to date have been focused on hospitalized-patients and predicated on an assumption of adequate access to supportive care. Therapeutics delivered earlier in the course of infection that reduce the need for healthcare or reduce infectiousness could have significant impact, and research into their efficacy and means of delivery should be a priority.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , SARS-CoV-2 , Cost of Illness , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pharmaceutical Preparations
6.
Science ; 369(6508): 1255-1260, 2020 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-675945

ABSTRACT

Brazil currently has one of the fastest-growing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemics in the world. Because of limited available data, assessments of the impact of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) on this virus spread remain challenging. Using a mobility-driven transmission model, we show that NPIs reduced the reproduction number from >3 to 1 to 1.6 in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. Sequencing of 427 new genomes and analysis of a geographically representative genomic dataset identified >100 international virus introductions in Brazil. We estimate that most (76%) of the Brazilian strains fell in three clades that were introduced from Europe between 22 February and 11 March 2020. During the early epidemic phase, we found that SARS-CoV-2 spread mostly locally and within state borders. After this period, despite sharp decreases in air travel, we estimated multiple exportations from large urban centers that coincided with a 25% increase in average traveled distances in national flights. This study sheds new light on the epidemic transmission and evolutionary trajectories of SARS-CoV-2 lineages in Brazil and provides evidence that current interventions remain insufficient to keep virus transmission under control in this country.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Basic Reproduction Number , Bayes Theorem , Betacoronavirus/classification , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Cities/epidemiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Europe , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral , Humans , Models, Genetic , Models, Statistical , Pandemics/prevention & control , Phylogeny , Phylogeography , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Travel , Urban Population
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