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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295952

ABSTRACT

Background: Sars-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, has led to more than 100,000 deaths in the UK and multiple risk factors for mortality including age, sex and deprivation have been identified. This study aimed to identify which indicators of Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD), an area-based deprivation index, were predictive of mortality. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study of anonymised electronic health records of 710 consecutive patients hospitalised with Covid-19 disease between March and June 2020 in the Lothian Region of Southeast Scotland. Data sources included automatically extracted data from national electronic platforms and manually extracted data from individual admission records. Exposure variables of interest were SIMD quintiles and more specifically 12 indicators of deprivation deemed clinically relevant selected from the SIMD. Our primary outcome was mortality. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses adjusted for age and sex were used to determine measures of association between exposures of interest and the primary outcome. Results: After adjusting for age and sex, we found an increased risk of mortality in the more deprived SIMD quintiles 1 and 3 (OR 1.75, CI 0.99-3.08, p=0.053 and OR 2.17, CI 1.22-3.86, p=0.009, respectively), but this association was not significant in our multivariable model adjusted for co-morbidities and clinical parameters of severity at admission. Of the 12 pre-selected indicators of deprivation, two were associated with greater mortality in our multivariable analysis: income deprivation rate categorised by quartile (Q4 (most deprived): 2.11 (1.20-3.77) p=0.011)) and greater than expected hospitalisations due to alcohol per SIMD data zone (1.96 (1.28-3.00) p=0.002)). Conclusions: In contrast to other studies, deprivation quintile distribution was not predictive of mortality in our cohort. This possibly reflects the greater affluence and ethnic homogeneity of the Lothian Region compared to the rest of Scotland. We identified an increased risk of mortality in patients residing in areas with greater income-deprivation and/or number of hospitalisations due to alcohol. In areas where aggregate measures fail to capture pockets of deprivation, specific indicators may be helpful in targeting resources to residents at risk of poorer outcomes from Covid-19.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293431

ABSTRACT

Background: Sars-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, has led to more than 100,000 deaths in the UK and multiple risk factors for mortality including age, sex and deprivation have been identified. This study aimed to identify which indicators of Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD), an area-based deprivation index, were predictive of mortality. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study of anonymised electronic health records of 710 consecutive patients hospitalised with Covid-19 disease between March and June 2020 in the Lothian Region of Southeast Scotland. Data sources included automatically extracted data from national electronic platforms and manually extracted data from individual admission records. Exposure variables of interest were SIMD quintiles and more specifically 12 indicators of deprivation deemed clinically relevant selected from the SIMD. Our primary outcome was mortality. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses adjusted for age and sex were used to determine measures of association between exposures of interest and the primary outcome. Results: After adjusting for age and sex, we found an increased risk of mortality in the more deprived SIMD quintiles 1 and 3 (OR 1.75, CI 0.99-3.08, p=0.053 and OR 2.17, CI 1.22-3.86, p=0.009, respectively), but this association was not significant in our multivariable model adjusted for co-morbidities and clinical parameters of severity at admission. Of the 12 pre-selected indicators of deprivation, two were associated with greater mortality in our multivariable analysis: income deprivation rate categorised by quartile (Q4 (most deprived): 2.11 (1.20-3.77) p=0.011)) and greater than expected hospitalisations due to alcohol per SIMD data zone (1.96 (1.28-3.00) p=0.002)). Conclusions: In contrast to other studies, deprivation quintile distribution was not predictive of mortality in our cohort. This possibly reflects the greater affluence and ethnic homogeneity of the Lothian Region compared to the rest of Scotland. We identified an increased risk of mortality in patients residing in areas with greater income-deprivation and/or number of hospitalisations due to alcohol. In areas where aggregate measures fail to capture pockets of deprivation, specific indicators may be helpful in targeting resources to residents at risk of poorer outcomes from Covid-19.

3.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1829): 20200275, 2021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309693

ABSTRACT

This study demonstrates that an adoption of a segmenting and shielding strategy could increase the scope to partially exit COVID-19 lockdown while limiting the risk of an overwhelming second wave of infection. We illustrate this using a mathematical model that segments the vulnerable population and their closest contacts, the 'shielders'. Effects of extending the duration of lockdown and faster or slower transition to post-lockdown conditions and, most importantly, the trade-off between increased protection of the vulnerable segment and fewer restrictions on the general population are explored. Our study shows that the most important determinants of outcome are: (i) post-lockdown transmission rates within the general and between the general and vulnerable segments; (ii) fractions of the population in the vulnerable and shielder segments; (iii) adherence to protective measures; and (iv) build-up of population immunity. Additionally, we found that effective measures in the shielder segment, e.g. intensive routine screening, allow further relaxations in the general population. We find that the outcome of any future policy is strongly influenced by the contact matrix between segments and the relationships between physical distancing measures and transmission rates. This strategy has potential applications for any infectious disease for which there are defined proportions of the population who cannot be treated or who are at risk of severe outcomes. This article is part of the theme issue 'Modelling that shaped the early COVID-19 pandemic response in the UK'.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Communicable Disease Control/trends , Humans , Models, Theoretical , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , United Kingdom/epidemiology
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 318, 2021 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169951

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Accurate diagnosis in patients with suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is essential to guide treatment and limit spread of the virus. The combined nasal and throat swab is used widely, but its diagnostic performance is uncertain. METHODS: In a prospective, multi-centre, cohort study conducted in secondary and tertiary care hospitals in Scotland, we evaluated the combined nasal and throat swab with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in consecutive patients admitted to hospital with suspected COVID-19. Diagnostic performance of the index and serial tests was evaluated for a primary outcome of confirmed or probable COVID-19, and a secondary outcome of confirmed COVID-19 on serial testing. The diagnosis was adjudicated by a panel, who recorded clinical, laboratory and radiological features blinded to the test results. RESULTS: We enrolled 1368 consecutive patients (median age 68 [interquartile range, IQR 53-80] years, 47% women) who underwent a total of 3822 tests (median 2 [IQR 1-3] tests per patient). The primary outcome occurred in 36% (496/1368), of whom 65% (323/496) and 35% (173/496) had confirmed and probable COVID-19, respectively. The index test was positive in 255/496 (51%) patients with the primary outcome, giving a sensitivity and specificity of 51.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 48.8 to 54.1%) and 99.5% (95% CI 99.0 to 99.8%). Sensitivity increased in those undergoing 2, 3 or 4 tests to 60.1% (95% CI 56.7 to 63.4%), 68.3% (95% CI 64.0 to 72.3%) and 77.6% (95% CI 72.7 to 81.9%), respectively. The sensitivity of the index test was 78.9% (95% CI 74.4 to 83.2%) for the secondary outcome of confirmed COVID-19 on serial testing. CONCLUSIONS: In patients admitted to hospital, a single combined nasal and throat swab with RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 has excellent specificity, but limited diagnostic sensitivity for COVID-19. Diagnostic performance is significantly improved by repeated testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nose/virology , Pharynx/virology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Scotland , Sensitivity and Specificity
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