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1.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 550, 2022 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029697

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The first Covid-19 pandemic affected the epidemiology of several diseases. A general reduction in the emergency department (ED) accesses was observed during this period, both in adult and pediatric contexts. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted on the behalf of the Italian Society of Pediatric Nephrology (SINePe) in 17 Italian pediatric EDs in March and April 2020, comparing them with data from the same periods in 2018 and 2019. The total number of pediatric (age 0-18 years) ED visits, the number of febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) diagnoses, and clinical and laboratory parameters were retrospectively collected. RESULTS: The total number of febrile UTI diagnoses was 339 (73 in 2020, 140 in 2019, and 126 in 2018). During the first Covid-19 pandemic, the total number of ED visits decreased by 75.1%, the total number of febrile UTI diagnoses by 45.1%, with an increase in the UTI diagnosis rate (+ 121.7%). The data collected revealed an increased rate of patients with two or more days of fever before admission (p = 0.02), a significant increase in hospitalization rate (+ 17.5%, p = 0.008) and also in values of C reactive protein (CRP) (p = 0.006). In 2020, intravenous antibiotics use was significantly higher than in 2018 and 2019 (+ 15%, p = 0.025). Urine cultures showed higher Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis percentages and lower rates of Escherichia coli (p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The first wave of the Covid-19 pandemic had an essential impact on managing febrile UTIs in the ED, causing an absolute reduction of cases referring to the ED but with higher clinical severity. Children with febrile UTI were more severely ill than the previous two years, probably due to delayed access caused by the fear of potential hospital-acquired Sars-Cov-2 infection. The possible increase in consequent kidney scarring in this population should be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Urinary Tract Infections , Adolescent , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Outbreaks , Emergency Service, Hospital , Escherichia coli , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Urinary Tract Infections/diagnosis
2.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 2022 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2018020

ABSTRACT

Mass disasters are characterized by a disparity between health care demand and supply, which hampers complex therapies like kidney transplantation. Considering scarcity of publications on previous disasters, we reviewed transplantation practice during the recent COVID-19 pandemic, and dwelled upon this experience for guiding transplantation strategies in the future pandemic and non-pandemic catastrophes. We strongly suggest continuing transplantation programs during mass disasters, if medical and logistic operational circumstances are appropriate. Postponing transplantations from living donors and referral of urgent cases to safe regions or hospitals are justified. Specific preventative measures in anticipated disasters (such as vaccination programs during pandemics or evacuation in case of hurricanes or wars) may be useful to minimize risks. Immunosuppressive therapies should consider stratifying risk status and avoiding heavy immune suppression in patients with a low probability of therapeutic success. Discharging patients at the earliest convenience is justified during pandemics, whereas delaying discharge is reasonable in other disasters, if infrastructural damage results in unhygienic living environments for the patients. In the outpatient setting, telemedicine is a useful approach to reduce the patient load to hospitals, to minimize the risk of nosocomial transmission in pandemics and the need for transport in destructive disasters. If it comes down to save as many lives as possible, some ethical principles may vary in function of disaster circumstances, but elementary ethical rules are non-negotiable. Patient education is essential to minimize disaster-related complications and to allow for an efficient use of health care resources.

3.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 37(10): 1824-1829, 2022 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908869

ABSTRACT

The Omicron variant, which has become the dominant strain of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) worldwide, brings new challenges to preventing and controlling the infection. Moreover, the widespread implementation of vaccination policies before and after transplantation, and the development of new prophylactic and treatment strategies for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) over the past 12-18 months, has raised several new issues concerning kidney transplant recipients. In this special report, the ERA DESCARTES (Developing Education Science and Care for Renal Transplantation in European States) Working Group addresses several questions related to everyday clinical practice concerning kidney transplant recipients and to the assessment of deceased and live kidney donors: what is the current risk of severe disease and of breakthrough infection, the optimal management of immunosuppression in kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19, the role of passive immunization and the efficacy of antiviral drugs in ambulatory patients, the management of drug-to-drug interactions, safety criteria for the use of SARS-CoV-2-positive donors, issues related to the use of T cell depleting agents as induction treatment, and current recommendations for shielding practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Living Donors , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 869299, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862642

ABSTRACT

Background: Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) is a well-known endocrinological disease in children and adolescents that is characterized by immune-mediated destruction of pancreatic ß-cells, leading to partial or total insulin deficiency, with an onset that can be subtle (polydipsia, polyuria, weight loss) or abrupt (Diabetic Keto-Acidosis, hereafter DKA, or, although rarely, Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State, hereafter HHS). Severe DKA risk at the onset of T1D has recently significantly increased during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic with life-threatening complications often due to its management. DKA is marked by low pH (<7.3) and bicarbonates (<15 mmol/L) in the presence of ketone bodies in plasma or urine, while HHS has normal pH (>7.3) and bicarbonates (>15 mmol/L) with no or very low ketone bodies. Despite this, ketone monitoring is not universally available, and DKA diagnosis is mainly based on pH and bicarbonates. A proper diagnosis of the right form with main elements (pH, bicarbonates, ketones) is essential to begin the right treatment and to identify organ damage (such as acute kidney injury). Case Presentations: In this series, we describe 3 case reports in which the onset of T1D was abrupt with severe acidosis (pH < 7.1) in the absence of both DKA and HHS. In a further evaluation, all 3 patients showed acute kidney injury, which caused low bicarbonates and severe acidosis without increasing ketone bodies. Conclusion: Even if it is not routinely recommended, a proper treatment that included bicarbonates was then started, with a good response in terms of clinical and laboratory values. With this case series, we would like to encourage emergency physicians to monitor ketones, which are diriment for a proper diagnosis and treatment of DKA.

5.
Biomolecules ; 12(2)2022 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686604

ABSTRACT

The onset of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) as a pandemic infection, has led to increasing insights on its pathophysiology and clinical features being revealed, such as a noticeable kidney involvement. In this study, we describe the histopathological, immunofluorescence, and ultrastructural features of biopsy-proven kidney injury observed in a series of SARS-CoV-2 positive cases in our institution from April 2020 to November 2021. We retrieved and retrospectively reviewed nine cases (two pediatric and seven adults) that experienced nephrotic syndrome (six cases), acute kidney injury (two cases), and a clinically silent microhematuria and leukocyturia. Kidney biopsies were investigated by means of light microscopy, direct immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy. The primary diagnoses were minimal change disease (four cases), acute tubular necrosis (two cases), collapsing glomerulopathy (two cases), and C3 glomerulopathy (one case). None of the cases showed viral or viral-like particles on ultrastructural analysis. Novel and specific histologic features on kidney biopsy related to SARS-CoV-2 infection have been gradually disclosed and reported, harboring relevant clinical and therapeutic implications. Recognizing and properly diagnosing renal involvement in patients experiencing COVID-19 could be challenging (due to the lack of direct proof of viral infection, e.g., viral particles) and requires a proper integration of clinical and pathological data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Kidney Diseases/complications , Kidney Diseases/virology , Kidney/injuries , Kidney/virology , Adolescent , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biopsy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Italy , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/ultrastructure , Kidney Diseases/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
6.
Cells ; 11(1)2022 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580990

ABSTRACT

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) and viruses share common features: size, structure, biogenesis and uptake. In order to generate EVs expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein on their surface (S-EVs), we collected EVs from SARS-CoV-2 spike expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK-293T) cells by stable transfection with a vector coding for the S1 and S2 subunits. S-EVs were characterized using nanoparticle tracking analysis, ExoView and super-resolution microscopy. We obtained a population of EVs of 50 to 200 nm in size. Spike expressing EVs represented around 40% of the total EV population and co-expressed spike protein with tetraspanins on the surfaces of EVs. We subsequently used ACE2-positive endothelial and bronchial epithelial cells for assessing the internalization of labeled S-EVs using a cytofluorimetric analysis. Internalization of S-EVs was higher than that of control EVs from non-transfected cells. Moreover, S-EV uptake was significantly decreased by anti-ACE2 antibody pre-treatment. Furthermore, colchicine, a drug currently used in clinical trials, significantly reduced S-EV entry into the cells. S-EVs represent a simple, safe, and scalable model to study host-virus interactions and the mechanisms of novel therapeutic drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Antibodies, Blocking/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Colchicine/pharmacology , Flow Cytometry/methods , HEK293 Cells , Host Microbial Interactions/drug effects , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/virology , Humans , Microscopy, Fluorescence/methods , Protein Binding/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
7.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 37(4): 757-764, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482214

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 has spread from China as a global pandemic, Italy being one of the earliest affected countries. The infection displays a more complicated and often fatal course in adults with a history of kidney disease, while it does not seem to affect children in the same way. Pediatric patients with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS), with or without chronic immunosuppressive therapy, are at greater risk of infections which may also trigger relapses. OBJECTIVES: We performed a systematic review of the literature to identify all articles on SARS-CoV-2 infections in children with INS in order to describe the severity of all SARS-CoV-2 infections reported in children with INS, to evaluate the risk of new onset and relapses associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and to draw recommendations on their management and vaccination. The search was conducted on the following databases: MEDLINE (via Pubmed), Google Scholar, and Web of Science. The search methodology used with the selected free text terms or MesH was ("nephrotic syndrome" OR "idiopathic nephrotic syndrome") and ("covid 19" OR "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2" OR "2019-nCoV" OR "SARS-CoV-2"). RESULTS: The literature search provided 36 records. After screening for their relevance to the topic, 11 studies were selected. Two additional publications were identified through the reference list of all included articles and 13 articles were included in the review. A total of 43 cases of children with INS and SARS-CoV-2 infection have been reported; the course of the disease was mild for most patients with low need of respiratory support and no death in high income countries. In 5 patients, the infection was complicated by relapse, which anyway showed a good response to steroids. Two children had a new onset of INS during a SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSIONS: Children with INS, with or without immunosuppression, are not at higher risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. Relapse is a possible complication, but steroid treatment is safe and effective. After summarizing the evidence, we have suggested recommendations for the management of children with INS during the pandemic and the vaccination campaign.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nephrosis, Lipoid , Nephrotic Syndrome , Adult , Child , Humans , Nephrotic Syndrome/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248276, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148243

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Effective treatments for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are urgently needed. We hypothesized that colchicine, by counteracting proinflammatory pathways implicated in the uncontrolled inflammatory response of COVID-19 patients, reduces pulmonary complications, and improves survival. METHODS: This retrospective study included 71 consecutive COVID-19 patients (hospitalized with pneumonia on CT scan or outpatients) who received colchicine and compared with 70 control patients who did not receive colchicine in two serial time periods at the same institution. We used inverse probability of treatment propensity-score weighting to examine differences in mortality, clinical improvement (using a 7-point ordinary scale), and inflammatory markers between the two groups. RESULTS: Amongst the 141 COVID-19 patients (118 [83.7%] hospitalized), 70 (50%) received colchicine. The 21-day crude cumulative mortality was 7.5% in the colchicine group and 28.5% in the control group (P = 0.006; adjusted hazard ratio: 0.24 [95%CI: 0.09 to 0.67]); 21-day clinical improvement occurred in 40.0% of the patients on colchicine and in 26.6% of control patients (adjusted relative improvement rate: 1.80 [95%CI: 1.00 to 3.22]). The strong association between the use of colchicine and reduced mortality was further supported by the diverging linear trends of percent daily change in lymphocyte count (P = 0.018), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (P = 0.003), and in C-reactive protein levels (P = 0.009). Colchicine was stopped because of transient side effects (diarrhea or skin rashes) in 7% of patients. CONCLUSION: In this retrospective cohort study colchicine was associated with reduced mortality and accelerated recovery in COVID-19 patients. This support the rationale for current larger randomized controlled trials testing the safety/efficacy profile of colchicine in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Colchicine/metabolism , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Treatment Outcome
13.
Ital J Pediatr ; 46(1): 142, 2020 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-810379

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently rare in children and they seem to have a milder disease course and better prognosis than adults. However, SARS-Cov-2 pandemic has indirectly caused problems in pediatric medical assistance. In view of this we wanted to draw a picture of what happened during health emergency and analyze future prospects for restarting. METHODS: We involved the Italian pediatric scientific societies institutionally collected in the Italian Federation of Associations and Scientific Societies of the Pediatric Area (FIARPED); We sent a questionnaire to all scientific societies about the pediatric care activity during the COVID-19 emergency and future perspectives for the phase of post-containment. RESULTS: The analysis of the questionnaires showed significant decrease of:admission, outpatient visits and specialist consultancy activities during the COVID-19 emergency, primarily linked to the fear of infection. Instead it was increased the serious degree of diseases admitted. Most of scientific societies maintained the relationship with chronic patients through some form of telemedicine, reporting a strong positive opinion about this modality. Finally showed the need to give life a new approach for hospitalizations and outpatient visits through a greater use of telemedicine, educational programs on families and a more decisive role of family pediatricians. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlighted many aspects that can be improved in pediatric care. We think that It will be necessary a new shared strategy to improve the management and continuity of care for pediatric patients, primarily developing a network of collaboration between families, family pediatrician and hospitals and by enhancing the use of new methods of telecommunications.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine/organization & administration , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy , Male , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Patient Care Planning/organization & administration , Pediatrics/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Societies, Medical
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