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1.
ERJ open research ; 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564106

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may cause pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome, whose pathogenesis has been partially related to an increased systemic inflammatory response with great production of pro-inflammatory cytokines causing a “cytokine storm” and an oxidative stress imbalance [1].

2.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258754, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477539

ABSTRACT

Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been successfully applied to patients with COVID-19 to prevent endotracheal intubation. However, experience of CPAP application in pregnant women with acute respiratory failure (ARF) due to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is scarce. This study aimed to describe the natural history and outcome of ARF in a cohort of pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, focusing on the feasibility of helmet CPAP (h-CPAP) application and the variables related to ARF worsening. A retrospective, observational study enrolling 41 consecutive pregnant women hospitalised for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in a tertiary care center between March 2020 and March 2021. h-CPAP was applied if arterial partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2/FiO2) was inferior to 200 and/or patients had respiratory distress despite adequate oxygen supplementation. Characteristics of patients requiring h-CPAP vs those in room air or oxygen only were compared. Twenty-seven (66%) patients showed hypoxemic ARF requiring oxygen supplementation and h-CPAP was needed in 10 cases (24%). PaO2/FiO2 was significantly improved during h-CPAP application. The device was well-tolerated in all cases with no adverse events. Higher serum C reactive protein and more extensive (≥3 lobes) involvement at chest X-ray upon admission were observed in the h-CPAP group. Assessment of temporal distribution of cases showed a substantially increased rate of CPAP requirement during the third pandemic wave (January-March 2021). In conclusion, h-CPAP was feasible, safe, well-tolerated and improved oxygenation in pregnant women with moderate-to-severe ARF due to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Moderate-to-severe ARF was more frequently observed during the third pandemic wave.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Respiratory Insufficiency , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Tertiary Care Centers , Acute Disease , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Oxygen/blood , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Protein C/metabolism , Respiratory Insufficiency/blood , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies
3.
Respiration ; 100(11): 1078-1087, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long-term pulmonary sequelae following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia are not yet confirmed; however, preliminary observations suggest a possible relevant clinical, functional, and radiological impairment. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify and characterize pulmonary sequelae caused by SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia at 6-month follow-up. METHODS: In this multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study, patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and without prior diagnosis of structural lung diseases were stratified by maximum ventilatory support ("oxygen only," "continuous positive airway pressure," and "invasive mechanical ventilation") and followed up at 6 months from discharge. Pulmonary function tests and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), 6-min walking test, chest X-ray, physical examination, and modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnoea score were collected. RESULTS: Between March and June 2020, 312 patients were enrolled (83, 27% women; median interquartile range age 61.1 [53.4, 69.3] years). The parameters that showed the highest rate of impairment were DLCO and chest X-ray, in 46% and 25% of patients, respectively. However, only a minority of patients reported dyspnoea (31%), defined as mMRC ≥1, or showed restrictive ventilatory defects (9%). In the logistic regression model, having asthma as a comorbidity was associated with DLCO impairment at follow-up, while prophylactic heparin administration during hospitalization appeared as a protective factor. The need for invasive ventilatory support during hospitalization was associated with chest imaging abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: DLCO and radiological assessment appear to be the most sensitive tools to monitor patients with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during follow-up. Future studies with longer follow-up are warranted to better understand pulmonary sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/virology , Respiration, Artificial , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Logistic Models , Lung Diseases/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Function Tests , Time Factors
4.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 2021 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328934

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify the main computed tomography (CT) features that may help distinguishing a progression of interstitial lung disease (ILD) secondary to Systemic sclerosis (SSc) from COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: This multicentric study included 22 international readers divided in the radiologist group (RAD) and non-radiologist group (nRAD). A total of 99 patients, 52 with COVID-19 and 47 with SSc-ILD, were included in the study. RESULTS: Fibrosis inside focal ground glass opacities (GGO) in the upper lobes; fibrosis in the lower lobe GGO; reticulations in lower lobes (especially if bilateral and symmetrical or associated with signs of fibrosis) were the CT features most frequently associated with SSc-ILD. The CT features most frequently associated with COVID- 19 pneumonia were: consolidation (CONS) in the lower lobes, CONS with peripheral (both central/peripheral or patchy distributions), anterior and posterior CONS and rounded-shaped GGOs in the lower lobes. After multivariate analysis, the presence of CONS in the lower lobes (p < 0.0001) and signs of fibrosis in GGO in the lower lobes (p < 0.0001) remained independently associated with COVID-19 pneumonia or SSc-ILD, respectively. A predictive score was created which resulted positively associated with the COVID-19 diagnosis (96.1% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity). CONCLUSION: The CT differential diagnosis between COVID-19 pneumonia and SSc-ILD is possible through the combination the proposed score and the radiologic expertise. The presence of consolidation in the lower lobes may suggest a COVID-19 pneumonia while the presence of fibrosis inside GGO may indicate a SSc-ILD.

5.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 80, 2021 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory failure due to COVID-19 pneumonia is associated with high mortality and may overwhelm health care systems, due to the surge of patients requiring advanced respiratory support. Shortage of intensive care unit (ICU) beds required many patients to be treated outside the ICU despite severe gas exchange impairment. Helmet is an effective interface to provide continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) noninvasively. We report data about the usefulness of helmet CPAP during pandemic, either as treatment, a bridge to intubation or a rescue therapy for patients with care limitations (DNI). METHODS: In this observational study we collected data regarding patients failing standard oxygen therapy (i.e., non-rebreathing mask) due to COVID-19 pneumonia treated with a free flow helmet CPAP system. Patients' data were recorded before, at initiation of CPAP treatment and once a day, thereafter. CPAP failure was defined as a composite outcome of intubation or death. RESULTS: A total of 306 patients were included; 42% were deemed as DNI. Helmet CPAP treatment was successful in 69% of the full treatment and 28% of the DNI patients (P < 0.001). With helmet CPAP, PaO2/FiO2 ratio doubled from about 100 to 200 mmHg (P < 0.001); respiratory rate decreased from 28 [22-32] to 24 [20-29] breaths per minute, P < 0.001). C-reactive protein, time to oxygen mask failure, age, PaO2/FiO2 during CPAP, number of comorbidities were independently associated with CPAP failure. Helmet CPAP was maintained for 6 [3-9] days, almost continuously during the first two days. None of the full treatment patients died before intubation in the wards. CONCLUSIONS: Helmet CPAP treatment is feasible for several days outside the ICU, despite persistent impairment in gas exchange. It was used, without escalating to intubation, in the majority of full treatment patients after standard oxygen therapy failed. DNI patients could benefit from helmet CPAP as rescue therapy to improve survival. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04424992.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Disease Outbreaks , Hypoxia/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/virology , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Noninvasive Ventilation , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Treatment Outcome
6.
Eur Respir J ; 56(4)2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-876309
8.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): e2020062, 2020 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-761263

ABSTRACT

The emergency caused by Covid-19 pandemic raised interest in studying lifestyles and comorbidities as important determinants of poor Covid-19 prognosis. Data on tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and obesity are still limited, while no data are available on the role of e-cigarettes and heated tobacco products (HTP). To clarify the role of tobacco smoking and other lifestyle habits on COVID-19 severity and progression, we designed a longitudinal observational study titled COvid19 and SMOking in ITaly (COSMO-IT). About 30 Italian hospitals in North, Centre and South of Italy joined the study. Its main aims are: 1) to quantify the role of tobacco smoking and smoking cessation on the severity and progression of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients; 2) to compare smoking prevalence and severity of the disease in relation to smoking in hospitalized COVID-19 patients versus patients treated at home; 3) to quantify the association between other lifestyle factors, such as e-cigarette and HTP use, alcohol and obesity and the risk of unfavourable COVID-19 outcomes. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and medical history information will be gathered for around 3000 hospitalized and 700-1000 home-isolated, laboratory-confirmed, COVID-19 patients. Given the current absence of a vaccine against SARS-COV-2 and the lack of a specific treatment for -COVID-19, prevention strategies are of extreme importance. This project, designed to highly contribute to the international scientific debate on the role of avoidable lifestyle habits on COVID-19 severity, will provide valuable epidemiological data in order to support important recommendations to prevent COVID-19 incidence, progression and mortality.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Life Style , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Tobacco Smoking/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tobacco Smoking/epidemiology
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