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2.
J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol ; 11(3): 316-319, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890824

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, the coronavirus 19 disease pandemic caused a worse chance of a timely diagnosis for cancer patients. We conducted a retrospective analysis of new diagnoses registered in the national pediatric oncology database, comparing the first lockdown period (March-May 2020) with the same period of 2015-2019. The total number of cases (0-19 years) dropped by 20.8% (from 441 between 2015 and 2019 to 349 in 2020). A major reduction was observed for adolescents (15-19 years) (-32.9%) and for adolescents with solid tumors (-56.4%, p = 0.03). Our data suggest that the enforced lockdown reduced the possibility for these already vulnerable patients to access the referral centers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Delayed Diagnosis , Humans , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
3.
J Clin Immunol ; 42(5): 935-946, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802997

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 manifestations range from asymptomatic to life-threatening infections. The outcome in different inborn errors of immunity (IEI) is still a matter of debate. In this retrospective study, we describe the experience of the of the Italian Primary Immunodeficiencies Network (IPINet). Sixteen reference centers for adult or pediatric IEI were involved. One hundred fourteen patients were enrolled including 35 pediatric and 79 adult patients. Median age was 32 years, and male-to-female ratio was 1.5:1. The most common IEI were 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in children (26%) and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) in adults (65%). Ninety-one patients did not require hospital admission, and among these, 33 were asymptomatic. Hospitalization rate was 20.17%. Older age (p 0.004) and chronic lung disease (p 0.0008) represented risk factors for hospitalization. Hospitalized patients mainly included adults suffering from humoral immunodeficiencies requiring immunoglobulin replacement therapy and as expected had lower B cell counts compared to non-hospitalized patients. Infection fatality rate in the whole cohort was 3.5%. Seroconversion was observed is 86.6% of the patients evaluated and in 83.3% of CVID patients. 16.85% of the patients reported long-lasting COVID symptoms. All but one patient with prolonged symptoms were under IgRT. The fatality rate observed in IEI was slightly similar to the general population. The age of the patients who did not survive was lower compared to the general population, and the age stratified mortality in the 50-60 age range considerable exceeded the mortality from 50 to 60 age group of the Italian population (14.3 vs 0.6%; p < 0.0001). We hypothesize that this is due to the fact that comorbidities in IEI patients are very common and usually appear early in life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Common Variable Immunodeficiency , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330092

ABSTRACT

The Job Syndrome or Autosomal Dominant Hyper Immunoglobulin E Syndrome (AD-HIES, LOF-STAT3 gene) is a very rare inborn error of immunity disorder with multi-organ involvement and long-life post-infective damages. Longitudinal registries are of main importance to improve knowledge on natural history and management of these rare disorders. This study aims to describe the natural history of 30 Italian patients recorded in the IPINet registry with AD-HIES, with a cumulative observational-time of 721.1 patient-years. Age at disease onset was < 12 months in the 66.7% of patients, but the mean time of diagnostic delay was 13.7 years. At diagnosis skin involvement was present in 93.3% of patients (eczema 80.8%, abscess 66.7%). At the follow up eczema was still present in 63.3% and abscess in 56.7%. Respiratory complications such as bronchiectasis and pneumatoceles were present at diagnosis in the 46.7% and 43.3% respectively. Antimicrobial prophylaxis resulted in decrease of pneumonia from 76.7–46.7%. Antifungal prophylaxis decreased mucocutaneous candidiasis occurrence from 70–56.7%. In the course of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, seven patients developed COVID-19. Survival analyses showed that 27 out of 30 patients are still alive, while three patients died at age of 28, 39 and 46 as consequence of lungs bleeding, lymphoma and sepsis, respectively. Our study shows that many severe complications can affect AD-HIES patients. Analysis of a cumulative follow-up of 278.7 patient-years has shown that early diagnosis, adequate management at expertise centres for primary immunodeficiency, prophylactic antibiotic and antifungal therapy improve outcome and can positively influence patients’ life expectancy.

7.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 10(6): 714-721, 2021 Aug 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358467

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) have a milder clinical course than adults. We describe the spectrum of cardiovascular manifestations during a COVID-19 outbreak in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. METHODS: A cross-sectional multicenter study was performed, including all patients diagnosed with Kawasaki disease (KD), myocarditis, and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) from February to April 2020. KD patients were compared with those diagnosed before the epidemic. RESULTS: KD: 8 patients (6/8 boys, all negative for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 [SARS-CoV-2]): complete presentation in 5/8, 7/8 immunoglobulin (IVIG) responders, and 3/8 showed transient coronary lesions (CALs). Myocarditis: one 5-year-old girl negative for SARS-CoV-2 and positive for parvovirus B19. She responded to IVIG. MIS-C: 4 SARS-CoV-2-positive boys (3 patients with positive swab and serology and 1 patient with negative swab and positive serology): 3 presented myocardial dysfunction and pericardial effusion, and 1 developed multicoronary aneurysms and hyperinflammation; all responded to treatment. The fourth boy had mitral and aortic regurgitation that rapidly regressed after steroids. CONCLUSIONS: KD, myocarditis, and MIS-C were distinguishable cardiovascular manifestations. KD did not show a more aggressive form compared with previous years: coronary involvement was frequent but always transient. MIS-C and myocarditis rapidly responded to treatment without cardiac sequelae despite high markers of myocardial injury at the onset, suggesting a myocardial depression due to systemic inflammation rather than focal necrosis. Evidence of actual or previous SARS-CoV-2 infection was documented only in patients with MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Adolescent , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
8.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(7)2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314718

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that neutralize SARS-CoV-2 in infected patients are a new class of antiviral agents approved as a type of passive immunotherapy. They should be administered to adults and children (≥12 years old, weighing ≥ 40 kg) with SARS-CoV-2 positivity, and who are suffering from a chronic underlying disease and are at risk of severe COVID-19 and/or hospitalization. The aim of this manuscript is to discuss the benefit-to-risk of mAb therapy to treat COVID-19 in pediatric age, according to current reports. A problem is that the authorization for mAbs use in children was given without studies previously evaluating the efficacy, safety and tolerability of mAbs in pediatric patients. Moreover, although the total number of children with chronic severe underlying disease is not marginal, the risk of severe COVID-19 in pediatric age is significantly reduced than in adults and the role of chronic underlying disease as a risk factor of severe COVID-19 development in pediatric patients is far from being precisely defined. In addition, criteria presently suggested for use of mAbs in children and adolescents are very broad and may cause individual clinicians or institutions to recommend these agents on a case-by-case basis, with an abuse in mAbs prescriptions and an exacerbation of health inequalities while resources are scarce. Several questions need to be addressed before their routine use in clinical practice, including what is their associated benefit-to-risk ratio in children and adolescents, who are the patients that could really have benefit from their use, and if there is any interference of mAb therapy on recommended vaccines. While we wait for answers to these questions from well-conducted research, an effective and safe COVID-19 vaccine for vulnerable pediatric patients remains the best strategy to prevent COVID-19 and represents the priority for public health policies.

9.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(7): 2181-2185, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300960

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic has forced a decrease in physical activity (PA), an increase in sedentary behavior (SB) and a possibly worsening of fat accumulation in already obese subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate how social restriction may have contributed to weight changes in adolescents with obesity. Secondary aim was to evaluate possible parameters influencing weight changes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Parameters of 51 obese adolescents were compared between two visits: within 2 months before 8 March, start of lockdown, and within 40 days after the end of it. RESULTS: Mean weight gain during lockdown was 2.8 ± 3.7 kg (p < 0.001). Weight increase was higher in males than in females (3.8 ± 3.4 kg vs 1.2 ± 3.7 kg, p = 0.02). The hours dedicated to SB increased (+2.9 ± 2.8 h/day; p < 0.001) while the hours of PA decreased (-1.0 ± 1.6 h/week; p < 0.001). Males spent more hours in SB than females (+3.8 ± 2.7 h/day vs +1.5 ± 2.5 h/day; p = 0.003). There were minor changes in diet during lockdown. The most significant variables influencing both delta BMI and waist/height ratio increase were hours devoted to SB during lockdown and differences in mild and moderate PA before and after lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: Obese adolescents showed a worsening of obesity during lockdown, with males mainly affected, mainly due to a reduced mild PA and increased hours spent in SB.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Pediatric Obesity/physiopathology , Physical Distancing , Weight Gain , Adolescent , Age Factors , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Diet/adverse effects , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Pediatric Obesity/diagnosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Sedentary Behavior , Sex Factors , Time Factors
10.
Children (Basel) ; 8(7)2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288814

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 pandemic restrictions have deeply altered the common respiratory illnesses burden. The aim of this paper was to clarify how these measures may have influenced bronchiolitis epidemiology, exploring possible explanations. We studied 342 infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis at our center from four different epidemic seasons (October-April 2017-2018, 2018-2019, 2019-2020 and 2020-2021). March-April hospitalization rate, RSV (respiratory syncytial virus) infection, pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission and oxygen therapy administration data were compared among different seasons to outline any changes during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. In March-April, 30 (23.1%), 28 (24.6%) and 5 (5.1%) infants were hospitalized for bronchiolitis, respectively, in 2017-2018, 2018-2019 and 2019-2020, with a lower rate in March-April 2020 (p < 0.001). No hospitalizations for bronchiolitis occurred during the epidemic season of 2020-2021. No significant differences in RSV infections, oxygen therapy administration and PICU admissions across seasons were outlined. In conclusion, we report a severe decrease in hospitalizations for bronchiolitis at our center throughout the entire SARS-CoV-2 outbreak rather than only during the lockdown periods. This seems to suggest a pivotal role for the systematic implementation of cost-effective non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) such as compulsory face masks and hand hygiene, which were deployed for the entire pandemic, in reducing the circulation of infectious agents.

11.
Children (Basel) ; 8(3)2021 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211900

ABSTRACT

Prevalence of childhood obesity is progressively increasing, reaching worldwide levels of 5.6% in girls and of 7.8% in boys. Several evidences showed that obesity is a major preventable risk factor and disease modifier of some respiratory conditions such as asthma and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). Co-occurrence of asthma and obesity may be due to common pathogenetic factors including exposure to air pollutants and tobacco smoking, Western diet, and low Vitamin D levels. Lung growth and dysanapsis phenomenon in asthmatic obese children play a role in impaired respiratory function which appears to be different than in adults. Genes involved in both asthma and obesity have been identified, though a gene-by-environment interaction has not been properly investigated yet. The identification of modifiable environmental factors influencing gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms may change the natural history of both diseases. Another important pediatric respiratory condition associated with obesity is Sleep-Disordered Breathing (SDB), especially Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). OSAS and obesity are linked by a bidirectional causality, where the effects of one affect the other. The factors most involved in the association between OSAS and obesity are oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and gut microbiota. In OSAS pathogenesis, obesity's role appears to be mainly due to mechanical factors leading to an increase of respiratory work at night-time. However, a causal link between obesity-related inflammatory state and OSAS pathogenesis still needs to be properly confirmed. To prevent obesity and its complications, family education and precocious lifestyle changes are critical. A healthy diet may lead to an improved quality of life in obese children suffering from respiratory diseases. The present review aimed to investigate the links between obesity, asthma and OSAS, focusing on the available evidence and looking for future research fields.

12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(8)2021 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178247

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread, becoming the first pandemic of the 21st century by number of deaths (over 2,000,000 worldwide). Many aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and adolescents remain unclear, and optimal treatment has not yet been defined. Therefore, our goal was to develop a consensus document, practically synthesizing the accumulated data and clinical experience of our expert group. Literature research was carried out using the keywords "COVID-19" or "SARS-CoV-2" and "children" or "pediatrics" and "prevention" or "diagnosis" or "MIS-C" or "treatment" in electronic databases (MEDLINE, PUBMED), existing guidelines and gray literature. The fact that the majority of the problems posed by SARS-CoV-2 infection in pediatric age do not need hospital care and that, therefore, infected children and adolescents can be managed at home highlights the need for a strengthening of territorial pediatric structures. The sharing of hospitalization and therapeutic management criteria for severe cases between professionals is essential to ensure a fair approach based on the best available knowledge. Moreover, the activity of social and health professionals must also include the description, management and limitation of psychophysical-relational damage resulting from the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on the health of children and adolescents, whether or not affected by COVID-19. Due to the characteristics of COVID-19 pathology in pediatric age, the importance of strengthening the network between hospital and territorial pediatrics, school, educational, social and family personnel both for strictly clinical management and for the reduction in discomfort, with priority in children of more frail families, represents a priority.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatrics , Adolescent , Child , Consensus , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
13.
BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care ; 8(2)2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894865

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic forced the Italian government to issue extremely restrictive measures on daily activities since 11 March 2020 ('lockdown'), which may have influenced the metabolic control of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). The aims of the study were to investigate continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) metrics in children and adults with T1D during lockdown and to identify their potentially related factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We enrolled 130 consecutive patients with T1D (30 children (≤12 years), 24 teenagers (13-17 years), and 76 adults (≥18 years)) using either Dexcom or FreeStyle LibreCGM>70% during the study period, without hybrid closed-loop insulin pump. CGM metrics during the 20 days before and the 20 days after lockdown were calculated. By telephonic contact, we performed validated physical activity and perceived stress questionnaires. RESULTS: In children, significantly lower glucose SD (SDglu) (p=0.029) and time below range (TBR)<54 mg/dL (TBR2) (p=0.029) were detected after lockdown. CGM metrics were comparable in teenagers before and during lockdown. After lockdown, adults improved significantly time in range (TIR) 70-180 mg/dL (p<0.001) and remaining metrics, except percent coefficient of variation and TBR2. In adults, considering the changes in SDglu and TIR occurred before and during lockdown, we identified a group with improved TIR and SDglu who performed more physical activity, one with improved glucose variability who was younger than the other patients, and one with worsened glucose variability who showed higher perceived stress than others. CONCLUSION: In patients with T1D during lockdown, CGM metrics mostly improved in children and adults, whereas it was unchanged in teenagers. In adults, age, physical activity, and perceived stress may be relevant contributing factors.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/metabolism , Communicable Disease Control , Coronavirus Infections , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adolescent , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , COVID-19 , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Exercise , Female , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Insulin/therapeutic use , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Monitoring, Ambulatory , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/metabolism
15.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 4(1): e000748, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-697669

ABSTRACT

The Emilia Romagna (ER) region, Italy, in March 2020 has seen one of the largest and most serious clusters of COVID-19 in the world. In the period of 30 January to 31 May 2020, the number of paediatric emergency department presentations in Bologna, ER, decreased by 50% compared with the same period of 2019. Visits declined for every age group, with a decrease of 35%, 55% and 46% for the three age groups 0-2, 2-10 and 10-14 years, respectively. The admission rate increased from 5% to 13%. Fewer non-urgent attendances, alongside a decrease in seasonal infections due to the lockdown, appear to be the main reasons.

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