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1.
biorxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.09.13.557622

ABSTRACT

The long-term health effects of SARS-CoV-2, termed Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC), are quickly evolving into a major public health concern, but the underlying cellular and molecular etiology remain poorly defined. There is growing evidence that PASC is linked to abnormal immune responses and/or poor organ recovery post-infection. However, the exact processes linking non-resolving inflammation, impaired tissue repair, and PASC are still unclear. In this report, we utilized a cohort of respiratory PASC patients with viral infection-mediated pulmonary fibrosis and a clinically relevant mouse model of post-viral lung sequelae to investigate the pathophysiology of respiratory PASC. Using a combination of imaging and spatial transcriptomics, we identified dysregulated proximal interactions between immune cells and epithelial progenitors unique to respiratory PASC but not acute COVID-19 or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Specifically, we found a central role for lung-resident CD8+ T cell-macrophage interactions in maintaining Krt8hi transitional and ectopic Krt5+ basal cell progenitors, and the development of fibrotic sequelae after acute viral pneumonia. Mechanistically, CD8+ T cell derived IFN-{gamma} and TNF stimulated lung macrophages to chronically release IL-1{beta}, resulting in the abnormal accumulation of dysplastic epithelial progenitors in fibrotic areas. Notably, therapeutic neutralization of IFN-{gamma} and TNF, or IL-1{beta} after the resolution of acute infection resulted in markedly improved alveolar regeneration and restoration of pulmonary function. Together, our findings implicate a dysregulated immune-epithelial progenitor niche in driving respiratory PASC and identify potential therapeutic targets to dampen chronic pulmonary sequelae post respiratory viral infections including SARS-CoV-2.

2.
Leora I. Horwitz; Tanayott Thaweethai; Shari B. Brosnahan; Mine S. Cicek; Megan L. Fitzgerald; Jason D. Goldman; Rachel Hess; S. L. Hodder; Vanessa L. Jacoby; Michael R. Jordan; Jerry A. Krishnan; Adeyinka O. Laiyemo; Torri D. Metz; Lauren Nichols; Rachel E. Patzer; Anisha Sekar; Nora G. Singer; Lauren E. Stiles; Barbara S. Taylor; Shifa Ahmed; Heather A. Algren; Khamal Anglin; Lisa Aponte-Soto; Hassan Ashktorab; Ingrid V. Bassett; Brahmchetna Bedi; Nahid Bhadelia; Christian Bime; Marie-Abele C. Bind; Lora J. Black; Andra L. Blomkalns; Hassan Brim; Mario Castro; James Chan; Alexander W. Charney; Benjamin K. Chen; Li Qing Chen; Peter Chen; David Chestek; Lori B. Chibnik; Dominic C. Chow; Helen Y. Chu; Rebecca G. Clifton; Shelby Collins; Maged M. Costantine; Sushma K. Cribbs; Steven G. Deeks; John D. Dickinson; Sarah E. Donohue; Matthew S. Durstenfeld; Ivette F. Emery; Kristine M. Erlandson; Julio C. Facelli; Rachael Farah-Abraham; Aloke V. Finn; Melinda S. Fischer; Valerie J. Flaherman; Judes Fleurimont; Vivian Fonseca; Emily J. Gallagher; Jennifer C. Gander; Maria Laura Gennaro; Kelly S. Gibson; Minjoung Go; Steven N. Goodman; Joey P. Granger; Frank L. Greenway; John W. Hafner; Jenny E. Han; Michelle S. Harkins; Kristine S.P. Hauser; James R. Heath; Carla R. Hernandez; On Ho; Matthew K. Hoffman; Susan E. Hoover; Carol R. Horowitz; Harvey Hsu; Priscilla Y. Hsue; Brenna L. Hughes; Prasanna Jagannathan; Judith A. James; Janice John; Sarah Jolley; S. E. Judd; Joy J. Juskowich; Diane G. Kanjilal; Elizabeth W. Karlson; Stuart D. Katz; J. Daniel Kelly; Sara W. Kelly; Arthur Y. Kim; John P. Kirwan; Kenneth S. Knox; Andre Kumar; Michelle F. Lamendola-Essel; Margaret Lanca; Joyce K. Lee-lannotti; R. Craig Lefebvre; Bruce D. Levy; Janet Y. Lin; Brian P. Logarbo Jr.; Jennifer K. Logue; Michele T. Longo; Carlos A. Luciano; Karen Lutrick; Shahdi K. Malakooti; Gail Mallett; Gabrielle Maranga; Jai G. Marathe; Vincent C. Marconi; Gailen D. Marshall; Christopher F. Martin; Jeffrey N. Martin; Heidi T. May; Grace A. McComsey; Dylan McDonald; Hector Mendez-Figueroa; Lucio Miele; Murray A. Mittleman; Sindhu Mohandas; Christian Mouchati; Janet M. Mullington; Girish N Nadkarni; Erica R. Nahin; Robert B. Neuman; Lisa T. Newman; Amber Nguyen; Janko Z. Nikolich; Igho Ofotokun; Princess U. Ogbogu; Anna Palatnik; Kristy T.S. Palomares; Tanyalak Parimon; Samuel Parry; Sairam Parthasarathy; Thomas F. Patterson; Ann Pearman; Michael J. Peluso; Priscilla Pemu; Christian M. Pettker; Beth A. Plunkett; Kristen Pogreba-Brown; Athena Poppas; J. Zachary Porterfield; John G. Quigley; Davin K. Quinn; Hengameh Raissy; Candida J. Rebello; Uma M. Reddy; Rebecca Reece; Harrison T. Reeder; Franz P. Rischard; Johana M. Rosas; Clifford J. Rosen; Nadine G. Rouphae; Dwight J. Rouse; Adam M. Ruff; Christina Saint Jean; Grecio J. Sandoval; Jorge L. Santana; Shannon M. Schlater; Frank C. Sciurba; Caitlin Selvaggi; Sudha Seshadri; Howard D. Sesso; Dimpy P. Shah; Eyal Shemesh; Zaki A. Sherif; Daniel J. Shinnick; Hyagriv N. Simhan; Upinder Singh; Amber Sowles; Vignesh Subbian; Jun Sun; Mehul S. Suthar; Larissa J. Teunis; John M. Thorp Jr.; Amberly Ticotsky; Alan T. N. Tita; Robin Tragus; Katherine R. Tuttle; Alfredo E. Urdaneta; P. J. Utz; Timothy M. VanWagoner; Andrew Vasey; Suzanne D. Vernon; Crystal Vidal; Tiffany Walker; Honorine D. Ward; David E. Warren; Ryan M. Weeks; Steven J. Weiner; Jordan C. Weyer; Jennifer L. Wheeler; Sidney W. Whiteheart; Zanthia Wiley; Natasha J. Williams; Juan P. Wisnivesky; John C. Wood; Lynn M. Yee; Natalie M. Young; Sokratis N. Zisis; Andrea S. Foulkes; - Recover Initiative.
medrxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.05.26.23290475

ABSTRACT

Importance: SARS-CoV-2 infection can result in ongoing, relapsing, or new symptoms or other health effects after the acute phase of infection; termed post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC), or long COVID. The characteristics, prevalence, trajectory and mechanisms of PASC are ill-defined. The objectives of the Researching COVID to Enhance Recovery (RECOVER) Multi-site Observational Study of PASC in Adults (RECOVER-Adult) are to: (1) characterize PASC prevalence; (2) characterize the symptoms, organ dysfunction, natural history, and distinct phenotypes of PASC; (3) identify demographic, social and clinical risk factors for PASC onset and recovery; and (4) define the biological mechanisms underlying PASC pathogenesis. Methods: RECOVER-Adult is a combined prospective/retrospective cohort currently planned to enroll 14,880 adults aged [≥]18 years. Eligible participants either must meet WHO criteria for suspected, probable, or confirmed infection; or must have evidence of no prior infection. Recruitment occurs at 86 sites in 33 U.S. states, Washington, DC and Puerto Rico, via facility- and community-based outreach. Participants complete quarterly questionnaires about symptoms, social determinants, vaccination status, and interim SARS-CoV-2 infections. In addition, participants contribute biospecimens and undergo physical and laboratory examinations at approximately 0, 90 and 180 days from infection or negative test date, and yearly thereafter. Some participants undergo additional testing based on specific criteria or random sampling. Patient representatives provide input on all study processes. The primary study outcome is onset of PASC, measured by signs and symptoms. A paradigm for identifying PASC cases will be defined and updated using supervised and unsupervised learning approaches with cross-validation. Logistic regression and proportional hazards regression will be conducted to investigate associations between risk factors, onset, and resolution of PASC symptoms. Discussion: RECOVER-Adult is the first national, prospective, longitudinal cohort of PASC among US adults. Results of this study are intended to inform public health, spur clinical trials, and expand treatment options.

3.
biorxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.06.02.494559

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a generalist virus, infecting and evolving in numerous mammals, including captive and companion animals, free-ranging wildlife, and humans. Transmission among non-human species poses considerable risk for the establishment of SARS-CoV-2 reservoirs, makes eradication difficult, and provides the virus with opportunities for new evolutionary trajectories, including selection of adaptive mutations and emergence of new variant lineages. Here we use publicly available viral genome sequences and phylogenetic analysis to systematically investigate transmission of SARS-CoV-2 between mammalian species, both non-human and human, to identify mutations associated with each species. We found the highest frequency of animal-to-human transmission from mink, compared with negligible transmission from other sampled species (cat, dog, and deer). Although inferred transmission events could be limited by potential sampling biases, our results provide a useful baseline for further studies. Using genome-wide association studies, no single nucleotide variants (SNVs) were significantly associated with cats and dogs; however, three SNVs strongly associated with mink and 26 with deer. These SNVs are candidates for future experiments to identify their role in differential pathogenesis, immune escape and host response modulation. Together, our results are consistent with sustained deer-to-deer transmission and highlight the importance of studying animal-associated SARS-CoV-2 mutations to assess their potential impact on human and animal health.

4.
medrxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.03.10.22272100

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bebtelovimab is a potent, fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) targeting the S-protein of SARS-CoV-2, with broad neutralizing activity to all currently known SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, including omicron variant lineages. Specialized developmental approaches accelerated the initiation of a clinical trial designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bebtelovimab alone (BEB) or together with bamlanivimab (BAM) and etesevimab (ETE) delivered via slow intravenous push for the treatment of mild-to-moderate COVID-19. METHODS: This portion of the phase 2, BLAZE-4 trial (J2X-MC-PYAH; NCT04634409) enrolled 714 patients (between May and July 2021) with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 within 3 days ([≤]3 days) of laboratory diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients at low risk for severe COVID-19 were randomized 1:1:1 (double-blinded) to placebo, BEB 175 mg, or BEB 175 mg+BAM 700 mg+ETE 1400 mg (BEB+BAM+ETE). Patients at high risk for progression to severe COVID-19 were randomized 2:1 (open-label) to BEB or BEB+BAM+ETE, and a subsequent treatment arm enrolled patients to BEB+BAM+ETE using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) updated criteria for High-risk. All treatments were administered intravenously over [≥]30 seconds (open-label BEB) or [≥]6.5 minutes (all other treatment arms). For the placebo-controlled patients (termed Low-risk), the primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with persistently high viral load (PHVL) (log viral load >5.27) on Day 7. For the open-label patients (termed High-risk), the primary endpoint was safety. In nonclinical studies, SARS-CoV-2 isolates were tested using an endpoint neutralization assay to measure BEB's inhibitory concentration greater than 99% (IC99). RESULTS: Baseline viral sequencing data were available from 611 patients; 90.2% (n=551) aligned with a variant of interest or concern (WHO designation), with the majority infected with delta (49.8%) or alpha (28.6%) variants. Among the Low-risk patients, PHVL occurred in 19.8% of patients treated with placebo, as compared to 12.7% (p=0.132) of patients treated with BEB+BAM+ETE and 12.0% (p=0.097) of patients treated with BEB, a 36% and 40% relative risk reduction, respectively. Viral load-area under the curve analysis from baseline to Day 11 showed statistically signficant reductions for patients treated with BEB (p=0.006) and BEB+BAM+ETE (p=0.043) compared to patients who received placebo. Time to sustained symptom resolution was reduced by a median of 2 days for patients treated with BEB (6 days; p=0.003) and 1 day for patients treated with BEB+BAM+ETE (7 days; p=0.289) compared to placebo (8 days). The incidence of COVID-19-related hospitalization or all-cause deaths by day 29 were similar across treatment arms, as expected given the patients' risk status (the Low risk cohorts had a Low risk of hospitalization, and High risk cohorts received only active therapy without placebo). Overall, safety results were consistent with previous studies investigating mAbs targeting SARS-CoV-2. The proportion of patients with treatment emergent adverse events (AEs) were 9.7% in Low-risk (n=37/380) and 14.7% in High-risk (n=48/326) patients treated with BEB or BEB+BAM+ETE; majority of AEs were considered mild or moderate in severity. Serious AEs were reported in 2.1% of High-risk patients (n=7/326), including one death (a cerebrovascular accident); 1 serious AE was reported among Low-risk patients. In an in vitro neutralization assay, BEB neutralized the omicron isolate (BA.1) with <2.44ng/ml estimated IC99. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19, treatment with BEB or BEB+BAM+ETE was associated with greater viral clearance, a reduction in time to sustained symptom resolution, and safety results consistent with mAbs that target SARS-CoV-2. Integration of clinical findings with in vitro neutralization of emerging viral variants offered a pragmatic framework for investigating the efficacy of a new antiviral mAb agent, as demonstrated by bebtelovimab.

5.
Energies ; 14(17):5384, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1390573

ABSTRACT

The built environment is the global sector with the greatest energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. As a result, building energy savings can make a major contribution to tackling the current energy and climate change crises. Fluid dynamics models have long supported the understanding and optimization of building energy systems and have been responsible for many important technological breakthroughs. As Covid-19 is continuing to spread around the world, fluid dynamics models are proving to be more essential than ever for exploring airborne transmission of the coronavirus indoors in order to develop energy-efficient and healthy ventilation actions against Covid-19 risks. The purpose of this paper is to review the most important and influential fluid dynamics models that have contributed to improving building energy efficiency. A detailed, yet understandable description of each model’s background, physical setup, and equations is provided. The main ingredients, theoretical interpretations, assumptions, application ranges, and robustness of the models are discussed. Models are reviewed with comprehensive, although not exhaustive, publications in the literature. The review concludes by outlining open questions and future perspectives of simulation models in building energy research.

6.
medrxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.07.23.20161182

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has quickly become the most serious pandemic since the 1918 flu pandemic. In extreme situations, patients develop a dysregulated inflammatory lung injury called acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that causes progressive respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilatory support. Recent studies have demonstrated immunologic dysfunction in severely ill COVID-19 patients. To further delineate the dysregulated immune response driving more severe clinical course from SARS-CoV-2 infection, we used single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) to analyze the transcriptome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from hospitalized COVID-19 patients having mild disease (n = 5), developing ARDS (n = 6), and recovering from ARDS (n = 6). Our data demonstrated an overwhelming inflammatory response with select immunodeficiencies within various immune populations in ARDS patients. Specifically, their monocytes had defects in antigen presentation and deficiencies in interferon responsiveness that contrasted the higher interferon signals in lymphocytes. Furthermore, cytotoxic activity was suppressed in both NK and CD8 lymphocytes whereas B cell activation was deficient, which is consistent with the delayed viral clearance in severely ill COVID-19 patients. Finally, we identified altered signaling pathways in the severe group that suggests immunosenescence and immunometabolic changes could be contributing to the dysfunctional immune response. Our study demonstrates that COVID-19 patients with ARDS have an immunologically distinct response when compared to those with a more innocuous disease course and show a state of immune imbalance in which deficiencies in both the innate and adaptive immune response may be contributing to a more severe disease course in COVID-19.

7.
researchsquare; 2020.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-40310.v1

ABSTRACT

Background Multiple reports have highlighted important racial and ethnic differences in the degree to which Americans may be vulnerable to severe forms of Covid-19 illness. Whether or not racial or ethnic disparities are related to variations in the underlying burden of comorbidities or other predisposing factors remains unclear.Methods We identified patients diagnosed with Covid-19, based on a positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2, from the electronic health record of a large multi-hospital system located in Southern California. We developed an illness severity score, based on the level of care each patient required (not admitted to the hospital; required hospital admission but never required intensive care; required intensive level care but never intubation; and, required intubation during hospitalization) and assessed for associations with clinical and demographic factors for each patient using ordinal logistic regression.Results A total of 571 patients with Covid-19 were identified a majority of whom were male (56%), with a mean age of 55±21 years. There were 81 (14%) patient who identified as African American, and 101 (18%) as Hispanic. A total of 202 (36%) patients required hospitalization without need for intensive care, 43 (8%) required intensive care without intubation, and 64 (11%) required intubation while also receiving intensive care. Of the total sample, African American race (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.44-3.78, P=0.001) and Hispanic ethnicity (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.14-3.12, P=0.004) were associated with greater illness severity.Conclusions Racial and ethnic disparities in the severity of Covid-19 illness persist, even when controlling for baseline comorbidities. It remains unclear if these differences are related to variations in physiologic response to SARS-CoV-2, differential timing of presentation or disparities in care.

8.
medrxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.04.29.20084533

ABSTRACT

BackgroundCertain individuals, when infected by SARS-CoV-2, tend to develop the more severe forms of Covid-19 illness for reasons that remain unclear. MethodsWe studied N=442 patients who presented with laboratory confirmed Covid-19 illness to our U.S. metropolitan healthcare system. We curated data from the electronic health record, and used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association of pre-existing traits with a Covid-19 illness severity defined by level of required care: need for hospital admission, need for intensive care, and need for intubation. ResultsOf all patients studied, 48% required hospitalization, 17% required intensive care, and 12% required intubation. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, patients requiring a higher levels of care were more likely to be older (OR 1.5 per 10 years, P<0.001), male (OR 2.0, P=0.001), African American (OR 2.1, P=0.011), obese (OR 2.0, P=0.021), with diabetes mellitus (OR 1.8, P=0.037), and with a higher comorbidity index (OR 1.8 per SD, P<0.001). Several clinical associations were more pronounced in younger compared to older patients (Pinteraction<0.05). Of all hospitalized patients, males required higher levels of care (OR 2.5, P=0.003) irrespective of age, race, or morbidity profile. ConclusionsIn our healthcare system, greater Covid-19 illness severity is seen in patients who are older, male, African American, obese, with diabetes, and with greater overall comorbidity burden. Certain comorbidities paradoxically augment risk to a greater extent in younger patients. In hospitalized patients, male sex is the main determinant of needing more intensive care. Further investigation is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying these findings.

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