Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 31
Filter
1.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2022 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747897

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To review the data presented in the 2021 WHO global TB report and discuss the current constraints in the global response. INTRODUCTION AND METHODS: The WHO global TB reports, consolidate TB data from countries and provide up to date assessment of the global TB epidemic. We reviewed the data presented in the 2021 report. RESULTS: We noted that the 2021 WHO global TB report presents a rather grim picture on the trajectory of the global epidemic of TB including a stagnation in the annual decline in TB incidence, a decline in TB notifications and an increase in estimated TB deaths. All the targets set at the 2018 United Nations High Level Meeting on TB were off track. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION: The sub-optimal global performance on achieving TB control targets in 2020 is attributed to the on-going COVID-19 pandemic, however, TB programs were already off track well before the onset of the pandemic, suggesting that the pandemic amplified an already fragile global TB response. We emphasize that ending the global TB epidemic will require bold leadership, optimization of existing interventions, widespread coverage, addressing social determinants of TB and importantly mobilization of adequate funding required for TB care and prevention.

2.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739796

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Investments into 'Blue Skies' fundamental TB research in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have not been forthcoming. We highlight why blue skies research will be essential for achieving global TB control and eradicating TB. METHODS: We review the historical background to early TB discovery research and give examples of where investments into basic science and fundamental 'blue skies research' are delivering novel data and approaches to advance diagnosis, management and holistic care for patients with active and latent TB infection. FINDINGS: The COVID-19 pandemic has shown that making available adequate funding for priority investments into 'Blue skies research' to delineate scientific understanding of a new infectious diseases threat to global health security can lead to rapid development and rollout of new diagnostic platforms, treatments, and vaccines. Several advances in new TB diagnostics, new treatments and vaccine development are underpinned by basic science research. CONCLUSIONS: Blue Skies research is required to pave the way for a personalized medicine approach for management of TB and other Respiratory Tract Infections and preventing long-term functional disability. Transfer of skills and resources by wealthier nations is required to empower researchers in LMICs countries to engage in and lead Blue Skies research.

3.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(SI-1): 3157-3161, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726150

ABSTRACT

One and a half years into the pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 is still here to stay. Whilst rapid several effective COVID-19 vaccines have been developed and are being rolled out, the critical questions remain whether vaccines provide widespread protection against infection and reinfection, and what the duration of protection is. Community wide control cannot be obtained until almost everyone is immune. Vaccine production must be ramped up to cover the world population. The price of herd immunity through natural infection is high mortality in the elderly and morbidity in other age groups including children and Long-COVID. We must expect a new wave in the coming winter. The severity will depend on the proportion of the population with immunity from natural infections or immunisation. Therefore, control rests on a population wide immunisation including children, which may or may not need to be repeated if new SARS-CoV-2 variants evolve that can escape immunity from either previous infections or immunisations. Preventing long term sequelae of COVID-19 also remains a priority.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Population Surveillance/methods , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 112: 300-317, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654547

ABSTRACT

Pandemic dynamics and health care responses are markedly different during the COVID-19 pandemic than in earlier outbreaks. Compared with established infectious disease such as influenza, we currently know relatively little about the origin, reservoir, cross-species transmission and evolution of SARS-CoV-2. Health care services, drug availability, laboratory testing, research capacity and global governance are more advanced than during 20th century pandemics, although COVID-19 has highlighted significant gaps. The risk of zoonotic transmission and an associated new pandemic is rising substantially. COVID-19 vaccine development has been done at unprecedented speed, with the usual sequential steps done in parallel. The pandemic has illustrated the feasibility of this approach and the benefits of a globally coordinated response and infrastructure. Some of the COVID-19 vaccines recently developed or currently in development might offer flexibility or sufficiently broad protection to swiftly respond to antigenic drift or emergence of new coronaviruses. Yet many challenges remain, including the large-scale production of sufficient quantity of vaccines, delivery of vaccines to all countries and ensuring vaccination of relevant age groups. This wide vaccine technology approach will be best employed in tandem with active surveillance for emerging variants or new pathogens using antigen mapping, metagenomics and next generation sequencing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 106: 429-430, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385713
10.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(SI-1): 3157-3161, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319768

ABSTRACT

One and a half years into the pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 is still here to stay. Whilst rapid several effective COVID-19 vaccines have been developed and are being rolled out, the critical questions remain whether vaccines provide widespread protection against infection and reinfection, and what the duration of protection is. Community wide control cannot be obtained until almost everyone is immune. Vaccine production must be ramped up to cover the world population. The price of herd immunity through natural infection is high mortality in the elderly and morbidity in other age groups including children and Long-COVID. We must expect a new wave in the coming winter. The severity will depend on the proportion of the population with immunity from natural infections or immunisation. Therefore, control rests on a population wide immunisation including children, which may or may not need to be repeated if new SARS-CoV-2 variants evolve that can escape immunity from either previous infections or immunisations. Preventing long term sequelae of COVID-19 also remains a priority.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Population Surveillance/methods , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(3): 219-220, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-989522
19.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(1): 118-124, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-785394

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The case fatality rate (CFR) of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) varies significantly between countries. We aimed to describe the associations between health indicators and the national CFRs of COVID-19. METHODS: We identified for each country health indicators potentially associated with the national CFRs of COVID-19. We extracted data for 18 variables from international administrative data sources for 34 member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). We excluded the collinear variables and examined the 16 variables in multivariable analysis. A dynamic web-based model was developed to analyse and display the associations for the CFRs of COVID-19. We followed the Guideline for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER). RESULTS: In multivariable analysis, the variables significantly associated with the increased CFRs were percentage of obesity in ages >18 years (ß = 3.26; 95%CI = 1.20, 5.33; p 0.003), tuberculosis incidence (ß = 3.15; 95%CI = 1.09, 5.22; p 0.004), duration (days) since first death due to COVID-19 (ß = 2.89; 95%CI = 0.83, 4.96; p 0.008), and median age (ß = 2.83; 95%CI = 0.76, 4.89; p 0.009). The COVID-19 test rate (ß = -3.54; 95%CI = -5.60, -1.47; p 0.002), hospital bed density (ß = -2.47; 95%CI = -4.54, -0.41; p 0.021), and rural population ratio (ß = -2.19; 95%CI = -4.25, -0.13; p 0.039) decreased the CFR. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic hits population-dense cities. Available hospital beds should be increased. Test capacity should be increased to enable more effective diagnostic tests. Older patients and patients with obesity and their caregivers should be warned about a potentially increased risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/mortality , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/mortality , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Americas/epidemiology , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Comorbidity , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Bed Capacity/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/pathology , Population Density , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/pathology , Urban Population
20.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 26(3): 197-202, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-726094

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mass gathering events bring people from across all continents increasing the risk of spread of aerosol transmissible respiratory tract infections. Respiratory tract infections for instance in pilgrims attending the world's largest recurring annual pilgrimage, the Hajj are common. We review recent literature on viral and bacterial infectious diseases with special focus on the Hajj. RECENT FINDINGS: The prevalence of bacterial and viral infections continue to increase, because of the acquisition of rhinovirus, coronaviruses (229E, HKU1, OC43), influenza A H1N1, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus during Hajj. Whilst MERS-CoV continues to circulate in the Middle East, no cases of MERS-CoV have yet been identified in pilgrims during Hajj. SUMMARY: Respiratory tract infections are a major cause of morbidity in pilgrims attending mass gathering events. The management of severe respiratory infections should consider investigation and empirical coverage for the most likely agents based on syndromic surveillance data from hosting country and /or other relevant exposure history during events. Pneumococcal and Pertussis vaccines should be recommended for Hajj pilgrims.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Influenza, Human/transmission , Islam , Measles/transmission , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/transmission , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Travel , Tuberculosis/transmission , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/transmission , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Haemophilus Infections/epidemiology , Haemophilus Infections/transmission , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Middle East/epidemiology , Picornaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Picornaviridae Infections/transmission , Pneumococcal Vaccines/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/prevention & control , Prevalence , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/transmission , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/prevention & control , Whooping Cough/transmission
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL