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1.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 23(4): 441-446, 2022 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642340

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging Scientific Initiatives Committee conducted a global survey to evaluate the impact of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic on the mental well-being of cardiac imaging specialists. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a prospective international survey performed between 23 July 2021 and 31 August 2021, we assessed the mental well-being of cardiac imaging specialists ∼18 months into the COVID-19 pandemic. One-hundred-and-twenty-five cardiac imaging specialists from 34 countries responded to the survey. More than half described feeling anxious during the pandemic, 34% felt melancholic, 27% felt fearful, and 23% respondents felt lonely. A quarter of respondents had increased their alcohol intake and more than half reported difficulties in sleeping. Two-thirds of respondents described worsening features of burnout during the past 18 months, 44% considered quitting their job. One in twenty respondents had experienced suicidal ideation during the pandemic. Despite these important issues, the majority of participants (57%) reported having no access to any formal mental health support at work. CONCLUSION: The survey has highlighted important issues regarding the mental well-being of cardiac imaging specialists during the COVID-19 pandemic. This is a major issue in our sub-specialty, which requires urgent action and prioritization so that we can improve the mental health of cardiovascular imaging specialists.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 33(7): 2031-2041, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491488

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rapid global spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has re-ignited interest in the possible role of vitamin D in modulation of host responses to respiratory pathogens. Indeed, vitamin D supplementation has been proposed as a potential preventative or therapeutic strategy. Recommendations for any intervention, particularly in the context of a potentially fatal pandemic infection, should be strictly based on clinically informed appraisal of the evidence base. In this narrative review, we examine current evidence relating to vitamin D and COVID-19 and consider the most appropriate practical recommendations. OBSERVATIONS: Although there are a growing number of studies investigating the links between vitamin D and COVID-19, they are mostly small and observational with high risk of bias, residual confounding, and reverse causality. Extrapolation of molecular actions of 1,25(OH)2-vitamin D to an effect of increased 25(OH)-vitamin D as a result of vitamin D supplementation is generally unfounded, as is the automatic conclusion of causal mechanisms from observational studies linking low 25(OH)-vitamin D to incident disease. Efficacy is ideally demonstrated in the context of adequately powered randomised intervention studies, although such approaches may not always be feasible. CONCLUSIONS: At present, evidence to support vitamin D supplementation for the prevention or treatment of COVID-19 is inconclusive. In the absence of any further compelling data, adherence to existing national guidance on vitamin D supplementation to prevent vitamin D deficiency, predicated principally on maintaining musculoskeletal health, appears appropriate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D Deficiency , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D , Vitamins
3.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 15(4): 685-699, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466593

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is associated with myocardial injury caused by ischemia, inflammation, or myocarditis. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is the noninvasive reference standard for cardiac function, structure, and tissue composition. CMR is a potentially valuable diagnostic tool in patients with COVID-19 presenting with myocardial injury and evidence of cardiac dysfunction. Although COVID-19-related myocarditis is likely infrequent, COVID-19-related cardiovascular histopathology findings have been reported in up to 48% of patients, raising the concern for long-term myocardial injury. Studies to date report CMR abnormalities in 26% to 60% of hospitalized patients who have recovered from COVID-19, including functional impairment, myocardial tissue abnormalities, late gadolinium enhancement, or pericardial abnormalities. In athletes post-COVID-19, CMR has detected myocarditis-like abnormalities. In children, multisystem inflammatory syndrome may occur 2 to 6 weeks after infection; associated myocarditis and coronary artery aneurysms are evaluable by CMR. At this time, our understanding of COVID-19-related cardiovascular involvement is incomplete, and multiple studies are planned to evaluate patients with COVID-19 using CMR. In this review, we summarize existing studies of CMR for patients with COVID-19 and present ongoing research. We also provide recommendations for clinical use of CMR for patients with acute symptoms or who are recovering from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , COVID-19/complications , Child , Contrast Media , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/adverse effects , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/adverse effects , Myocarditis/etiology , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
4.
EBioMedicine ; 70: 103485, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322072

ABSTRACT

Background Older age is the most powerful risk factor for adverse coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) outcomes. It is uncertain whether leucocyte telomere length (LTL), previously proposed as a marker of biological age, is also associated with COVID-19 outcomes. Methods We associated LTL values obtained from participants recruited into UK Biobank (UKB) during 2006-2010 with adverse COVID-19 outcomes recorded by 30 November 2020, defined as a composite of any of the following: hospital admission, need for critical care, respiratory support, or mortality. Using information on 130 LTL-associated genetic variants, we conducted exploratory Mendelian randomisation (MR) analyses in UKB to evaluate whether observational associations might reflect cause-and-effect relationships. Findings Of 6775 participants in UKB who tested positive for infection with SARS-CoV-2 in the community, there were 914 (13.5%) with adverse COVID-19 outcomes. The odds ratio (OR) for adverse COVID-19 outcomes was 1·17 (95% CI 1·05-1·30; P = 0·004) per 1-SD shorter usual LTL, after adjustment for age, sex and ethnicity. Similar ORs were observed in analyses that: adjusted for additional risk factors; disaggregated the composite outcome and reduced the scope for selection or collider bias. In MR analyses, the OR for adverse COVID-19 outcomes was directionally concordant but non-significant. Interpretation Shorter LTL is associated with higher risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes, independent of several major risk factors for COVID-19 including age. Further data are needed to determine whether this association reflects causality. Funding UK Medical Research Council, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council and British Heart Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Leukocytes/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Telomere/genetics , Aged , Biological Specimen Banks , COVID-19/pathology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , United Kingdom
5.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 666119, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317218

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had an unprecedented impact leading to novel adaptations in post-graduate medical education for cardiovascular and general internal medicine. Whilst the results of initial community COVID-19 vaccination are awaited, continuation of multimodality teaching and training that incorporates telelearning will have enduring benefit to post-graduate education and will place educational establishments in good stead to nimbly respond in future pandemic-related public health emergencies. With the rise in innovative virtual learning solutions, medical educators will have to leverage technology to develop electronic educational materials and virtual courses that facilitate adult learning. Technology-enabled virtual learning is thus a timely progression of hybrid classroom initiatives that are already adopted to varying degrees, with a need for faculty to serve as subject matter experts, to host and moderate online discussions, and to provide feedback and overall mentorship. As an extension from existing efforts, simulation-based teaching (SBT) and learning and the use of mixed reality technology should also form a greater core in the cardiovascular medicine curriculum. We highlight five foundational themes for building a successful e-learning model in cardiovascular and general post-graduate medical training: (1) digital solutions and associated infrastructure; (2) equity in access; (3) participant engagement; (4) diversity and inclusion; and (5) patient confidentiality and governance framework. With digitalisation impacting our everyday lives and now how we teach and train in medicine, these five guiding principles provide a cognitive scaffold for careful consideration of the required ecosystem in which cardiovascular and general post-graduate medical education can effectively operate. With due consideration of various e-learning options and associated infrastructure needs; and adoption of strategies for participant engagement under sound and just governance, virtual training in medicine can be effective, inclusive and equitable through the COVID-19 era and beyond.

6.
Front Artif Intell ; 4: 652669, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247961

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has created enormous suffering, affecting lives, and causing deaths. The ease with which this type of coronavirus can spread has exposed weaknesses of many healthcare systems around the world. Since its emergence, many governments, research communities, commercial enterprises, and other institutions and stakeholders around the world have been fighting in various ways to curb the spread of the disease. Science and technology have helped in the implementation of policies of many governments that are directed toward mitigating the impacts of the pandemic and in diagnosing and providing care for the disease. Recent technological tools, artificial intelligence (AI) tools in particular, have also been explored to track the spread of the coronavirus, identify patients with high mortality risk and diagnose patients for the disease. In this paper, areas where AI techniques are being used in the detection, diagnosis and epidemiological predictions, forecasting and social control for combating COVID-19 are discussed, highlighting areas of successful applications and underscoring issues that need to be addressed to achieve significant progress in battling COVID-19 and future pandemics. Several AI systems have been developed for diagnosing COVID-19 using medical imaging modalities such as chest CT and X-ray images. These AI systems mainly differ in their choices of the algorithms for image segmentation, classification and disease diagnosis. Other AI-based systems have focused on predicting mortality rate, long-term patient hospitalization and patient outcomes for COVID-19. AI has huge potential in the battle against the COVID-19 pandemic but successful practical deployments of these AI-based tools have so far been limited due to challenges such as limited data accessibility, the need for external evaluation of AI models, the lack of awareness of AI experts of the regulatory landscape governing the deployment of AI tools in healthcare, the need for clinicians and other experts to work with AI experts in a multidisciplinary context and the need to address public concerns over data collection, privacy, and protection. Having a dedicated team with expertise in medical data collection, privacy, access and sharing, using federated learning whereby AI scientists hand over training algorithms to the healthcare institutions to train models locally, and taking full advantage of biomedical data stored in biobanks can alleviate some of problems posed by these challenges. Addressing these challenges will ultimately accelerate the translation of AI research into practical and useful solutions for combating pandemics.

7.
Eur Heart J ; 42(15): 1453-1455, 2021 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240889
8.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 33(4): 1133-1144, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120008

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disproportionately affects older people. Observational studies suggest indolent cardiovascular involvement after recovery from acute COVID-19. However, these findings may reflect pre-existing cardiac phenotypes. AIMS: We tested the association of baseline cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) phenotypes with incident COVID-19. METHODS: We studied UK Biobank participants with CMR imaging and COVID-19 testing. We considered left and right ventricular (LV, RV) volumes, ejection fractions, and stroke volumes, LV mass, LV strain, native T1, aortic distensibility, and arterial stiffness index. COVID-19 test results were obtained from Public Health England. Co-morbidities were ascertained from self-report and hospital episode statistics (HES). Critical care admission and death were from HES and death register records. We investigated the association of each cardiovascular measure with COVID-19 test result in multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, deprivation, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, and prior myocardial infarction. RESULTS: We studied 310 participants (n = 70 positive). Median age was 63.8 [57.5, 72.1] years; 51.0% (n = 158) were male. 78.7% (n = 244) were tested in hospital, 3.5% (n = 11) required critical care admission, and 6.1% (n = 19) died. In fully adjusted models, smaller LV/RV end-diastolic volumes, smaller LV stroke volume, and poorer global longitudinal strain were associated with significantly higher odds of COVID-19 positivity. DISCUSSION: We demonstrate association of pre-existing adverse CMR phenotypes with greater odds of COVID-19 positivity independent of classical cardiovascular risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Observational reports of cardiovascular involvement after COVID-19 may, at least partly, reflect pre-existing cardiac status rather than COVID-19 induced alterations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biological Specimen Banks , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Male , Phenotype , Predictive Value of Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Ventricular Function, Left
9.
Wellcome Open Res ; 5: 179, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068028

ABSTRACT

Background: Most biomedical research has focused on sampling COVID-19 patients presenting to hospital with advanced disease, with less focus on the asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic. We established a bioresource with serial sampling of health care workers (HCWs) designed to obtain samples before and during mainly mild disease, with follow-up sampling to evaluate the quality and duration of immune memory. Methods: We conducted a prospective study on HCWs from three hospital sites in London, initially at a single centre (recruited just prior to first peak community transmission in London), but then extended to multiple sites 3 weeks later (recruitment still ongoing, target n=1,000). Asymptomatic participants attending work complete a health questionnaire, and provide a nasal swab (for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by RT-PCR tests) and blood samples (mononuclear cells, serum, plasma, RNA and DNA are biobanked) at 16 weekly study visits, and at 6 and 12 months. Results: Preliminary baseline results for the first 731 HCWs (400 single-centre, 331 multicentre extension) are presented. Mean age was 38±11 years; 67% are female, 31% nurses, 20% doctors, and 19% work in intensive care units. COVID-19-associated risk factors were: 37% black, Asian or minority ethnicities; 18% smokers; 13% obesity; 11% asthma; 7% hypertension and 2% diabetes mellitus. At baseline, 41% reported symptoms in the preceding 2 weeks. Preliminary test results from the initial cohort (n=400) are available: PCR at baseline for SARS-CoV-2 was positive in 28 of 396 (7.1%, 95% CI 4.9-10.0%) and 15 of 385 (3.9%, 2.4-6.3%) had circulating IgG antibodies. Conclusions: This COVID-19 bioresource established just before the peak of infections in the UK will provide longitudinal assessments of incident infection and immune responses in HCWs through the natural time course of disease and convalescence. The samples and data from this bioresource are available to academic collaborators by application  https://covid-consortium.com/application-for-samples/.

10.
Front Genet ; 11: 586308, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-954887

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional observational studies have reported obesity and cardiometabolic co-morbidities as important predictors of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalization. The causal impact of these risk factors is unknown at present. METHODS: We conducted multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the observational associations between obesity traits (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC]), quantitative cardiometabolic parameters (systolic blood pressure [SBP], serum glucose, serum glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c], low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol and triglycerides [TG]) and SARS-CoV-2 positivity in the UK Biobank cohort. One-sample MR was performed by using the genetic risk scores of obesity and cardiometabolic traits constructed from independent datasets and the genotype and phenotype data from the UK Biobank. Two-sample MR was performed using the summary statistics from COVID-19 host genetics initiative. Cox proportional hazard models were fitted to assess the risk conferred by different genetic quintiles of causative exposure traits. RESULTS: The study comprised 1,211 European participants who were tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and 387,079 participants who were either untested or tested negative between 16 March 2020 to 31 May 2020. Observationally, higher BMI, WC, HbA1c and lower HDL-cholesterol were associated with higher odds of COVID-19 infection. One-sample MR analyses found causal associations between higher genetically determined BMI and LDL cholesterol and increased risk of COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR]: 1.15, confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-1.26 and OR: 1.58, CI: 1.21-2.06, per 1 standard deviation increment in BMI and LDL cholesterol respectively). Two-sample MR produced concordant results. Cox models indicated that individuals in the higher genetic risk score quintiles of BMI and LDL were more predisposed to COVID-19 (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.24, CI: 1.03-1.49 and HR: 1.37, CI: 1.14-1.65, for the top vs the bottom quintile for BMI and LDL cholesterol, respectively). CONCLUSION: We identified causal associations between BMI, LDL cholesterol and susceptibility to COVID-19. In particular, individuals in higher genetic risk categories were predisposed to SARS-CoV-2 infection. These findings support the integration of BMI into the risk assessment of COVID-19 and allude to a potential role of lipid modification in the prevention and treatment.

11.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 7: 156, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-810002

ABSTRACT

Large population studies such as the UK Biobank provide great opportunities for understanding the pathophysiology, health impact and prognostic factors associated with COVID-19, a condition that has had significant impact on almost everyone around the world. We highlight the vast opportunities, challenges and limitations for research and collaboration from the UK Biobank and other large population studies in helping us better understand and manage both current and potential future pandemics.

12.
ProQuest Central; 2020.
Preprint in English | ProQuest Central | ID: ppcovidwho-2091

ABSTRACT

Background: Most biomedical research has focused on sampling COVID-19 patients presenting to hospital with advanced disease, with less focus on the asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic. We established a bioresource with serial sampling of health care workers (HCWs) designed to obtain samples before and during mainly mild disease, with follow-usampling to evaluate the quality and duration of immune memory. Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study on HCWs from three hospital sites in London, initially at a single centre (recruited just prior to first peak community transmission in London), but then extended to multiple sites 3 weeks later (recruitment still ongoing, target n=1,000). Asymptomatic participants attending work complete a health questionnaire, and provide a nasal swa(for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by RT-PCR tests) and blood samples (mononuclear cells, serum, plasma, RNA and DNA are biobanked) at 16 weekly study visits, and at 6 and 12 months. Results: Preliminary baseline results for the first 731 HCWs (400 single-centre, 331 multicentre extension) are presented. Mean age was 38±11 years;67% are female, 31% nurses, 20% doctors, and 19% work in intensive care units. COVID-19-associated risk factors were: 37% black, Asian or minority ethnicities;18% smokers;13% obesity;11% asthma;7% hypertension and 2% diabetes mellitus. At baseline, 41% reported symptoms in the preceding 2 weeks. Preliminary test results from the initial cohort (n=400) are available: PCR at baseline for SARS-CoV-2 was positive in 28 of 396 (7.1%, 95% C4.9-10.0%) and 15 of 385 (3.9%, 2.4-6.3%) had circulating IgG antibodies. Conclusions: This COVID-19 bioresource established just before the peak of infections in the UK will provide longitudinal assessments of incident infection and immune responses in HCWs through the natural time course of disease and convalescence. The samples and data from this bioresource are available to academic collaborators by application https://covid-consortium.com/application-for-samples/.

13.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 7: 138, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696527

ABSTRACT

Background: Cardiometabolic morbidity and medications, specifically Angiotensin Converting Enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs), have been linked with adverse outcomes from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aims to investigate, factors associated with COVID-19 positivity in hospital for 1,436 UK Biobank participants; compared with individuals who tested negative, and with the untested, presumed negative, rest of the cohort. Methods: We studied 7,099 participants from the UK Biobank who had been tested for COVID-19 in hospital. We considered the following exposures: age, sex, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, ACEi/ARB use, prior myocardial infarction (MI), and smoking. We undertook comparisons between (1) COVID-19 positive and COVID-19 negative tested participants; and (2) COVID-19 tested positive and the remaining participants (tested negative plus untested, n = 494,838). Logistic regression models were used to investigate univariate and mutually adjusted associations. Results: Among participants tested for COVID-19, Black, Asian, and Minority ethnic (BAME) ethnicity, male sex, and higher BMI were independently associated with a positive result. BAME ethnicity, male sex, greater BMI, diabetes, hypertension, and smoking were independently associated with COVID-19 positivity compared to the remaining cohort (test negatives plus untested). However, similar associations were observed when comparing those who tested negative for COVID-19 with the untested cohort; suggesting that these factors associate with general hospitalization rather than specifically with COVID-19. Conclusions: Among participants tested for COVID-19 with presumed moderate to severe symptoms in a hospital setting, BAME ethnicity, male sex, and higher BMI are associated with a positive result. Other cardiometabolic morbidities confer increased risk of hospitalization, without specificity for COVID-19. ACE/ARB use did not associate with COVID-19 status.

14.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 42(3): 451-460, 2020 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-603649

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We examined whether the greater severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) amongst men and Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) individuals is explained by cardiometabolic, socio-economic or behavioural factors. METHODS: We studied 4510 UK Biobank participants tested for COVID-19 (positive, n = 1326). Multivariate logistic regression models including age, sex and ethnicity were used to test whether addition of (1) cardiometabolic factors [diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, prior myocardial infarction, smoking and body mass index (BMI)]; (2) 25(OH)-vitamin D; (3) poor diet; (4) Townsend deprivation score; (5) housing (home type, overcrowding) or (6) behavioural factors (sociability, risk taking) attenuated sex/ethnicity associations with COVID-19 status. RESULTS: There was over-representation of men and BAME ethnicities in the COVID-19 positive group. BAME individuals had, on average, poorer cardiometabolic profile, lower 25(OH)-vitamin D, greater material deprivation, and were more likely to live in larger households and in flats/apartments. Male sex, BAME ethnicity, higher BMI, higher Townsend deprivation score and household overcrowding were independently associated with significantly greater odds of COVID-19. The pattern of association was consistent for men and women; cardiometabolic, socio-demographic and behavioural factors did not attenuate sex/ethnicity associations. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, sex and ethnicity differential pattern of COVID-19 was not adequately explained by variations in cardiometabolic factors, 25(OH)-vitamin D levels or socio-economic factors. Factors which underlie ethnic differences in COVID-19 may not be easily captured, and so investigation of alternative biological and genetic susceptibilities as well as more comprehensive assessment of the complex economic, social and behavioural differences should be prioritised.


Subject(s)
African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , /statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Body Mass Index , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Metabolic Diseases/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , United Kingdom/epidemiology
15.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 21(7): 709-714, 2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-232515

ABSTRACT

Recent EACVI recommendations described the importance of limiting cardiovascular imaging during the COVID-19 pandemic in order to reduce virus transmission, protect healthcare professionals from contamination, and reduce consumption of personal protective equipment. However, an elevated troponin remains a frequent request for cardiac imaging in COVID-19 patients, partly because it signifies cardiac injury due to a variety of causes and partly because it is known to convey a worse prognosis. The present paper aims to provide guidance to clinicians regarding the appropriateness of cardiac imaging in the context of troponin elevation and myocardial injury, how best to decipher the mechanism of myocardial injury, and how to guide patient management.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Imaging Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Troponin I/blood , Biomarkers , COVID-19 , Cardiac Imaging Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Management , Echocardiography, Doppler/methods , Echocardiography, Doppler/statistics & numerical data , Electrocardiography/methods , Electrocardiography/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Role
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