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Diabetes Care ; 44(12): 2708-2713, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456244


OBJECTIVE: To identify preinfection risk factors for adverse outcomes among veterans with diabetes and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We identified all Veterans Health Administration patients with diabetes and one or more positive nasal swab(s) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (1 March 2020-10 March 2021) (n = 64,892). We examined associations of HbA1c and glucose-lowering medication use with hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and mortality at 30 days using logistic regression models and during 4.4 months of follow-up (range <1-13.1) using proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Compared with HbA1c <7.0%, HbA1c ≥9.0% was associated with higher odds of hospitalization, ICU admission, and death at 30 days (odds ratio [OR] 1.27 [95% CI 1.19-1.35], 1.28 [95% CI 1.15-1.42], 1.30 [95% CI 1.17-1.44], respectively) as well as higher risk of death over 4.4 months (hazard ratio [HR] 1.22 [95% CI 1.12-1.32]). Insulin use was associated with higher odds of hospitalization, ICU admission, and death (OR 1.12 [95% CI 1.07-1.18], 1.12 [95% CI 1.04-1.22], and 1.18 [95% CI 1.09-1.27], respectively) and higher risk of death (HR 1.12 [95% CI 1.07-1.18]). Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i), glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP1-RA), or angiotensin receptor blocker use were associated with lower odds of hospitalization (OR 0.92 [95% CI 0.85-0.99], 0.88 [95% CI 0.81-0.96], and 0.94 [95% CI 0.89-0.99], respectively). Metformin and SGLT2i use were associated with lower odds (OR 0.84 [95% CI 0.78-0.91], 0.82 [95% CI 0.72-0.94], respectively) and risk of death (HR 0.84 [95% CI 0.79-0.89], 0.82 [95% CI 0.74-0.92], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Among veterans with diabetes and COVID-19, higher HbA1c and insulin use were directly associated with adverse outcomes, while use of a GLP1-RA, metformin, and SGLT2i was inversely associated.

J Infect Dis ; 224(6): 967-975, 2021 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429245


BACKGROUND: Early convalescent plasma transfusion may reduce mortality in patients with nonsevere coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This study emulates a (hypothetical) target trial using observational data from a cohort of US veterans admitted to a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) facility between 1 May and 17 November 2020 with nonsevere COVID-19. The intervention was convalescent plasma initiated within 2 days of eligibility. Thirty-day mortality was compared using cumulative incidence curves, risk differences, and hazard ratios estimated from pooled logistic models with inverse probability weighting to adjust for confounding. RESULTS: Of 11 269 eligible person-trials contributed by 4755 patients, 402 trials were assigned to the convalescent plasma group. Forty and 671 deaths occurred within the plasma and nonplasma groups, respectively. The estimated 30-day mortality risk was 6.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.0%-9.7%) in the plasma group and 6.2% (95% CI, 5.6%-7.0%) in the nonplasma group. The associated risk difference was 0.30% (95% CI, -2.30% to 3.60%) and the hazard ratio was 1.04 (95% CI, .64-1.62). CONCLUSIONS: Our target trial emulation estimated no meaningful differences in 30-day mortality between nonsevere COVID-19 patients treated and untreated with convalescent plasma. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT04545047.

Blood Component Transfusion , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Immunization, Passive , Plasma , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology , Veterans , Young Adult
BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care ; 9(1)2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261187


INTRODUCTION: Risk factors and mediators of associations of diabetes with COVID-19 outcomes are unclear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We identified all veterans receiving Department of Veterans Affairs healthcare with ≥1 positive nasal swab for SARS-CoV-2 (28 February-31 July 2020; n=35 879). We assessed associations of diabetes (with and without insulin use) with hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, or death at 30 days, and with hazard of death until the censoring date. Among participants with diabetes (n=13 863), we examined associations of hemoglobin A1c and antihyperglycemic medication use with COVID-19 outcomes. We estimated mediation between diabetes and outcomes by comorbidities (cardiovascular disease, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease), statin or ACE inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) use, and cardiac biomarkers (brain natriuretic peptide and troponin). RESULTS: Diabetes with and without insulin use was associated with greater odds of hospitalization, ICU admission, and death at 30 days, and with greater hazard of death compared with no diabetes (OR 1.73, 1.76 and 1.63, and HR 1.61; and OR 1.39, 1.49 and 1.33, and HR 1.37, respectively, all p<0.0001). Prior sulfonylurea use was associated with greater odds of hospitalization and prior insulin use with hospitalization and death among patients with diabetes; among all participants, statin use was associated with lower mortality and ARB use with lower odds of hospitalization. Cardiovascular disease-related factors mediated <20% of associations between diabetes and outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes is independently associated with adverse outcomes from COVID-19. Associations are only partially mediated by common comorbidities.

COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Veterans , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2