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1.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 63: 103909, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many risk factors for the development of severe forms of Covid-19 have been identified, some applying to the general population and others specific to Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients. However, a score for quantifying the individual risk of severe Covid-19 in patients with MS is not available. The aim of this study was to construct such score and to evaluate its performance. METHODS: Data on patients with MS infected with Covid-19 in Italy, Turkey and South America were extracted from the Musc-19 platform. After imputation of missing values, data were separated into training data set (70%) and validation data set (30%). Univariable logistic regression models were performed in the training dataset to identify the main risk factors to be included in the multivariable logistic regression analyses. To select the most relevant variables we applied three different approaches: (1) multivariable stepwise, (2) Lasso regression, (3) Bayesian model averaging. Three scores were defined as the linear combination of the coefficients estimated in the models multiplied by the corresponding value of the variables and higher scores were associated to higher risk of severe Covid-19 course. The performances of the three scores were compared in the validation dataset based on the area under the ROC curve (AUC) and an optimal cut-off was calculated in the training dataset for the score with the best performance. The probability of showing a severe Covid-19 course was calculated based on the score with the best performance. RESULTS: 3852 patients were included in the study (2696 in the training dataset and 1156 in the validation data set). 17% of the patients required hospitalization and risk factors for severe Covid-19 course were older age, male sex, living in Turkey or South America instead of living in Italy, presence of comorbidities, progressive MS, longer disease duration, higher Expanded Disability Status Scale, Methylprednisolone use and anti-CD20 treatment. The score with the best performance was the one derived using the Lasso selection approach (AUC= 0.72) and it was built with the following variables: age, sex, country, BMI, presence of comorbidities, EDSS, methylprednisolone use, treatment. An excel spreadsheet to calculate the score and the probability of severe Covid-19 is available at the following link: https://osf.io/ac47u/?view_only=691814d57b564a34b3596e4fcdcf8580. CONCLUSIONS: The originality of this study consists in building a useful tool to quantify the individual risk for Covid-19 severity based on patient's characteristics. Due to the modest predictive ability and to the need of external validation, this tool is not ready for being fully used in clinical practice to make important decisions or interventions. However, it can be used as an additional instrument to identify high-risk patients and persuade them to take important measures to prevent Covid-19 infection (i.e. getting vaccinated against Covid-19, adhering to social distancing, and using of personal protection equipment).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Methylprednisolone , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Personal Protective Equipment
2.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 9(2)2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643219

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Several studies have assessed risk factors associated with the severity of COVID-19 outcomes in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). The potential role of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) and demographic and clinical factors on the risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection has not been evaluated so far. The objective of this study was to assess risk factors of contracting SARS-CoV-2 infection in PwMS by using data collected in the Italian MS Register (IMSR). METHODS: A case-control (1:2) study was set up. Cases included PwMS with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19, and controls included PwMS without a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. Both groups were propensity score-matched by the date of COVID-19 diagnosis, the date of last visit, and the region of residence. No healthy controls were included in this study. COVID-19 risk was estimated by multivariable logistic regression models including demographic and clinical covariates. The impact of DMTs was assessed in 3 independent logistic regression models including one of the following covariates: last administered DMT, previous DMT sequences, or the place where the last treatment was administered. RESULTS: A total of 779 PwMS with confirmed COVID-19 (cases) were matched to 1,558 PwMS without COVID-19 (controls). In all 3 models, comorbidities, female sex, and a younger age were significantly associated (p < 0.02) with a higher risk of contracting COVID-19. Patients receiving natalizumab as last DMT (OR [95% CI]: 2.38 [1.66-3.42], p < 0.0001) and those who underwent an escalation treatment strategy (1.57 [1.16-2.13], p = 0.003) were at significantly higher COVID-19 risk. Moreover, PwMS receiving their last DMT requiring hospital access (1.65 [1.34-2.04], p < 0.0001) showed a significant higher risk than those taking self-administered DMTs at home. DISCUSSION: This case-control study embedded in the IMSR showed that PwMS at higher COVID-19 risk are younger, more frequently female individuals, and with comorbidities. Long-lasting escalation approach and last therapies that expose patients to the hospital environment seem to significantly increase the risk of SARS-CoV2 infection in PwMS. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class III evidence that among patients with MS, younger age, being female individuals, having more comorbidities, receiving natalizumab, undergoing an escalating treatment strategy, or receiving treatment at a hospital were associated with being infected with COVID-19. Among patients with MS who were infected with COVID-19, a severe course was associated with increasing age and having a progressive form of MS, whereas not being on treatment or receiving an interferon beta agent was protective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Case-Control Studies , Dimethyl Fumarate/therapeutic use , Female , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Glatiramer Acetate/therapeutic use , Humans , Interferon-beta/therapeutic use , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis, Chronic Progressive/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis, Chronic Progressive/epidemiology , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/epidemiology , Natalizumab/therapeutic use , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Time Factors
3.
J Clin Psychol Med Settings ; 2022 Jan 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1640922

ABSTRACT

The current study aimed at exploring the relationship between objective disability, illness perceptions, resilience, fear of COVID-19, and psychological distress (i.e., anxiety, depression, and stress) in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) during the second wave of the COVID-19 outbreak. A group of 122 pwMS recruited in an Italian university hospital took part in this cross-sectional monocentric study. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were performed to assess the strength of the hypothesized associations. Results indicated that, differently from cognitive impairment, motor disability was positively associated with anxiety. However, accounting for subjective illness perception, such association was no longer significant. Moreover, accounting for both protective and risk factors in the models, even illness perception was no longer significant, highlighting the central role of resilience and fear of COVID-19 in explaining the negative emotional outcomes. Implications for clinical interventions and psychoeducational trainings are discussed.

4.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3375-3383, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604393

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In multiple sclerosis (MS), disease-related factors and dysfunctional coping might favor the development of mental distress induced by COVID-19 containment measures. Aim of this study was exploring the relationship between disability, coping strategies, daily life reorganization and neuropsychiatric symptoms in an Italian MS population during the COVID-19 lockdown, in order to identify potentially modifiable factors that could inform clinical management of mental distress in people with MS. METHODS: We explored the relationship between mental distress, disability and coping strategies in the Italian MS population under lockdown. Structural equation modeling was applied to information collected via web survey to identify modifiable factors that could account for mental distress. RESULTS: A total of 845 participants (497 with MS and 348 controls) were included in the study. The MS group had higher scores than the control group for depression (p = 0.005), but not for anxiety, emotional dyscontrol or sleep disturbances. The structural equation modeling explained 74% of the variance observed in depression score. Within the model, three latent factors were characterized from measured variables: motor disability and cognitive dysfunction contributed to disability (ß = 0.509 and ß = 0.836; p < 0.001); positive attitude and exercise contributed to active attitude (ß = 0.386 and ß = 0.297; p < 0.001); and avoidance, social support and watching television contributed to passive attitude (ß = 0.301, ß = 0.243 and ß = 0.212; p < 0.001). With regard to the relationship between latent factors and their influence on depression, disability contributed to passive attitude (ß = 0.855; p < 0.001), while both passive and active attitude significantly influenced depression (ß = 0.729 and ß = -0.456; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: As a practical implication of our model, favoring exercise would enhance active attitude and its positive impact on mental well-being while, at the same time, reducing the negative impact of disability on depression, representing a valuable tool in facing COVID-19-related mental distress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , Motor Disorders , Multiple Sclerosis , Anxiety , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
J Clin Med ; 10(6)2021 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136516

ABSTRACT

Physical disability impacts psychosocial wellbeing in people with multiple sclerosis. However, the role of physical activity in this context is still debated. By taking advantage of a previous survey, conducted online from 22 April to 7 May 2020, we performed a post-hoc analysis with the aim to assess the associations between disability, physical exercise, and mental health in multiple sclerosis. We retrieved the following data: (i) sociodemographic information, (ii) changes in lifestyle (including exercise), (iii) physical disability, as measured with the Patient-Determined Disease Steps scale, and (iv) anxiety feelings and depressive symptoms assessed via the items included in the Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders measurement system. Examination of the interaction plot showed that the effect of disability on depression, but not on anxious symptoms, was significant for all levels of physical exercise (low: b = 1.22, 95% C.I. 0.85, 1.58, p < 0.001; moderate: b = 0.95, 95% C.I. 0.66, 1.24, p < 0.001; and high: b = 0.68, 95% C.I. 0.24, 1.13, p = 0.003). Based on these data, we can conclude that disability significantly impacted depression during the COVID-19 pandemic, with physical activity playing a moderating role. Our results suggest that favoring exercise in multiple sclerosis (MS) would ameliorate psychological wellbeing regardless of the level of physical disability.

6.
J Clin Med ; 9(12)2020 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024590

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We compared the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM in multiple sclerosis (MS), low-risk, and high-risk populations and explored possible clinical correlates. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited MS patients, low-risk (university staff from non-clinical departments), and high-risk individuals (healthcare staff from COVID-19 wards) from 11 May to 15 June 2020. We used lateral flow immunoassay to detect SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM. We used t-test, Fisher's exact test, chi square test, or McNemar's test, as appropriate, to evaluate between-group differences. RESULTS: We recruited 310 MS patients (42.3 ± 12.4 years; females 67.1%), 862 low-risk individuals (42.9 ± 13.3 years; females 47.8%), and 235 high-risk individuals (39.4 ± 10.9 years; females 54.5%). The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM in MS patients (n = 9, 2.9%) was significantly lower than in the high-risk population (n = 25, 10.6%) (p < 0.001), and similar to the low-risk population (n = 11, 1.3%) (p = 0.057); these results were also confirmed after random matching by age and sex (1:1:1). No significant differences were found in demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory features. Among MS patients positive to SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM (n = 9), only two patients retrospectively reported mild and short-lasting COVID-19 symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: MS patients have similar risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection to the general population, and can be asymptomatic from COVID-19, also if using treatments with systemic immunosuppression.

7.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 45: 102452, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713197

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) in multiple sclerosis (MS) could affect COVID-19 outcomes by modulating the immune response, which, in turn, might favor viral replication and/or confer protection from COVID-19 induced inflammatory response CASE REPORT: We report on two MS patients treated with cladribine, with heterogeneous demographics and clinical features, who developed mild or no symptoms from COVID-19 and produced anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, notwithstanding low lymphocyte levels. IMPLICATIONS: Benign COVID-19 clinical course and anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody production can occur in MS patients with lymphopenia, suggesting the possibility to respond to COVID-19 vaccination, once available, in this vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
Cladribine/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/complications , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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