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Eur Policy Anal ; 8(3): 327-344, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1981346


The Swedish response to the pandemic at the national level has attracted considerable international attention, but little focus has been placed on the way municipalities dealt with the crisis. Using Hay's dimensions of politicization, namely the capacity for human agency, deliberation in the public domain, and social context, we analyze the politicization of the municipal response to the pandemic in Sweden. We do this based on the analysis of the decision making process to activate (or not) an extraordinary crisis management committee. We find inter alia, that (i) only a quarter of the municipalities activated the committee while a majority of them had an alternate special organization in place; (ii) support to the existing organizational structure was more salient than creating an extraordinary organization, and (iii) a robust municipal structure was deemed to be one able to withstand shocks without resorting to extraordinary governance arrangements. We find a 'conditioned politicization' of the response, privileging administration over politics.

La respuesta sueca a la pandemia a nivel nacional ha atraído una atención internacional considerable, pero se ha prestado poca atención a la forma en que los municipios abordaron la crisis. Usando las dimensiones de politización de Hay, a saber, la capacidad de agencia humana, la deliberación en el dominio público. y contexto social, analizamos la politización de la respuesta municipal a la pandemia a nivel municipal en Suecia a través de la elección de activar un comité extraordinario de gestión de crisis. Encontramos, entre otras cosas, que (i) solo una cuarta parte de los municipios activaron el comité mientras que la mayoría de ellos tenían una organización especial alterna; (ii) el apoyo a la estructura organizativa existente era más importante que la creación de una organización extraordinaria, y (iii) se consideraba que una estructura municipal robusta era capaz de soportar los impactos sin recurrir a arreglos de gobernanza extraordinarios. Encontramos una "politización condicionada" de la respuesta, privilegiando la administración sobre la política.

Eur Policy Anal ; 8(3): 345-359, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955902


In this article, we statistically examine the effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) implemented by the national governments of Greece and Cyprus during 2020 to (a) limit the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, and (b) mitigate the economic fallout brought about by the Covid-19 pandemic. Applying a modified health belief model, we hypothesize that behavioral outcomes at the policy level are a function of NPIs, perceived severity, and social context. We employ a Prais-Winsten estimation in 2-week averages and report panel-corrected standard errors to find that NPIs have clear, yet differential, effects on public health and the economy in terms of statistical significance and time lags. The study provides a critical framework to inform future interventions during emerging pandemics.

En este artículo, examinamos estadísticamente la efectividad de las intervenciones no farmacéuticas (NPI) implementadas por los gobiernos nacionales de Grecia y Chipre durante 2020 para (a) limitar la propagación del virus SARS­CoV­2 y (b) mitigar las consecuencias económicas provocadas por la pandemia de Covid­19. Al aplicar un modelo de creencias de salud modificado, planteamos la hipótesis de que los resultados de comportamiento a nivel de política son una función de las NPI, la gravedad percibida y el contexto social. Empleamos una estimación de Prais­Winsten en promedios de dos semanas e informamos los errores estándar corregidos del panel para encontrar que las NPI tienen efectos claros, aunque diferenciales, en la salud pública y la economía en términos de importancia estadística y retrasos. El estudio proporciona un marco crítico para informar futuras intervenciones durante las pandemias emergentes.

Infection ; 50(1): 251-256, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384717


The aim of the study was to access the SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroprevalence in healthcare workers (HCWs) of a tertiary pediatric hospital after the first wave of the pandemic and to compare the results among seven commercially available antibody detection assays, including chemiluminescence (CMIA), electroluminescence (ECLIA), Εnzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), and rapid immunochromatography (RIC). SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection was performed in serum samples of 1216 HCWs, using a reference CMIA assay and 8/1216 (0.66%) were detected positive. Positive serum samples were further tested with other assays; however, only one sample was positive by all tests. The rest 7 cases were negative with ECLIA and ELISA and gave discordant results with RIC test. Six months later, new serum samples of seropositive HCWs were analyzed with the same 7 tests, with inconsistent results again. Identification of reliable SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests is important to determine the actual number of past infections, the duration of antibodies, and guide public health decisions.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Child , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , Seroepidemiologic Studies
Risk Hazards Crisis Public Policy ; 12(3): 328-345, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263123


How does calculated inaction affect subsequent responses to the COVID-19 crisis? We argue that when governments employ calculated inaction during crises, they are more likely to manipulate the technical (scientific) aspects of national responses and highlight symbolic politics, each in the name of projecting power and strengthening the regime's governing authority. Using theoretical insight from McConnell and 't Hart's policy inaction typology, we investigate sense-making and crisis response narratives in China and Greece. We conclude with implications for policymaking and the crisis management literature.

¿Cómo afecta la inacción calculada las respuestas posteriores a la crisis del COVID­19? Argumentamos que cuando los gobiernos emplean una inacción calculada durante las crisis, es más probable que manipulen los aspectos técnicos (científicos) de las respuestas nacionales y resalten la política simbólica, cada una en nombre de proyectar poder y fortalecer la autoridad gobernante del régimen. Utilizando los conocimientos teóricos de McConnell y la tipología de inacción política de 't Hart, investigamos las narrativas de respuesta a crisis y de toma de sentido en China y Grecia. Concluimos con las implicaciones para la formulación de políticas y la literatura sobre gestión de crisis.

Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management ; n/a(n/a), 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1003908


Abstract In this article, we investigate the leadership response to the COVID-19 pandemic crisis in Greece and Sweden based on the strategic leadership framework put forth by Boin, 't Hart, Stern and Sundelius. We seek to understand the contextual (institutional, administrative and political) factors explaining the differences in stringency of measures and centralization of response in Greece and Sweden, respectively. What trade-offs did public leaders implement between effectiveness and efficiency to successfully manage the crisis? We find that reliance on expertise plays out differently in centralized and decentralized structure, while a salient lesson drawn for practitioners is that there is more than one path to successful crisis leadership response contingent on institutional capacity, bureaucratic autonomy and political system. The article concludes with implications for leadership response during crises and practical lessons for crisis managers.

European Policy Analysis ; n/a(n/a), 2020.
Article | Wiley | ID: covidwho-754851


Abstract Using a framework developed by Hood and adapting it to crises, we explore the factors behind the use of three types of political accountability strategies? presentational, policy, and agency?during responses to the COVID-19 crisis in Greece and Turkey. We situate the comparison in the current political context and conclude with implications for political survival as leaders attempt to balance public accountability, political expediency, and national health.

Eur. Policy Anal. ; 2020.
Article | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-754850


Using ‘t Hart's (2014) typology of crises, we explore the Republic of Cyprus's initial response to the COVID-19 crisis and contend Cypriot leaders indirectly drew lessons from the Chinese experience to prevent a situational crisis from metastasizing into a much broader institutional crisis. The lessons Cyprus drew from China to secure this outcome reinforced the critical nature of transparency and timeliness in sharing epidemiological information, swift intervention efforts to minimize virus transmission, and privileging expert involvement in shaping the response plan. We conclude with implications for public leadership and lesson-drawing under crisis.