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1.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 9(Supplement 2):S442, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2189703

ABSTRACT

Background. The biological determinants of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC), defined as the persistence or recurrence of symptoms not explained by an alternative medical diagnosis, are poorly understood. We assessed viral and immunological determinants during acute SARS-CoV-2 infection for an association with PASC at 4 to 8 months. Methods. From September 2020 to February 2022, symptomatic nonhospitalized individuals with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified within 5 days of symptom onset. We used anterior nasal biospecimens to measure the magnitude and duration of RNA and infectious viral shedding as well as blood samples to measure soluble markers of inflammation during the acute phase (first 28 days post-enrollment). PASC was defined as self-report of 1 or more COVID-19 attributed symptoms between 4 and 8 months after initial illness. We compared virologic and inflammatory markers, GFAP (a marker of neuronal damage) and neutralizing antibody levels from the acute phase between those with and without PASC using Mann-Whitney U tests or repeated measures mixed effects linear models. Results. Among 71 SARS-CoV-2-positive participants with a completed follow-up visit between 4 to 8 months, we included 69 with virologic data and 61 with inflammatory marker data. Median age was 37 (IQR: 29 to 48) Overall, 16/72 (23%) reported at least one qualifying PASC symptom. Report of PASC was associated with >9 days of RNA shedding (p=0.04);all participants stopped RNA shedding by day 20. During acute illness, those with subsequent PASC had increased levels of INF-alpha, INF-gamma, IP-10, IL-10, and MCP-1;these differences were greatest in the early period and normalized over 2 to 3 weeks post-illness onset. Compared to those without PASC, during the acute illness those with PASC had increased levels of GFAP and decreased levels of neutralizing antibodies but these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion. We found indications that viral and immunological factors during acute illness may be associated with PASC, suggesting acute immunologic response to SARS-CoV-2 may have longer term effects and play a role in PASC. Further understanding of the clinically significance of these observations is needed.

2.
Nat Commun ; 14(1):331, 2023.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2185838

ABSTRACT

In the PREVENT-19 phase 3 trial of the NVX-CoV2373 vaccine (NCT04611802), anti-spike binding IgG concentration (spike IgG), anti-RBD binding IgG concentration (RBD IgG), and pseudovirus 50% neutralizing antibody titer (nAb ID50) measured two weeks post-dose two are assessed as correlates of risk and as correlates of protection against COVID-19. Analyses are conducted in the U.S. cohort of baseline SARS-CoV-2 negative per-protocol participants using a case-cohort design that measures the markers from all 12 vaccine recipient breakthrough COVID-19 cases starting 7 days post antibody measurement and from 639 vaccine recipient non-cases. All markers are inversely associated with COVID-19 risk and directly associated with vaccine efficacy. In vaccine recipients with nAb ID50 titers of 50, 100, and 7230 international units (IU50)/ml, vaccine efficacy estimates are 75.7% (49.8%, 93.2%), 81.7% (66.3%, 93.2%), and 96.8% (88.3%, 99.3%). The results support potential cross-vaccine platform applications of these markers for guiding decisions about vaccine approval and use.

4.
Journal of Clinical Investigation ; 01:01, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2138387

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The presence and reactivation of chronic viral infections such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been proposed as potential contributors to Long COVID (LC), but studies in well-characterized post-acute cohorts of individuals with COVID-19 over a longer time course consistent with current case definitions of LC are limited.

5.
Neurology ; 98(18 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925472

ABSTRACT

Objective: To examine the temporal trends of humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients on different immunomodulatory therapies. Background: The impact of various MS medications on the immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccine is of acute interest to patients and clinicians. Design/Methods: 22 MS patients treated with ocrelizumab (OCR, n=9), natalizumab (NTZ, n=8), fumarates (FUM, n=5;diroximel fumarate, 3 and dimethyl fumarate, 2) received BNT162b2 (Pfizer, n=15) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna, n=7) vaccines. Blood samples were collected before and after each of the two vaccine doses, and 2 months after second vaccine dose. AntiSARS-CoV-2 spike protein titers were measured using quantitative assay (Labcorp). Antibody neutralization was measured with a lentivirus-based pseudovirus particle expressing the D614 spike protein (Labcorp-Monogram Biosciences). T-cell reactivity was determined by measuring interferon-gamma and interleukin-2 in response to stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 peptides. Results: All patients in NTZ and FUM cohorts, but only 22% (2/9) of OCR cohort developed anti-spike and neutralizing antibodies. The highest titers were measured after the second vaccine dose, without significant difference between the NTZ and FUM cohorts in anti-spike IgG (69.7+/-55.1 vs 56.0+/-36.7 arbitrary units/ml) or neutralizing ID50 (1513+/-1317 vs 942+/ -566). Two months after the second vaccine, the antibody titers and neutralizing ID50 decreased by 72% and 79% in NTZ cohort, respectively, and by 45% and 49% in FUM cohort. T-cell reactivity was observed in all cohorts as early as 7 days after the first vaccine, and further increased following the second vaccine. Conclusions: Patients on NTZ and FUM mounted robust antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines, in contrast to OCR-treated patients. T-cell responses were comparable among all three treatment cohorts. Two months after the second vaccine, the serological responses decreased by 45-79%. These findings may inform the optimal timing of additional vaccine doses for MS patients.

6.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):247-248, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880706

ABSTRACT

Background: The biologic mechanisms underlying neurologic post-acute-sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) are incompletely understood. We measured plasma markers of neuronal injury (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], neurofilament light chain [NfL]) and inflammation among a cohort of people with prior confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection at early and late recovery following the initial illness (defined as < and > 90 days since COVID-19 onset, respectively). We hypothesized that those experiencing persistent neurologic symptoms would have elevations in these markers. Methods: The primary clinical outcome was the presence of self-reported central nervous system (CNS) PASC symptoms during the late recovery timepoint. We compared fold-changes in marker values between those with and without CNS PASC symptoms using linear mixed effects models and examined relationships between neurologic and immunologic markers using rank linear correlations. Results: Of 121 individuals, 52 reported CNS PASC symptoms. During early recovery, those who went on to report CNS PASC symptoms had elevations in GFAP (1.3-fold higher mean ratio, 95% CI 1.04-1.63, p=0.02), but not NfL (1.06-fold higher mean ratio, 95% CI 0.89-1.26, p=0.54). During late recovery, neither GFAP nor NfL levels were elevated among those with CNS PASC symptoms. Although absolute levels of NfL did not differ, those who reported CNS PASC symptoms demonstrated a stronger downward trend over time in comparison to those who did not report CNS PASC symptoms (p=0.041). Those who went on to report CNS PASC also exhibited elevations in IL-6 (48% higher during early recovery and 38% higher during late recovery), MCP-1 (19% higher during early recovery), and TNF-alpha (19% higher during early recovery and 13% higher during late recovery). GFAP and NfL correlated with levels of several immune markers during early recovery (MCP-1, IL-6, TNF-a, IFN-g);these correlations were attenuated during late recovery. Conclusion: Self-reported neurologic symptoms present approximately four months following SARS-CoV-2 infection are associated with elevations in markers of neurologic injury and inflammation at early recovery timepoints, suggesting that early injury can result in long-term disease. The correlation of GFAP and NfL with markers of systemic immune activation suggests one possible mechanism that might contribute to these symptoms. Additional work will be needed to better characterize these processes and to identify interventions to prevent or treat this condition.

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