Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 15 de 15
Filter
1.
JCI Insight ; 7(10)2022 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861744

ABSTRACT

Shortness of breath, chest pain, and palpitations occur as postacute sequelae of COVID-19, but whether symptoms are associated with echocardiographic abnormalities, cardiac biomarkers, or markers of systemic inflammation remains unknown. In a cross-sectional analysis, we assessed symptoms, performed echocardiograms, and measured biomarkers among adults more than 8 weeks after confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. We modeled associations between symptoms and baseline characteristics, echocardiographic findings, and biomarkers using logistic regression. We enrolled 102 participants at a median of 7.2 months following COVID-19 onset; 47 individuals reported dyspnea, chest pain, or palpitations. Median age was 52 years, and 41% of participants were women. Female sex, hospitalization, IgG antibody against SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain, and C-reactive protein were associated with symptoms. Regarding echocardiographic findings, 4 of 47 participants (9%) with symptoms had pericardial effusions compared with 0 of 55 participants without symptoms; those with effusions had a median of 4 symptoms compared with a median of 1 symptom in those without effusions. There was no strong evidence for a relationship between symptoms and echocardiographic functional parameters or other biomarkers. Among adults more than 8 weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection, SARS-CoV-2 RBD antibodies, markers of inflammation, and, possibly, pericardial effusions are associated with cardiopulmonary symptoms. Investigation into inflammation as a mechanism underlying postacute sequelae of COVID-19 is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pericardial Effusion , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Chest Pain/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Echocardiography , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332871

ABSTRACT

Long COVID, a type of Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS CoV-2 infection (PASC), has been associated with sustained elevated levels of immune activation and inflammation. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms that drive this inflammation remain unknown. Inflammation during acute Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) could be exacerbated by microbial translocation (from the gut and/or lung) to the blood. Whether microbial translocation contributes to inflammation during PASC is unknown. We found higher levels of fungal translocation - measured as beta-glucan, a fungal cell wall polysaccharide - in the plasma of individuals experiencing PASC compared to those without PASC or SARS-CoV-2 negative controls. The higher beta-glucan correlated with higher levels of markers of inflammation and elevated levels of host metabolites involved in activating N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (such as metabolites within the tryptophan catabolism pathway) with established neuro-toxic properties. Mechanistically, beta-glucan can directly induce inflammation by binding to myeloid cells (via the Dectin-1 receptor) and activating Syk/NF-kB signaling. Using an in vitro Dectin-1/NF-kB reporter model, we found that plasma from individuals experiencing PASC induced higher NF-kB signaling compared to plasma from SARS-CoV-2 negative controls. This higher NF-kB signaling was abrogated by the Syk inhibitor Piceatannol. These data suggest a potential targetable mechanism linking fungal translocation and inflammation during PASC.

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332856

ABSTRACT

Anti-spike IgG binding antibody, anti-receptor binding domain IgG antibody, and pseudovirus neutralizing antibody measurements four weeks post-vaccination were assessed as correlates of risk of moderate to severe-critical COVID-19 outcomes through 83 days post-vaccination and as correlates of protection following a single dose of Ad26.COV2.S COVID-19 vaccine in the placebo-controlled phase of ENSEMBLE, an international, randomized efficacy trial. Each marker had evidence as a correlate of risk and of protection, with strongest evidence for 50% inhibitory dilution (ID50) neutralizing antibody titer. The outcome hazard ratio was 0.49 (95% confidence interval 0.29, 0.81;p=0.006) per 10-fold increase in ID50;vaccine efficacy was 60% (43, 72%) at nonquantifiable ID50 (< 2.7 IU50/ml) and rose to 89% (78, 96%) at ID50 = 96.3 IU50/ml. Comparison of the vaccine efficacy by ID50 titer curves for ENSEMBLE-US, the COVE trial of the mRNA-1273 vaccine, and the COV002-UK trial of the AZD1222 vaccine supported consistency of the ID50 titer correlate of protection across trials and vaccine types.

4.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1251, 2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740439

ABSTRACT

The trajectories of acquired immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection are not fully understood. We present a detailed longitudinal cohort study of UK healthcare workers prior to vaccination, presenting April-June 2020 with asymptomatic or symptomatic infection. Here we show a highly variable range of responses, some of which (T cell interferon-gamma ELISpot, N-specific antibody) wane over time, while others (spike-specific antibody, B cell memory ELISpot) are stable. We use integrative analysis and a machine-learning approach (SIMON - Sequential Iterative Modeling OverNight) to explore this heterogeneity. We identify a subgroup of participants with higher antibody responses and interferon-gamma ELISpot T cell responses, and a robust trajectory for longer term immunity associates with higher levels of neutralising antibodies against the infecting (Victoria) strain and also against variants B.1.1.7 (alpha) and B.1.351 (beta). These variable trajectories following early priming may define subsequent protection from severe disease from novel variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Antiviral Agents , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
5.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327600

ABSTRACT

Background: Limited data are available on the long-term clinical and immunologic consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection in people with HIV (PWH). Methods: We measured SARS-CoV-2 specific humoral and cellular immune responses in people with and without HIV recovering from COVID-19 (n=39 and n=43, respectively) using binding antibody, surrogate virus neutralization, intracellular cytokine staining, and inflammatory marker assays. We identified individuals experiencing symptomatic post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) and evaluated immunologic parameters. We used linear regression and generalized linear models to examine differences by HIV status in the magnitude of inflammatory and virus-specific antibody and T cell responses, as well as differences in the prevalence of PASC. Results: Among PWH, we found broadly similar SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody and T cell immune responses as compared with a well-matched group of HIV-negative individuals. PWH had 70% lower relative levels of SARS-CoV-2 specific memory CD8+ T cells (p=0.007) and 53% higher relative levels of PD-1+ SARS-CoV-2 specific CD4+ T cells (p=0.007). Higher CD4/CD8 ratio was associated with lower PD-1 expression on SARS-CoV-2 specific CD8+ T cells (0.34-fold effect, p=0.02). HIV status was strongly associated with PASC (odds ratio 4.01, p=0.008), and the proportion of PD-1+ CD4+ T cells and levels of certain inflammatory markers (IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IP-10) were associated with persistent symptoms. Conclusions: We identified potentially important differences in SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that might have implications for long-term immunity conferred by natural infection. HIV status strongly predicted the presence of PASC. Larger and more detailed studies of PASC in PWH are urgently needed.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322827

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is normally controlled by effective host immunity including innate, humoral and cellular responses. However, the trajectories and correlates of acquired immunity, and the capacity of memory responses months after infection to neutralise variants of concern - which has important public health implications - is not fully understood. To address this, we studied a cohort of 78 UK healthcare workers who presented in April to June 2020 with symptomatic PCR-confirmed infection or who tested positive during an asymptomatic screening programme and tracked virus-specific B and T cell responses longitudinally at 5-6 time points each over 6 months, prior to vaccination. We observed a highly variable range of responses, some of which - T cell interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) ELISpot, N-specific antibody waned over time across the cohort, while others (spike-specific antibody, B cell memory ELISpot) were stable. In such cohorts, antiviral antibody has been linked to protection against re-infection. We used integrative analysis and a machine-learning approach (SIMON - Sequential Iterative Modeling Over Night) to explore this heterogeneity and to identify predictors of sustained immune responses. Hierarchical clustering defined a group of high and low antibody responders, which showed stability over time regardless of clinical presentation. These antibody responses correlated with IFN-γ ELISpot measures of T cell immunity and represent a subgroup of patients with a robust trajectory for longer term immunity. Importantly, this immune-phenotype associates with higher levels of neutralising antibodies not only against the infecting (Victoria) strain but also against variants B.1.1.7 (alpha) and B.1.351 (beta). Overall memory responses to SARS-CoV-2 show distinct trajectories following early priming, that may define subsequent protection against infection and severe disease from novel variants.

7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23921, 2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585804

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) are key biomarkers considered to be associated with vaccine efficacy. In United States government-sponsored phase 3 efficacy trials of COVID-19 vaccines, nAbs are measured by two different validated pseudovirus-based SARS-CoV-2 neutralization assays, with each trial using one of the two assays. Here we describe and compare the nAb titers obtained in the two assays. We observe that one assay consistently yielded higher nAb titers than the other when both assays were performed on the World Health Organization's anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin International Standard, COVID-19 convalescent sera, and mRNA-1273 vaccinee sera. To overcome the challenge this difference in readout poses in comparing/combining data from the two assays, we evaluate three calibration approaches and show that readouts from the two assays can be calibrated to a common scale. These results may aid decision-making based on data from these assays for the evaluation and licensure of new or adapted COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Neutralization Tests/standards , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , /immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , Clinical Decision-Making , Clinical Trials as Topic , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Humans , Neutralization Tests/methods , World Health Organization
9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293105

ABSTRACT

Previous vaccine efficacy (VE) studies have estimated neutralizing and binding antibody concentrations that correlate with protection from symptomatic infection;how these estimates compare to those generated in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is unclear. Here, we assessed quantitative neutralizing and binding antibody concentrations using standardized SARS-CoV-2 assays on 3,067 serum specimens collected during July 27, 2020-August 27, 2020 from COVID-19 unvaccinated persons with detectable anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using qualitative antibody assays. Quantitative neutralizing and binding antibody concentrations were strongly positively correlated (r=0.76, p<0.0001) and were noted to be several fold lower in the unvaccinated study population as compared to published data on concentrations noted 28 days post-vaccination. In this convenience sample, ~88% of neutralizing and ~63-86% of binding antibody concentrations met or exceeded concentrations associated with 70% COVID-19 VE against symptomatic infection from published VE studies;~30% of neutralizing and 1-14% of binding antibody concentrations met or exceeded concentrations associated with 90% COVID-19 VE. These data support observations of infection-induced immunity and current recommendations for vaccination post infection to maximize protection against symptomatic COVID-19.

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292908

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Shortness of breath, chest pain, and palpitations occur as post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC), but whether symptoms are associated with echocardiographic abnormalities, cardiac biomarkers, or markers of systemic inflammation remains unknown. METHODS In a cross-sectional analysis, we assessed symptoms, performed echocardiograms, and measured biomarkers among adults >8 weeks after PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. We modeled associations between symptoms and baseline characteristics, echocardiographic findings, and biomarkers using logistic regression. RESULTS We enrolled 102 participants at a median 7.2 months (IQR 4.1-9.1) following COVID-19 onset;47 individuals reported dyspnea, chest pain, or palpitations. Median age was 52 years (range 24-86) and 41% were women. Female sex (OR 2.55, 95%CI 1.13-5.74) and hospitalization during acute infection (OR 3.25, 95%CI 1.08-9.82) were associated with symptoms. IgG antibody to SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (OR 1.38 per doubling, 95%CI 1.38-1.84) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (OR 1.31 per doubling, 95%CI 1.00-1.71) were associated with symptoms. Regarding echocardiographic findings, 4/47 (9%) with symptoms had pericardial effusions compared to 0/55 without symptoms (p=0.038);those with pericardial effusions had a median 4 symptoms compared to 1 without (p<0.001). There was no strong evidence for a relationship between symptoms and echocardiographic functional parameters (including left ventricular ejection fraction and strain, right ventricular strain, pulmonary artery pressure) or high-sensitivity troponin, NT-pro-BNP, interleukin-10, interferon-gamma, or tumor necrosis factor-alpha. CONCLUSIONS Among adults in the post-acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection, SARS-CoV-2 RBD antibodies, markers of inflammation and, possibly, pericardial effusions are associated with cardiopulmonary symptoms. Investigation into inflammation as a mechanism underlying PASC is warranted.

11.
J Infect Dis ; 224(11): 1839-1848, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483458

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The biological processes associated with postacute sequelae of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (PASC) are unknown. METHODS: We measured soluble markers of inflammation in a SARS-CoV-2 recovery cohort at early (<90 days) and late (>90 days) timepoints. We defined PASC as the presence of 1 or more coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-attributed symptoms beyond 90 days. We compared fold-changes in marker values between those with and without PASC using mixed-effects models with terms for PASC and early and late recovery time periods. RESULTS: During early recovery, those who went on to develop PASC generally had higher levels of cytokine biomarkers including tumor necrosis factor-α (1.14-fold higher mean ratio [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.01-1.28]; P = .028) and interferon-γ-induced protein 10 (1.28-fold higher mean ratio [95% CI, 1.01-1.62]; P = .038). Among those with PASC, there was a trend toward higher interleukin 6 levels during early recovery (1.29-fold higher mean ratio [95% CI, .98-1.70]; P = .07), which became more pronounced in late recovery (1.44-fold higher mean ratio [95% CI, 1.11-1.86]; P < .001). These differences were more pronounced among those with a greater number of PASC symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent immune activation may be associated with ongoing symptoms following COVID-19. Further characterization of these processes might identify therapeutic targets for those experiencing PASC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammation , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Disease Progression , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/virology
12.
mSphere ; 6(4): e0027521, 2021 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371850

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has now caused over 2 million deaths worldwide and continues to expand. Currently, much is unknown about functionally neutralizing human antibody responses and durability to SARS-CoV-2 months after infection or the reason for the discrepancy in COVID-19 disease and sex. Using convalescent-phase sera collected from 101 COVID-19-recovered individuals 21 to 212 days after symptom onset with 48 additional longitudinal samples, we measured functionality and durability of serum antibodies. We also evaluated associations of individual demographic and clinical parameters with functional neutralizing antibody responses to COVID-19. We found robust antibody durability out to 6 months, as well as significant positive associations with the magnitude of the neutralizing antibody response and male sex and in individuals with cardiometabolic comorbidities. IMPORTANCE In this study, we found that neutralizing antibody responses in COVID-19-convalescent individuals vary in magnitude but are durable and correlate well with receptor binding domain (RBD) Ig binding antibody levels compared to other SARS-CoV-2 antigen responses. In our cohort, higher neutralizing antibody titers are independently and significantly associated with male sex compared to female sex. We also show for the first time that higher convalescent antibody titers in male donors are associated with increased age and symptom grade. Furthermore, cardiometabolic comorbidities are associated with higher antibody titers independently of sex. Here, we present an in-depth evaluation of serologic, demographic, and clinical correlates of functional antibody responses and durability to SARS-CoV-2 which supports the growing literature on sex discrepancies regarding COVID-19 disease morbidity and mortality, as well as functional neutralizing antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
13.
Cell Rep ; 36(6): 109518, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345269

ABSTRACT

We describe severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific T cell responses, soluble markers of inflammation, and antibody levels and neutralization capacity longitudinally in 70 individuals with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Participants represent a spectrum of illness and recovery, including some with persistent viral shedding in saliva and many experiencing post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC). T cell responses remain stable for up to 9 months. Whereas the magnitude of early CD4+ T cell immune responses correlates with severity of initial infection, pre-existing lung disease is independently associated with higher long-term SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cell responses. Among participants with PASC 4 months following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptom onset, we observe a lower frequency of CD8+ T cells expressing CD107a, a marker of degranulation, in response to Nucleocapsid (N) peptide pool stimulation, and a more rapid decline in the frequency of N-specific interferon-γ-producing CD8+ T cells. Neutralizing antibody levels strongly correlate with SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cell responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Virus Shedding/immunology
14.
Sci Adv ; 7(31)2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334521

ABSTRACT

Interpretation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) serosurveillance studies is limited by poorly defined performance of antibody assays over time in individuals with different clinical presentations. We measured antibody responses in plasma samples from 128 individuals over 160 days using 14 assays. We found a consistent and strong effect of disease severity on antibody magnitude, driven by fever, cough, hospitalization, and oxygen requirement. Responses to spike protein versus nucleocapsid had consistently higher correlation with neutralization. Assays varied substantially in sensitivity during early convalescence and time to seroreversion. Variability was dramatic for individuals with mild infection, who had consistently lower antibody titers, with sensitivities at 6 months ranging from 33 to 98% for commercial assays. Thus, the ability to detect previous infection by SARS-CoV-2 is highly dependent on infection severity, timing, and the assay used. These findings have important implications for the design and interpretation of SARS-CoV-2 serosurveillance studies.

15.
medRxiv ; 2020 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-808855

ABSTRACT

Recovery from COVID-19 is associated with production of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, but it is uncertain whether these confer immunity. We describe viral RNA shedding duration in hospitalized patients and identify patients with recurrent shedding. We sequenced viruses from two distinct episodes of symptomatic COVID-19 separated by 144 days in a single patient, to conclusively describe reinfection with a new strain harboring the spike variant D614G. With antibody and B cell analytics, we show correlates of adaptive immunity, including a differential response to D614G. Finally, we discuss implications for vaccine programs and begin to define benchmarks for protection against reinfection from SARS-CoV-2.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL