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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319046

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has profoundly affected the lives of millions of people. To date, there is no approved vaccine or specific drug to prevent or treat COVID-19, while the infection is spreading at an alarming rate globally. Because the development of effective vaccines or novel drugs could take several months (if not years), repurposing existing drugs is considered a more efficient strategy that could save lives now. Statins constitute a class of lipid-lowering drugs with proven safety profiles and many known beneficial pleiotropic effects. Our previous investigations showed that statins have antiviral effects and are involved in the process of wound healing in the lung. This triggered us to evaluate if statin use reduces mortality in COVID-19 patients. Results: After initial recruitment of 459 patients with COVID-19 (Shiraz province, Iran) and careful consideration of the exclusion criteria, a total of 150 patients, of which 75 received statins, were included in our retrospective study. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used to estimate the association between statin use and rate of death. After propensity score matching, we found that statin use appeared to be associated with a lower risk of morbidity [HR=0.85, 95% CI=(0.02, 3.93), P =0.762] and lower risk of death [(HR= 0.76;95% CI=(0.16, 3.72), P =0.735)];however, these associations did not reach statistical significance. Furthermore, statin use reduced the chance of being subjected to mechanical ventilation [OR=0.96, 95% CI=(0.61–2.99), P =0.942] and patients on statins had a more normal computed tomography (CT) scan result [OR=0.41, 95% CI= (0.07–2.33), P =0.312]. Conclusions: Although we could not demonstrate a significant association between statin use and a reduction in mortality in patients with COVID19 , we do feel that our results are promising and of clinical relevance and warrant the need for prospective randomized controlled trials and extensive retrospective studies to validate the potential beneficial effects of statin treatment on clinical symptoms and mortality rates associated with COVID-19.

2.
J Res Pharm Pract ; 9(4): 175-180, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1073634

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus 19 (COVID-19) is an extremely transmittable microbial infection that has emerged in Wuhan (China) in late 2019, leading to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 syndrome, and caused a pandemic all over the globe. This study is a systematic review of all 927 clinical trial studies performed worldwide from the beginning of the COVID-19 mysterious pandemic in China. These researches have registered in different databases. According to the best of our knowledge, China (74.82%), the United States (4.49%), and France (2.72%) have the most significant number of clinical trials, respectively. Clinical trials can be randomized or nonrandomized. Due to our results, 32.58% of studies were randomized, and 7.12% were not randomized. Most of the studies were open-labeled studies (22.44%), and double-blinded (4.42%) and quadruple blinded (2.48%) studies stand in second and third place regarding the number of trials, respectively. The direction and quantity of clinical trials attempted to identify a possible cure for COVID-19 demonstrates the depth of this crisis. As we are writing this article, a significant international endeavor will find a cure or vaccine for containing this devastating and mysterious disease.

3.
Transl Med Commun ; 6(1): 3, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045590

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has profoundly affected the lives of millions of people. To date, there is no approved vaccine or specific drug to prevent or treat COVID-19, while the infection is globally spreading at an alarming rate. Because the development of effective vaccines or novel drugs could take several months (if not years), repurposing existing drugs is considered a more efficient strategy that could save lives now. Statins constitute a class of lipid-lowering drugs with proven safety profiles and various known beneficial pleiotropic effects. Our previous investigations showed that statins have antiviral effects and are involved in the process of wound healing in the lung. This triggered us to evaluate if statin use reduces mortality in COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: After initial recruitment of 459 patients with COVID-19 (Shiraz province, Iran) and careful consideration of the exclusion criteria, a total of 150 patients, of which 75 received statins, were included in our retrospective study. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used to estimate the association between statin use and rate of death. After propensity score matching, we found that statin use appeared to be associated with a lower risk of morbidity [HR = 0.85, 95% CI = (0.02, 3.93), P = 0.762] and lower risk of death [(HR = 0.76; 95% CI = (0.16, 3.72), P = 0.735)]; however, these associations did not reach statistical significance. Furthermore, statin use reduced the chance of being subjected to mechanical ventilation [OR = 0.96, 95% CI = (0.61-2.99), P = 0.942] and patients on statins showed a more normal computed tomography (CT) scan result [OR = 0.41, 95% CI = (0.07-2.33), P = 0.312]. CONCLUSIONS: Although we could not demonstrate a significant association between statin use and a reduction in mortality in patients with COVID19, we do feel that our results are promising and of clinical relevance and warrant the need for prospective randomized controlled trials and extensive retrospective studies to further evaluate and validate the potential beneficial effects of statin treatment on clinical symptoms and mortality rates associated with COVID-19.

4.
Journal of Nephropathology ; 10(2):1-7, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1006691

ABSTRACT

Kidney is one of the most common organs affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after the respiratory and immune systems. Among the renal parenchymal components, the tubulointerstitial compartment is presumed to be the prime target of injury in COVID-19. The main mechanism of renal tubular damage by COVID-19 is considered to be indirect, i.e., cytokine-mediated injury. A proportion of infected individuals mount a strong inflammatory response to the virus by an exaggerated immune response of the body, namely cytokine storm. Sudden and massive release of cytokines may lead to serious systemic hyper-inflammation and renal tubular injury and inflammation resulting in acute renal failure. In addition, a number of cases of glomerulopathies, particularly collapsing glomerulopathy (CG) have been reported, predominantly in people of African ancestry, as a rare form of kidney involvement by SARS-CoV-2 that may originate from the background genetic susceptibility in this population complicated by the second hit of SARS-CoV-2 infection, either directly or indirectly. It is noteworthy that renal injury in COVID-19 could be severe in individuals of African origin due to the aforementioned genetic susceptibility, especially the presence of high-risk apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) genotypes. Although the exact mechanism of kidney injury by SARS-CoV-2 is as yet unknown, multiple mechanisms are likely involved in renal damage caused by this virus. This review was aimed to summarize the salient points of pathogenesis of kidney injury, particularly glomerular injury in COVID-19 disease in the light of published data. A clear understanding of these is imperative for the proper management of these cases. For this review, a search was made of Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scopus, EBSCO and PubMed for finding English language articles related to COVID-19, kidney injury and glomerulopathy. From the information given in finally selected papers, the key aspects regarding glomerular involvement in COVID-19 were drawn out and are presented in this descriptive review. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Nephropathology is the property of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

5.
Shiraz E Med. J. ; 6(21): 1-3, 20200601.
Article in English | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-658995

ABSTRACT

Background: The rapid spreading of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide results in pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome in many patients, which can be the major cause of death in cases with COVID-19. It has been reported that chloro-quine (CQ) has improved COVID-19-induced pneumonia in clinical trials. Objectives: Since CQ and its derivatives are proved to exhibit anti-autophagy properties based on previous studies, autophagy can be introduced as a possible mechanism of respiratory complications. Methods: In the current study, we reviewed papers of Google Scholar database with no time limitation. Results: It was revealed that autophagy has an important role in the manifestation of COVID-19 respiratory complications Conclusions: Autophagy is triggered by SARS-CoV2 virus for its replication and autophagy inhibitory treatments might be consid-ered promising therapeutics.

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