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1.
NEUROLOGY OF COVID–19 ; 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1824290
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319048

ABSTRACT

Whether and how SARS-CoV-2 outbreak affected in-hospital acute stroke care system is still matter of debate. In the setting of the STROKOVID network, a collaborative project between the 10 centers designed as hubs for the treatment of acute stroke during SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in Lombardy, Italy, we retrospectively compared clinical features and process measures of patients with confirmed infection (COVID-19) and non-infected patients (non-COVID-19) who underwent reperfusion therapies for acute ischemic stroke. Between March 8 and April 30, 2020, 296 consecutive patients (median age, 74 [interquartile range (IQR), 62–80.75] years;males, 154 [52.0%];34 [11.5%] COVID-19) qualified for the analysis. Time from symptoms onset to treatment was longer in the COVID-19 group (230 [IQR, 200.5–270] minutes vs 190 [IQR, 150–245] minutes;p=0.007), especially in the first half of the study period. Patients with COVID-19 who underwent endovascular thrombectomy had more frequently absent collaterals or collaterals filling ≤50% of the occluded territory (50.0% vs 16.6%;OR, 5.05;95% CI, 1.82–13.80) and a lower rate of good/complete recanalization of the primary arterial occlusive lesion (55.6% vs 81.0%;OR, 0.29;95% CI, 0.10–0.80). Post-procedural intracranial hemorrhages were more frequent (35.3% vs 19.5%;OR, 2.24;95% CI, 1.04-4.83) and outcome was worse among COVID-19 patients (in-hospital death, 38.2% vs 8.8%;OR, 6.43;95% CI, 2.85-14.50). Our findings showed longer delays in the intra-hospital management of acute ischemic stroke in COVID-19 patients, especially in the early phase of the outbreak, that likely impacted patients outcome and should be the target of future interventions.

3.
Neuroradiology ; 64(7): 1367-1372, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626879

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is an uncommon but deadly event in patients with COVID-19 and its imaging features remain poorly characterized. We aimed to describe the clinical and imaging features of COVID-19-associated ICH. METHODS: Multicenter, retrospective, case-control analysis comparing ICH in COVID-19 patients (COV19 +) versus controls without COVID-19 (COV19 -). Clinical presentation, laboratory markers, and severity of COVID-19 disease were recorded. Non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) markers (intrahematoma hypodensity, heterogeneous density, blend sign, irregular shape fluid level), ICH location, and hematoma volume (ABC/2 method) were analyzed. The outcome of interest was ultraearly hematoma growth (uHG) (defined as NCCT baseline ICH volume/onset-to-imaging time), whose predictors were explored with multivariable linear regression. RESULTS: A total of 33 COV19 + patients and 321 COV19 - controls with ICH were included. Demographic characteristics and vascular risk factors were similar in the two groups. Multifocal ICH and NCCT markers were significantly more common in the COV19 + population. uHG was significantly higher among COV19 + patients (median 6.2 mL/h vs 3.1 mL/h, p = 0.027), and this finding remained significant after adjustment for confounding factors (systolic blood pressure, antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy), in linear regression (B(SE) = 0.31 (0.11), p = 0.005). This association remained consistent also after the exclusion of patients under anticoagulant treatment (B(SE) = 0.29 (0.13), p = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: ICH in COV19 + patients has distinct NCCT imaging features and a higher speed of bleeding. This association is not mediated by antithrombotic therapy and deserves further research to characterize the underlying biological mechanisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anticoagulants , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Hematoma/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Retrospective Studies
4.
J Neurol ; 269(1): 1-11, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241609

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To characterize patients with acute ischemic stroke related to SARS-CoV-2 infection and assess the classification performance of clinical and laboratory parameters in predicting in-hospital outcome of these patients. METHODS: In the setting of the STROKOVID study including patients with acute ischemic stroke consecutively admitted to the ten hub hospitals in Lombardy, Italy, between March 8 and April 30, 2020, we compared clinical features of patients with confirmed infection and non-infected patients by logistic regression models and survival analysis. Then, we trained and tested a random forest (RF) binary classifier for the prediction of in-hospital death among patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: Among 1013 patients, 160 (15.8%) had SARS-CoV-2 infection. Male sex (OR 1.53; 95% CI 1.06-2.27) and atrial fibrillation (OR 1.60; 95% CI 1.05-2.43) were independently associated with COVID-19 status. Patients with COVID-19 had increased stroke severity at admission [median NIHSS score, 9 (25th to75th percentile, 13) vs 6 (25th to75th percentile, 9)] and increased risk of in-hospital death (38.1% deaths vs 7.2%; HR 3.30; 95% CI 2.17-5.02). The RF model based on six clinical and laboratory parameters exhibited high cross-validated classification accuracy (0.86) and precision (0.87), good recall (0.72) and F1-score (0.79) in predicting in-hospital death. CONCLUSIONS: Ischemic strokes in COVID-19 patients have distinctive risk factor profile and etiology, increased clinical severity and higher in-hospital mortality rate compared to non-COVID-19 patients. A simple model based on clinical and routine laboratory parameters may be useful in identifying ischemic stroke patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection who are unlikely to survive the acute phase.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology
5.
Neurobiol Stress ; 14: 100326, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180112

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, the infectious disease caused by the most recently discovered severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global pandemic. It dramatically affects people's health and daily life. Neurological complications are increasingly documented for patients with COVID-19. However, the effect of COVID-19 on the brain is less studied, and existing quantitative neuroimaging analyses of COVID-19 were mainly based on the univariate voxel-based morphometry analysis (VBM) that requires corrections for a large number of tests for statistical significance, multivariate approaches that can reduce the number of tests to be corrected have not been applied to study COVID-19 effect on the brain yet. In this study, we leveraged source-based morphometry (SBM) analysis, a multivariate extension of VBM, to identify changes derived from computed tomography scans in covarying gray matter volume patterns underlying COVID-19 in 120 neurological patients (including 58 cases with COVID-19 and 62 patients without COVID-19 matched for age, gender and diseases). SBM identified that lower gray matter volume (GMV) in superior/medial/middle frontal gyri was significantly associated with a higher level of disability (modified Rankin Scale) at both discharge and six months follow-up phases even when controlling for cerebrovascular diseases. GMV in superior/medial/middle frontal gyri was also significantly reduced in patients receiving oxygen therapy compared to patients not receiving oxygen therapy. Patients with fever presented significant GMV reduction in inferior/middle temporal gyri and fusiform gyrus compared to patients without fever. Patients with agitation showed GMV reduction in superior/medial/middle frontal gyri compared to patients without agitation. Patients with COVID-19 showed no significant GMV differences from patients without COVID-19 in any brain region. Results suggest that COVID-19 may affect the frontal-temporal network in a secondary manner through fever or lack of oxygen.

7.
J Neurol ; 268(10): 3561-3568, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121219

ABSTRACT

Whether and how SARS-CoV-2 outbreak affected in-hospital acute stroke care system is still matter of debate. In the setting of the STROKOVID network, a collaborative project between the ten centers designed as hubs for the treatment of acute stroke during SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in Lombardy, Italy, we retrospectively compared clinical features and process measures of patients with confirmed infection (COVID-19) and non-infected patients (non-COVID-19) who underwent reperfusion therapies for acute ischemic stroke. Between March 8 and April 30, 2020, 296 consecutive patients [median age, 74 years (interquartile range (IQR), 62-80.75); males, 154 (52.0%); 34 (11.5%) COVID-19] qualified for the analysis. Time from symptoms onset to treatment was longer in the COVID-19 group [230 (IQR 200.5-270) minutes vs. 190 (IQR 150-245) minutes; p = 0.007], especially in the first half of the study period. Patients with COVID-19 who underwent endovascular thrombectomy had more frequently absent collaterals or collaterals filling ≤ 50% of the occluded territory (50.0% vs. 16.6%; OR 5.05; 95% CI 1.82-13.80) and a lower rate of good/complete recanalization of the primary arterial occlusive lesion (55.6% vs. 81.0%; OR 0.29; 95% CI 0.10-0.80). Post-procedural intracranial hemorrhages were more frequent (35.3% vs. 19.5%; OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.04-4.83) and outcome was worse among COVID-19 patients (in-hospital death, 38.2% vs. 8.8%; OR 6.43; 95% CI 2.85-14.50). Our findings showed longer delays in the intra-hospital management of acute ischemic stroke in COVID-19 patients, especially in the early phase of the outbreak, that likely impacted patients outcome and should be the target of future interventions.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Aged , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Reperfusion , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy
8.
Neurology ; 95(7): e910-e920, 2020 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115264

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To report clinical and laboratory characteristics, treatment, and clinical outcomes of patients admitted for neurologic diseases with and without coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: In this retrospective, single-center cohort study, we included all adult inpatients with confirmed COVID-19 admitted to a neuro-COVID unit beginning February 21, 2020, who had been discharged or died by April 5, 2020. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data were extracted from medical records and compared (false discovery rate corrected) to those of neurologic patients without COVID-19 admitted in the same period. RESULTS: One hundred seventy-three patients were included in this study, of whom 56 were positive and 117 were negative for COVID-19. Patients with COVID-19 were older (77.0 years, interquartile range [IQR] 67.0-83.8 years vs 70.1 years, IQR 52.9-78.6 years, p = 0.006), had a different distribution regarding admission diagnoses, including cerebrovascular disorders (n = 43, 76.8% vs n = 68, 58.1%), and had a higher quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) score on admission (0.9, IQR 0.7-1.1 vs 0.5, IQR 0.4-0.6, p = 0.006). In-hospital mortality rates (n = 21, 37.5% vs n = 5, 4.3%, p < 0.001) and incident delirium (n = 15, 26.8% vs n = 9, 7.7%, p = 0.003) were significantly higher in the COVID-19 group. Patients with COVID-19 and without COVID with stroke had similar baseline characteristics, but patients with COVID-19 had higher modified Rankin Scale scores at discharge (5.0, IQR 2.0-6.0 vs 2.0, IQR 1.0-3.0, p < 0.001), with a significantly lower number of patients with a good outcome (n = 11, 25.6% vs n = 48, 70.6%, p < 0.001). In patients with COVID-19, multivariable regressions showed increasing odds of in-hospital death associated with higher qSOFA scores (odds ratio [OR] 4.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21-16.5, p = 0.025), lower platelet count (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99, p = 0.005), and higher lactate dehydrogenase (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.03, p = 0.009) on admission. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 admitted with neurologic disease, including stroke, have a significantly higher in-hospital mortality and incident delirium and higher disability than patients without COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/mortality , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
9.
J Infect Dis ; 223(1): 28-37, 2021 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066338

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several preclinical and clinical investigations have argued for nervous system involvement in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Some sparse case reports have described various forms of encephalitis in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease, but very few data have focused on clinical presentations, clinical course, response to treatment, and outcomes. METHODS: The SARS-CoV-2 related encephalopaties (ENCOVID) multicenter study included patients with encephalitis with full infectious screening, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), electroencephalography (EEG), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data and confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection recruited from 13 centers in northern Italy. Clinical presentation and laboratory markers, severity of COVID-19 disease, response to treatment, and outcomes were recorded. RESULTS: Twenty-five cases of encephalitis positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection were included. CSF showed hyperproteinorrachia and/or pleocytosis in 68% of cases whereas SARS-CoV-2 RNA by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction resulted negative. Based on MRI, cases were classified as acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM; n = 3), limbic encephalitis (LE; n = 2), encephalitis with normal imaging (n = 13), and encephalitis with MRI alterations (n = 7). ADEM and LE cases showed a delayed onset compared to the other encephalitis cases (P = .001) and were associated with previous, more severe COVID-19 respiratory involvement. Patients with MRI alterations exhibited worse response to treatment and final outcomes compared to those with other encephalitis. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with a wide spectrum of encephalitis characterized by different clinical presentation, response to treatment, and outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Encephalitis/diagnosis , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , Electroencephalography , Encephalitis/classification , Encephalitis/virology , Female , Humans , Italy , Longitudinal Studies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged
10.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 92(2): 218-220, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873577
11.
Nat Rev Neurol ; 16(11): 636-644, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728987

ABSTRACT

As the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic spreads, it is becoming increasingly evident that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is not limited to the respiratory system, and that other organs can be affected. In particular, virus-related neurological manifestations are being reported more and more frequently in the scientific literature. In this article, we review the literature on the association between COVID-19 and neurological manifestations, present evidence from preclinical research suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 could be responsible for many of these manifestations, and summarize the biological pathways that could underlie each neurological symptom. Understanding the mechanisms that lead to neurological manifestations in patients with COVID-19 and how these manifestations correlate with clinical outcomes will be instrumental in guiding the optimal use of targeted therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Ann Neurol ; 88(2): 423-427, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-600958

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has the potential for targeting the central nervous system, and several neurological symptoms have been described in patients with severe respiratory distress. Here, we described the case of a 60-year-old patient with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection but only mild respiratory abnormalities who developed an akinetic mutism attributable to encephalitis. Magnetic resonance imaging was negative, whereas electroencephalography showed generalized theta slowing. Cerebrospinal fluid analyses during the acute stage were negative for SARS-CoV-2, positive for pleocytosis and hyperproteinorrachia, and showed increased interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α concentrations. Other infectious or autoimmune disorders were excluded. A progressive clinical improvement along with a reduction of cerebrospinal fluid parameters was observed after high-dose steroid treatment, thus arguing for an inflammatory-mediated brain involvement related to COVID-19. ANN NEUROL 2020;88:423-427.


Subject(s)
Akinetic Mutism/physiopathology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Encephalitis/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/cerebrospinal fluid , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Drug Combinations , Electroencephalography , Encephalitis/cerebrospinal fluid , Encephalitis/complications , Encephalitis/physiopathology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/cerebrospinal fluid , Interleukin-8/cerebrospinal fluid , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/cerebrospinal fluid , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/cerebrospinal fluid , beta 2-Microglobulin/cerebrospinal fluid
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