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1.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; 2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705904

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, there were increased concerns about glycemic control in patients with diabetes. Therefore, we aimed to assess changes in diabetes management during the COVID-19 lockdown for patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, T2DM) in Germany. We included data from 24,623 patients (age>18 years) with T1DM (N=6,975) or T2DM (N=17,648) with documented data in 2019 and 2020 from the multicenter Diabetes-Prospective Follow-up registry (DPV). We conducted a groupwise comparison of identical patients in 2019 and 2020 for different time periods of pandemia. Pairwise differences of continuous parameters of treatment modalities and metabolic outcome between 2019 and 2020 were adjusted for seasonality, age, and diabetes duration. We presented these outcomes as adjusted medians with 95% confidence intervals. Rates were compared using negative-binomial models, dichotomous outcomes were compared using logistic models. Models were additionally adjusted for age and diabetes duration. These outcomes were presented as least-square means with 95% confidence intervals, p-values of<.05 were considered significant.In participants with T1DM, CGI (combined glucose indicator) increased only by 0.11-0.12% in all time periods of 2020 compared to 2019 (all p<0.001) while BMI decreased slightly by -(0.09-0.10) kg/m² (p<0.0001). In participants with T2DM, HbA1c increased by 0.12%, while BMI decreased slightly by -(0.05-0.06) kg/m² (p<0.0001).During the COVID-19 lockdown period, patients with T1DM and T2DM experienced only clinically insignificant changes in glucose control or body weight. Despite lockdown restrictions, patients were able to maintain metabolic control.

3.
Anaesthesist ; 70(Suppl 1): 19-29, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574765

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019 a novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread around the world resulting in an acute respiratory illness pandemic. The immense challenges for clinicians and hospitals as well as the strain on many healthcare systems has been unprecedented.The majority of patients present with mild symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, 5-8% become critically ill and require intensive care treatment. Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure with severe dyspnea and an increased respiratory rate (>30/min) usually leads to intensive care unit (ICU) admission. At this point bilateral pulmonary infiltrates are typically seen. Patients often develop a severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).So far, remdesivir and dexamethasone have shown clinical effectiveness in severe COVID-19 in hospitalized patients. The main goal of supportive treatment is to ascertain adequate oxygenation. Invasive mechanical ventilation and repeated prone positioning are key elements in treating severely hypoxemic COVID-19 patients.Strict adherence to basic infection control measures (including hand hygiene) and correct use of personal protection equipment (PPE) are essential in the care of patients. Procedures that lead to formation of aerosols should be carried out with utmost precaution and preparation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Pneumologie ; 75(2): 88-112, 2021 Feb.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033360

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome - Corona Virus-2) has been spreading rapidly in the sense of a global pandemic. This poses significant challenges for clinicians and hospitals and is placing unprecedented strain on the healthcare systems of many countries. The majority of patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) present with only mild symptoms such as cough and fever. However, about 6 % require hospitalization. Early clarification of whether inpatient and, if necessary, intensive care treatment is medically appropriate and desired by the patient is of particular importance in the pandemic. Acute hypoxemic respiratory insufficiency with dyspnea and high respiratory rate (> 30/min) usually leads to admission to the intensive care unit. Often, bilateral pulmonary infiltrates/consolidations or even pulmonary emboli are already found on imaging. As the disease progresses, some of these patients develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Mortality reduction of available drug therapy in severe COVID-19 disease has only been demonstrated for dexamethasone in randomized controlled trials. The main goal of supportive therapy is to ensure adequate oxygenation. In this regard, invasive ventilation and repeated prone positioning are important elements in the treatment of severely hypoxemic COVID-19 patients. Strict adherence to basic hygiene, including hand hygiene, and the correct wearing of adequate personal protective equipment are essential when handling patients. Medically necessary actions on patients that could result in aerosol formation should be performed with extreme care and preparation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Inpatients , Pandemics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Internist (Berl) ; 61(8): 793-803, 2020 Aug.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-986488

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to pose a major global threat. Although a wide range of organ manifestations have now been described, the respiratory system remains in the forefront in terms of the course of infection. Severe pneumonia can develop and is generally prognostically relevant. The following article discusses currently known features of these pulmonary manifestations from a pathophysiological, symptomatological, and radiological perspective. With regard to pathophysiology, the complex nature of the acute pulmonary disease involving severe injury to the alveolar epithelium and pulmonary vascular endothelium resulting in severe respiratory failure in a proportion of patients is discussed. The differences from "classic" acute respiratory distress syndrome and the major effects these have on the treatment of COVID-19 are elucidated. Following a brief description of PCR-based pathogen identification and information on typical laboratory findings, imaging of COVID-19 pneumonia is described in greater details (typical findings, differential diagnoses, grading of the likelihood of COVID-19 pneumonia). This is followed by a description of symptoms, which develop in three phases. With regard to treatment, supportive and intensive care approaches are discussed, including O2 administration and (non-)invasive ventilation. The article concludes with a summary of the insights gained into pharmacological therapies: thrombosis prevention on the one hand, and specific antiviral and immunomodulatory therapies (remdesivir, tocilizumab, anakinra, dexamethasone) on the other.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Airway Management , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Immunomodulation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Gastroenterologe ; : 1-11, 2020 Nov 11.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-927621

ABSTRACT

The prognosis of patients with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is determined by the severity of lower respiratory infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The majority of patients demonstrate mild symptoms only. However, development of pneumonia is associated with the risk of severe respiratory insufficiency. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of specimens from the upper and/or lower respiratory tract is the gold standard for the diagnosis of COVID-19. Radiology and especially high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) are important for diagnosis and follow-up. This narrative review provides an overview of clinical signs and the complex and unique pathophysiology of COVID-19 pneumonia. Radiological features are addressed. Therapy is mainly supportive with the most important task being management of respiratory insufficiency. Recently, promising data were presented regarding effectiveness of antiviral and anti-inflammatory drugs.

10.
Osteologie ; 29(3):240-241, 2020.
Article in German | Scopus | ID: covidwho-829945
12.
13.
Pneumologie ; 74(6): 337-357, 2020 Jun.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611131

ABSTRACT

Against the background of the pandemic caused by infection with the SARS-CoV-2, the German Society for Pneumology and Respiratory Medicine (DGP e.V.), in cooperation with other associations, has designated a team of experts in order to answer the currently pressing questions about therapy strategies in dealing with COVID-19 patients suffering from acute respiratory insufficiency (ARI).The position paper is based on the current knowledge that is evolving daily. Many of the published and cited studies require further review, also because many of them did not undergo standard review processes.Therefore, this position paper is also subject to a continuous review process and will be further developed in cooperation with the other professional societies.This position paper is structured into the following five topics:1. Pathophysiology of acute respiratory insufficiency in patients without immunity infected with SARS-CoV-22. Temporal course and prognosis of acute respiratory insufficiency during the course of the disease3. Oxygen insufflation, high-flow oxygen, non-invasive ventilation and invasive ventilation with special consideration of infectious aerosol formation4. Non-invasive ventilation in ARI5. Supply continuum for the treatment of ARIKey points have been highlighted as core statements and significant observations. Regarding the pathophysiological aspects of acute respiratory insufficiency (ARI), the pulmonary infection with SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19 runs through three phases: early infection, pulmonary manifestation and severe hyperinflammatory phase.There are differences between advanced COVID-19-induced lung damage and those changes seen in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndromes (ARDS) as defined by the Berlin criteria. In a pathophysiologically plausible - but currently not yet histopathologically substantiated - model, two types (L-type and H-type) are distinguished, which correspond to an early and late phase. This distinction can be taken into consideration in the differential instrumentation in the therapy of ARI.The assessment of the extent of ARI should be carried out by an arterial or capillary blood gas analysis under room air conditions and must include the calculation of the oxygen supply (measured from the variables of oxygen saturation, the Hb value, the corrected values of the Hüfner number and the cardiac output). In principle, aerosols can cause transmission of infectious viral particles. Open systems or leakage systems (so-called vented masks) can prevent the release of respirable particles. Procedures in which the invasive ventilation system must be opened, and endotracheal intubation must be carried out are associated with an increased risk of infection.The protection of personnel with personal protective equipment should have very high priority because fear of contagion must not be a primary reason for intubation. If the specifications for protective equipment (eye protection, FFP2 or FFP-3 mask, gown) are adhered to, inhalation therapy, nasal high-flow (NHF) therapy, CPAP therapy or NIV can be carried out according to the current state of knowledge without increased risk of infection to the staff. A significant proportion of patients with respiratory failure presents with relevant hypoxemia, often also caused by a high inspiratory oxygen fraction (FiO2) including NHF, and this hypoxemia cannot be not completely corrected. In this situation, CPAP/NIV therapy can be administered under use of a mouth and nose mask or a respiratory helmet as therapy escalation, as long as the criteria for endotracheal intubation are not fulfilled.In acute hypoxemic respiratory insufficiency, NIV should be performed in an intensive care unit or in a comparable unit by personnel with appropriate expertise. Under CPAP/NIV, a patient can deteriorate rapidly. For this reason, continuous monitoring with readiness to carry out intubation must be ensured at all times. If CPAP/NIV leads to further progression of ARI, intubation and subsequent invasive ventilation should be carried out without delay if no DNI order is in place.In the case of patients in whom invasive ventilation, after exhausting all guideline-based measures, is not sufficient, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation procedure (ECMO) should be considered to ensure sufficient oxygen supply and to remove CO2.


Subject(s)
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pulmonary Edema/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Berlin , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/standards , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Lung/physiopathology , Lung/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pulmonary Edema/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical
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