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1.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 857436, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1887121

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite recent developments, the role of sirolimus in the heterogeneous spectrum of vascular anomalies is yet to be defined, in terms of indication, dosage, and therapy duration, recognizing both its potential and limitations. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 16 children with vascular anomalies treated with sirolimus in two pediatric centers between 2014 and 2020 [male: n = 7, the median age at diagnosis: 4.6 months (range, 0-281.4)]. In addition, repetitive volumetric analyses of the vascular anomalies were performed when possible (11 cases). Results: Ten patients were diagnosed with vascular malformations and 6 with vascular tumors. The mean therapy duration was 27.2 months (range, 3.5-65). The mean sirolimus level was 8.52 ng/ml (range, 5.38-12.88). All patients except one with central conducting lymphatic anomaly responded to sirolimus, with the most noticeable volume reduction in the first 4-6 months. Additional administration of vincristine was needed in five patients with kaposiform hemangioendothelioma and yielded a response, even in cases, refractory to sirolimus monotherapy. As a single agent, sirolimus led to impressive improvement in a patient with another vascular tumor-advanced epithelioid hemangioendothelioma. Complicated vascular malformations required long-term sirolimus therapy. Side effects of sirolimus included mucositis and laboratory abnormalities. No major infectious episodes were recorded. An infant with COVID-19, diagnosed while on sirolimus therapy, presented with a mild course. Conclusion: In the current series, we reported limitations of sirolimus as monotherapy, addressing the need to redefine its indications, and explore combination regimens and multimodal treatment strategies. Tools for objective evaluation of response trends over time could serve as a basis for the establishment of future therapeutic algorithms.

2.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 134(9-10): 399-419, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802740

ABSTRACT

The Austrian Society of Pneumology (ASP) launched a first statement on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in May 2020, at a time when in Austria 285 people had died from this disease and vaccinations were not available. Lockdown and social distancing were the only available measures to prevent more infections and the breakdown of the health system. Meanwhile, in Austria over 13,000 patients have died in association with a SARS-CoV­2 infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was among the most common causes of death; however, SARS-CoV­2 has been mutating all the time and currently, most patients have been affected by the delta variant where the vaccination is very effective but the omicron variant is rapidly rising and becoming predominant. Particularly in children and young adults, where the vaccination rate is low, the omicron variant is expected to spread very fast. This poses a particular threat to unvaccinated people who are at elevated risk of severe COVID-19 disease but also to people with an active vaccination. There are few publications that comprehensively addressed the special issues with SARS-CoV­2 infection in patients with chronic lung diseases. These were the reasons for this updated statement. Pulmonologists care for many patients with an elevated risk of death in case of COVID-19 but also for patients that might be at an elevated risk of vaccination reactions or vaccination failure. In addition, lung function tests, bronchoscopy, respiratory physiotherapy and training therapy may put both patients and health professionals at an increased risk of infection. The working circles of the ASP have provided statements concerning these risks and how to avoid risks for the patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases , Pulmonary Medicine , Austria/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
3.
ERJ Open Res ; 7(4)2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605651

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in people with cystic fibrosis (pwCF) can lead to severe outcomes. METHODS: In this observational study, the European Cystic Fibrosis Society Patient Registry collected data on pwCF and SARS-CoV-2 infection to estimate incidence, describe clinical presentation and investigate factors associated with severe outcomes using multivariable analysis. RESULTS: Up to December 31, 2020, 26 countries reported information on 828 pwCF and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Incidence was 17.2 per 1000 pwCF (95% CI: 16.0-18.4). Median age was 24 years, 48.4% were male and 9.4% had lung transplants. SARS-CoV-2 incidence was higher in lung-transplanted (28.6; 95% CI: 22.7-35.5) versus non-lung-transplanted pwCF (16.6; 95% CI: 15.4-17.8) (p≤0.001).SARS-CoV-2 infection caused symptomatic illness in 75.7%. Factors associated with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection were age >40 years, at least one F508del mutation and pancreatic insufficiency.Overall, 23.7% of pwCF were admitted to hospital, 2.5% of those to intensive care, and regretfully 11 (1.4%) died. Hospitalisation, oxygen therapy, intensive care, respiratory support and death were 2- to 6-fold more frequent in lung-transplanted versus non-lung-transplanted pwCF.Factors associated with hospitalisation and oxygen therapy were lung transplantation, cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD), moderate or severe lung disease and azithromycin use (often considered a surrogate marker for Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection and poorer lung function). CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection yielded high morbidity and hospitalisation in pwCF. PwCF with forced expiratory volume in 1 s <70% predicted, CFRD and those with lung transplants are at particular risk of more severe outcomes.

4.
J Cyst Fibros ; 20(4): 566-577, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188721

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Viral infections can cause significant morbidity in cystic fibrosis (CF). The current Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic could therefore have a serious impact on the health of people with CF (pwCF). METHODS: We used the 38-country European Cystic Fibrosis Society Patient Registry (ECFSPR) to collect case data about pwCF and SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: Up to 30 June 2020, 16 countries reported 130 SARS-CoV-2 cases in people with CF, yielding an incidence of 2.70/1000 pwCF. Incidence was higher in lung-transplanted patients (n=23) versus non-transplanted patients (n=107) (8.43 versus 2.36 cases/1000). Incidence was higher in pwCF versus the age-matched general population in the age groups <15, 15-24, and 25-49 years (p<0.001), with similar trends for pwCF with and without lung transplant. Compared to the general population, pwCF (regardless of transplantation status) had significantly higher rates of admission to hospital for all age groups with available data, and higher rates of intensive care, although not statistically significant. Most pwCF recovered (96.2%), however 5 died, of whom 3 were lung transplant recipients. The case fatality rate for pwCF (3.85%, 95% CI: 1.26-8.75) was non-significantly lower than that of the general population (7.46%; p=0.133). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection can result in severe illness and death for pwCF, even for younger patients and especially for lung transplant recipients. PwCF should continue to shield from infection and should be prioritized for vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cystic Fibrosis/complications , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Critical Care , Cystic Fibrosis/mortality , Cystic Fibrosis/therapy , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Lung Transplantation , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
5.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 132(13-14): 365-386, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996394

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is currently a challenge worldwide. In Austria, a crisis within the healthcare system has so far been prevented. The treatment of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), including SARS-CoV­2 infections, should continue to be based on evidence-based CAP guidelines during the pandemic; however, COVID-19 specific adjustments are useful. The treatment of patients with chronic lung diseases has to be adapted during the pandemic but must still be guaranteed.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Lung Diseases/complications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Pulmonary Medicine , Adolescent , Adult , Austria , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Chronic Disease , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Lung Diseases/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
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