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Int J Mol Sci ; 24(11)2023 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237927


Rapid, accurate, and convenient diagnosis is essential for effective disease management. Various detection methods, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, have been extensively used, with lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) recently emerging as a major diagnostic tool. Nanoparticles (NPs) with characteristic optical properties are used as probes for LFIA, and researchers have presented various types of optical NPs with modified optical properties. Herein, we review the literature on LFIA with optical NPs for the detection of specific targets in the context of diagnostics.

Metal Nanoparticles , Nanoparticles , Immunoassay/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Gold , Limit of Detection
Sustainability ; 14(6):3478, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1765887


Contract farming is typically considered an appropriate measure for small-scale farmers to solve their constraints and problems. However, despite positive effects, low participation in and high dropout rates from contract farming schemes remain challenges. Therefore, this study objects to evaluate preferences for contract attributes and attribute levels among contracting buyers, farmers, and government officials through data triangulation from key informant interviews, focus group discussions, and participant observations. Based on Henry Garrett Ranking, Rank Based Quotient, and Rank Based Sum methods, results indicate that the most important attributes were price options, payment, delivery arrangement, input provision, input-use requirements, and product quality standards. Despite a consensus on the ranking of the contract attributes, the preferences for the attribute levels among the stakeholders were heterogeneous. It is recommended that attributes and their levels should be pertinent in contract agreements. Thus, contract design with an adjusted or premium price, 50% of estimated payment before harvesting and the rest after delivery three to five days or lump-sum immediate payment, delivery after harvesting, inputs provision by the contractors through the representative branches or stores located at the local areas or cooperatives, banning active-ingredients or flexible use of inputs from the contractors to produce Good Agricultural Practices or organic products are considerable options.