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1.
Phytomedicine ; 103: 154215, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867672

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces a global serious pandemic and is responsible for over 4 million human deaths. Currently, although various vaccines have been developed, humans can still get SARS-CoV-2 infection after being vaccinated. Therefore, the blocking of SARS-CoV-2 infection may be potential therapeutic strategies. Ganoderma microsporum immunomodulatory protein (GMI), a small fungal protein, is cloned from Ganoderma microsporum. It exhibits anti-cancer and immunomodulatory functions. Currently, it is still unclear whether GMI involves in interfering with viral infection. PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the potential functions and mechanisms of GMI on inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection. METHODS: The effects of GMI were examined in vitro on ACE2 overexpressing HEK293T (HEK293T/ACE2) cells exposed to SARS-CoV-2 Spike lentiviral pseudovirus encoding a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene. The infection efficacy was determined using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The protein level of ACE2 was verified by Western blot. The effects of GMI on cell viability of HEK293T/ACE2 and lung epithelial WI38-2RA cells were determined by MTT assay. Mice received GMI via nebulizer. RESULTS: GMI did not affect the cell viability of HEK293T/ACE2, WI38-2RA and macrophages. Functional studies showed that GMI inhibited GFP expressing SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus from infecting HEK293T/ACE2 cells. GMI slightly interfered the interaction between ACE2 and Spike protein. GMI interacted with S2 domain of Spike protein. Specifically, GMI dramatically reduced ACE2 expression in HEK293T/ACE2 and WI38-2RA cells. Mechanistically, GMI induced ACE2 degradation via activating protein degradation system, including proteasome and lysosome. Abolishing proteasome and lysosome by MG132 and bafilomycin A1, respectively, rescued GMI-reduced ACE2 levels. In addition, GMI triggered dynamin and lipid raft-mediated ACE2 endocytosis. ACE2 levels were downregulated in the lung tissue after the mice inhaling GMI. CONCLUSIONS: GMI prevents SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection via induction of ACE2 degradation in host cells. Our findings suggest that GMI will be a potential prevention agent to alleviate SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Ganoderma , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
2.
Turkish Journal of Computer and Mathematics Education ; 12(11):4394-4408, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1743555

ABSTRACT

Currently, the global Covid-19 epidemic has been having an impact on the trend of the organization and implementation training activities of higher education. Blended teaching and building a systematic Style-Based Blended teaching model still have certain limitations for teachers. This study has surveyed and evaluated the results of implementing systematic Style-Based Blended teaching model with 135 lecturers from universities in Vietnam from the academic year 2019 - 2020. This study used a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, the parameters of this research results were verified through evaluating the applied results before and after implementing systematic Style-Based Blended teaching model in teaching at experimental universities. Research results with this Blended teaching model present evidence in implementing and developing a systematic StyleBased Blended teaching model with effective effects on improving teaching performance of teachers, contributing to improve the quality of teaching in higher education._

3.
Turkish Journal of Computer and Mathematics Education ; 12(12):3871-3884, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1679214

ABSTRACT

Currently, the global Covid-19 epidemic has been having an impact on the trend of the organization and implementation training activities of higher education. Blended teaching and building a systematic Style-Based Blended teaching model still have certain limitations for teachers. This study has surveyed and evaluated the results of implementing systematic Style-Based Blended teaching model with 135 lecturers from universities in Vietnam from the academic year 2019 - 2020. This study used a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, the parameters of this research results were verified through evaluating the applied results before and after implementing systematic Style-Based Blended teaching model in teaching at experimental universities. Research results with this Blended teaching model present evidence in implementing and developing a systematic Style-Based Blended teaching model with effective effects on improving teaching performance of teachers, contributing to improve the quality of teaching in higher education.

4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643609

ABSTRACT

There is little knowledge about how the influence of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) reduces the COVID-19 infection rate during the period of vaccine rollout. This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of NPIs on decreasing the epidemic growth of COVID-19 between before and after the vaccine rollout period among Asian countries. Our ecological study included observations from 30 Asian countries over the 20 weeks of the pre- and post-vaccination period. Data were extracted from the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker and other open databases. Longitudinal analysis was utilized to evaluate the impacts of public health responses and vaccines. The facial covering policy was the most effective intervention in the pre-vaccination period, followed by border control and testing policies. In the post-vaccination period, restrictions on gatherings and public transport closure both play a key role in reducing the epidemic growth rate. Vaccine coverage of 1-5%, 5-10%, 10-30%, and over 30% of the population was linked with an average reduction of 0.12%, 0.32%, 0.31%, and 0.59%, respectively. Our findings support the evidence that besides the vaccine increasingly contributing to pandemic control, the implementation of NPIs also plays a key role.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
5.
Asian Journal of Economics and Banking (AJEB) ; 5(3):324-342, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1574101

ABSTRACT

PurposeThis paper aims to explore the influence of the COVID-19 outbreak and the Government's disease control measures on the stock returns and liquidity of Vietnam-listed companies in the financial services sector.Design/methodology/approachThe authors have conducted a panel data regression analysis using data from 50 banking, insurance and finance companies listed in Vietnam's two biggest stock exchanges (HNX and HOSE) within the period from January 30th, 2020 to May 15th, 2021.FindingsThe regression results indicate that the daily growth in the total number of confirmed cases caused by COVID-19 has significant negative effects on the stock market returns and liquidity. Nevertheless, the Government's imposition of lockdown yields significant and positive outcomes on stock performance. In addition, the study reveals remarkable differences in returns of large-cap and small-cap stocks under the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.Research limitations/implicationsThe study indicates government and regulators should act more actively to limit the outbreak of the virus, improve investor confidence as well to support the financial services industry and deal with the outbreak of the pandemic later.Originality/valueThis is the first study to explore the influence of the COVID-19 outbreak and the Government's disease control measures on the stock returns and liquidity of Vietnam-listed companies in the financial services industry.

6.
Academy of Strategic Management Journal ; 20:1-14, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1525219

ABSTRACT

In particular, the growing trend of retail customer business is the "key" to banks' revenue and business efficiency. [...]this study objective proposed policy implications for improving the banking service quality in Vietnam. According to Barker & Kandampully (2017), if a service provider provides customers with quality products that satisfy their needs, that business will initially make customers satisfied. [...]to improve customer satisfaction, service providers must enhance the quality of service by Moyo (2018). [...]competition in the banking sector is also one factor promoting the expansion and development of banking services in the direction of diversification and modernization, according to Le Ngoc Nuong & Ha Thi Hoa (2020). From there, it can attract customers to use banking services. [...]it can be said that this is also a factor affecting the development of banking services by Tasnain & Abbas (2013).

7.
Journal of Education ; : 00220574211039483, 2021.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1501895

ABSTRACT

How teachers perform and react to the world-wide pandemic and how the epidemic affects an education system may also be used as new conditions to consider the way to enhance SDG4 in developing countries. Regarding that concern, this study investigated 294 teachers? perspective on their teaching effectiveness and satisfaction during COVID-19. The findings underlined the significant roles of support from various stakeholders, school readiness toward digital transformation, and teachers? anxiety over teacher satisfaction. Notably, teachers? newly absorbed technological and pedagogical skills do elevate their teaching effectiveness but do not lead to higher satisfaction during the pandemic.

8.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(12): 105321, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872317

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted global healthcare systems and this may affect stroke care and outcomes. This study examines the changes in stroke epidemiology and care during the COVID-19 pandemic in Zanjan Province, Iran. METHODS: This study is part of the CASCADE international initiative. From February 18, 2019, to July 18, 2020, we followed ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke hospitalization rates and outcomes in Valiasr Hospital, Zanjan, Iran. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model and an interrupted time series analysis (ITS) to identify changes in stroke hospitalization rate, baseline stroke severity [measured by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS)], disability [measured by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS)], presentation time (last seen normal to hospital presentation), thrombolytic therapy rate, median door-to-needle time, length of hospital stay, and in-hospital mortality. We compared in-hospital mortality between study periods using Cox-regression model. RESULTS: During the study period, 1,026 stroke patients were hospitalized. Stroke hospitalization rates per 100,000 population decreased from 68.09 before the pandemic to 44.50 during the pandemic, with a significant decline in both Bayesian [Beta: -1.034; Standard Error (SE): 0.22, 95% CrI: -1.48, -0.59] and ITS analysis (estimate: -1.03, SE = 0.24, p < 0.0001). Furthermore, we observed lower admission rates for patients with mild (NIHSS < 5) ischemic stroke (p < 0.0001). Although, the presentation time and door-to-needle time did not change during the pandemic, a lower proportion of patients received thrombolysis (-10.1%; p = 0.004). We did not see significant changes in admission rate to the stroke unit and in-hospital mortality rate; however, disability at discharge increased (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: In Zanjan, Iran, the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted stroke outcomes and altered the delivery of stroke care. Observed lower admission rates for milder stroke may possibly be due to fear of exposure related to COVID-19. The decrease in patients treated with thrombolysis and the increased disability at discharge may indicate changes in the delivery of stroke care and increased pressure on existing stroke acute and subacute services. The results of this research will contribute to a similar analysis of the larger CASCADE dataset in order to confirm findings at a global scale and improve measures to ensure the best quality of care for stroke patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19 , Hospitalization/trends , Intracranial Hemorrhages/therapy , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care/trends , Stroke/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy/trends , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bayes Theorem , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/mortality , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnosis , Intracranial Hemorrhages/mortality , Iran/epidemiology , Length of Stay/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Recovery of Function , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/mortality , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
9.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(11): 105228, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-718900

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This report aims to describe changes that centres providing transient ischaemic attack (TIA) pathway services have made to stay operational in response to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. METHODS: An international cross-sectional description of the adaptions of TIA pathways between 30th March and 6th May 2020. Experience was reported from 18 centres with rapid TIA pathways in seven countries (Australia, France, UK, Canada, USA, New Zealand, Italy, Canada) from three continents. RESULTS: All pathways remained active (n = 18). Sixteen (89%) had TIA clinics. Six of these clinics (38%) continued to provide in-person assessment while the majority (63%) used telehealth exclusively. Of these, three reported PPE use and three did not. Five centres with clinics (31%) had adopted a different vascular imaging strategy. CONCLUSION: The COVID pandemic has led TIA clinics around the world to adapt and move to the use of telemedicine for outpatient clinic review and modified investigation pathways. Despite the pandemic, all have remained operational.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Pathways/trends , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated/trends , Hospital Rapid Response Team/trends , Ischemic Attack, Transient/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Telemedicine/trends , Australia , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnostic Imaging/trends , Europe , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient/diagnosis , New Zealand , North America , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Time Factors
10.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(9): 105089, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-614222

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The interaction between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and non-communicable diseases may increase the global burden of disease. We assessed the association of COVID-19 with ageing and non-communicable diseases. METHODS: We extracted data regarding non-communicable disease, particularly cardiovascular disease, deaths, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), and healthy life expectancy (HALE) from the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2017. We obtained data of confirmed COVID-19 cases, deaths, and tests from the Our World in Data database as of May 28, 2020. Potential confounders of pandemic outcomes analyzed include institutional lockdown delay, hemispheric geographical location, and number of tourists. We compared all countries according to GBD classification and World Bank income level. We assessed the correlation between independent variables associated with COVID-19 caseload and mortality using Spearman's rank correlation and adjusted mixed model analysis. FINDINGS: High-income had the highest, and the Southeast Asia, East Asia, and Oceania region had the least cases per million population (3050.60 vs. 63.86). Sub-saharan region has reported the lowest number of COVID-19 mortality (1.9). Median delay to lockdown initiation varied from one day following the first case in Latin America and Caribbean region, to 34 days in Southeast Asia, East Asia, and Oceania. Globally, non-communicable disease DALYs were correlated with COVID-19 cases (r = 0.32, p<0.001) and deaths (r = 0.37, p<0.001). HALE correlated with COVID-19 cases (r = 0.63, p<0.001) and deaths (r = 0.61, p<0.001). HALE was independently associated with COVID-19 case rate and the number of tourists was associated with COVID-19 mortality in the adjusted model. INTERPRETATION: Preventive measures against COVID-19 should protect the public from the dual burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases, particularly in the elderly. In addition to active COVID-19 surveillance, policymakers should utilize this evidence as a guide for prevention and coordination of health services. This model is timely, as many countries have begun to reduce social isolation.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Global Health , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Cause of Death , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cost of Illness , Databases, Factual , Female , Health Services Needs and Demand , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Incidence , Infection Control , Male , Middle Aged , Needs Assessment , Noncommunicable Diseases/mortality , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
11.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(9): 104938, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-210006

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), now named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), may change the risk of stroke through an enhanced systemic inflammatory response, hypercoagulable state, and endothelial damage in the cerebrovascular system. Moreover, due to the current pandemic, some countries have prioritized health resources towards COVID-19 management, making it more challenging to appropriately care for other potentially disabling and fatal diseases such as stroke. The aim of this study is to identify and describe changes in stroke epidemiological trends before, during, and after the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This is an international, multicenter, hospital-based study on stroke incidence and outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic. We will describe patterns in stroke management, stroke hospitalization rate, and stroke severity, subtype (ischemic/hemorrhagic), and outcomes (including in-hospital mortality) in 2020 during COVID-19 pandemic, comparing them with the corresponding data from 2018 and 2019, and subsequently 2021. We will also use an interrupted time series (ITS) analysis to assess the change in stroke hospitalization rates before, during, and after COVID-19, in each participating center. CONCLUSION: The proposed study will potentially enable us to better understand the changes in stroke care protocols, differential hospitalization rate, and severity of stroke, as it pertains to the COVID-19 pandemic. Ultimately, this will help guide clinical-based policies surrounding COVID-19 and other similar global pandemics to ensure that management of cerebrovascular comorbidity is appropriately prioritized during the global crisis. It will also guide public health guidelines for at-risk populations to reduce risks of complications from such comorbidities.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hospitalization/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Healthcare Disparities/trends , Hospital Mortality/trends , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Incidence , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/mortality , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
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