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1.
medrxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.09.21.22280205

ABSTRACT

Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) treated with B-cell pathway inhibitors and anti-CD20 antibodies exhibit low humoral response rate (RR) following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. To investigate the relationship between the initial transcriptional response to vaccination with ensuing B and T cell immune responses, we performed a comprehensive immune transcriptome analysis flanked by antibody and T cell assays in peripheral blood prospectively collected from 15 CLL/SLL patients vaccinated with heterologous BNT162b2/ChAdOx1 with follow up at a single institution. The two-dose antibody RR was 40% increasing to 53% after booster. Patients on BTKi, venetoclax ± anti-CD20 antibody within 12 months of vaccination responded less well than those under BTKi alone. The two-dose T cell RR was 80% increasing to 93% after booster. Transcriptome studies revealed that seven patients showed interferon-mediated signaling activation within 2 days and one at 7 days after vaccination. Increasing counts of COVID-19 specific IGHV genes correlated with B-cell reconstitution and improved humoral RR. T cell responses in CLL patients appeared after vaccination regardless of treatment status. A higher humoral RR was associated with BTKi treatment and B-cell reconstitution. Boosting was particularly effective when intrinsic immune status was improved by CLL-treatment.

2.
ssrn; 2021.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-SSRN | ID: ppzbmed-10.2139.ssrn.3963559

ABSTRACT

Introduction: As vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 progresses rapidly around the world, reliable detection of SARS-CoV-2 specific neutralizing antibodies (NAb) has become an indispensable component of serological diagnostics. We evaluated the performance of four commercially available tests, i.e. two lateral flow assays (Coris BioConcept COVID-19 Sero NP/RBD and Concile InfectCheck COVID-19 NAb) and two surrogate ELISA (sELISA) tests (EUROIMMUN SARS-CoV-2 NeutraLISA and AdipoGen SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Antibodies Detection Kit) in comparison with an in-house SARS-CoV-2 micro neutralization test as reference. Methods: A total of 334 sera were tested, including 30 samples collected prior to the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, 128 sera from convalescent patients as well as 176 sera from partially or fully vaccinated individuals.Results: The overall sensitivity of LFAs differed and was 71.6% for the Coris and 98.4% for the Concile. In contrast, overall sensitivity of the NeutraLISA was 86% and 98% for the AdipoGen. All test showed the highest sensitivity when testing samples from fully vaccinated individuals with both sELISA achieving 100% sensitivity. Overall specificity was 89.3% for the Coris and only 58.3% for the Concile. Similarly significant differences were observed for both sELISA, with an overall specificity of 82.1% for the NeutraLISA and only 54.8% for the AdipoGen. All tests showed a 100% specificity when testing negative control samples while specificities were lowest when testing samples from only partially vaccinated individuals. Conclusion: Our findings support the potential use of the Concile LFA and both sELISA for the detection of NAbs against SARS-CoV-2, especially to determine NAb levels after complete vaccination.

3.
researchsquare; 2021.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-846197.v1

ABSTRACT

​​Since its recent zoonotic spill-over severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is constantly adapting to the human host as illustrated by the emergence of variants of concern with increased transmissibility and immune evasion. Prolonged replication in immunosuppressed individuals and evasion from spike-specific antibodies is known to drive intra-host SARS-CoV-2 evolution. Here we show for the first time the major role of CD8 T cells in SARS-CoV-2 evolution. In a patient with chronic, ultimately fatal infection, we observed three spike mutations that prevented neutralisation by convalescent plasma therapy. Moreover, at least four mutations in non-spike proteins emerged that hampered CD8 T-cell recognition of mutant epitopes, two of these occurred before spike mutations. A comparison with worldwide sequencing data showed that several of these T-cell escape mutations had emerged independently as homoplasies in multiple circulating lineages. We propose that human leukocyte antigen class I contributes to shaping the evolutionary landscape of SARS-CoV-2.

4.
ssrn; 2021.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-SSRN | ID: ppzbmed-10.2139.ssrn.3852736

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Spike-specific antibodies contribute significantly to the neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 and are important for the therapeutic effect of convalescent plasma. B.1.1.7 is a recently emerged variant of SARS-CoV-2 that has several mutations in the gene encoding for the spike-protein. To assess the potential effect these mutations could have on the neutralizing efficacy of antibodies, we evaluated 96 serum samples from convalescent plasma donors collected before the first occurrence of B.1.1.7 and tested their neutralizing effect on wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and B.1.1.7. We found that B.1.1.7 is more resistant to neutralization by convalescent plasma from patients infected with wild-type SARS-CoV-2 with an overall decrease in neutralizing activity of 47.7%. Thus, the neutralizing effect of convalescent plasma should be determined against the major circulating virus clades whenever possible to ensure the best possible therapeutic effect.

5.
medrxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.02.19.21252080

ABSTRACT

Background Quantitative serological assays detecting response to SARS-CoV-2 infection are urgently needed to quantify immunity. This study analyzed the performance and correlation of two independent quantitative anti-S1 assays in oligo-/asymptomatic individuals from a previously characterized population-based cohort. Methods A total of 362 samples included 108 from individuals who had viral RNA detected in pharyngeal swabs, 111 negative controls and 143 samples with positive serology but not confirmed by RT-PCR. Blood plasma was tested with quantitative assays Euroimmun Anti-SARS-CoV-2 QuantiVac ELISA (IgG) (EI-S1-IgG-quant) and Roche Elecsys ® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 CoV-2 S (Ro-RBD-Ig-quant), which were compared with each other and with confirmatory tests, including wild-type virus micro-neutralization (NT) and GenScript ® cPass™. Results were analyzed using square roots R of coefficients of determination for association among continuous variables and non-parametric tests for paired comparisons. Results Quantitative anti-S1 serology correlated well with each other (96%/97% for true-positives and true-negatives, respectively). Antibody titers decreased over time (from <30 days to >240 days after initial positive RT-PCR). Agreement with GenScript-cPass was 96%/99% for true-positives and true-negatives, respectively, for Ro-RBD-Ig-quant and 93%/97% for EI-S1-IgG-quant. Ro-RBD-Ig-quant allowed a distinct separation between positive and negative values, and less non-specific reactivity compared with EI-S1-IgG-quant. Raw values (with 95% CI) ≥28.7 U/mL (22.6–36.4) for Ro-RBD-Ig-quant and ≥49.8 U/mL (43.4–57.1) for EI-S1-IgG-quant predicted virus neutralization >1:5 in 95% of cases. Conclusions Both quantitative anti-S1 assays, Ro-RBD-Ig-quant and EI-S1-IgG-quant, may replace direct neutralization assays in quantitative measurement of immune protection against SARS-CoV-2 in certain circumstances in the future. Key points Two quantitative anti-S1 assays showed similar performance and a high level of agreement with direct virus neutralization and surrogate neutralization tests, arguing for their utility in quantifying immune protection against SARS-CoV-2.

6.
medrxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.01.13.21249735

ABSTRACT

BackgroundSerosurveys are essential to understand SARS-CoV-2 exposure and enable population-level surveillance, but currently available tests need further in-depth evaluation. We aimed to identify testing-strategies by comparing seven seroassays in a population-based cohort. MethodsWe analysed 6,658 samples consisting of true-positives (n=193), true-negatives (n=1,091), and specimens of unknown status (n=5,374). For primary testing, we used Euroimmun-Anti-SARS-CoV-2-ELISA-IgA/IgG and Roche-Elecsys-Anti-SARS-CoV-2; and virus-neutralisation, GeneScript(R)cPass, VIRAMED-SARS-CoV-2-ViraChip(R), and Mikrogen-recomLine-SARS-CoV-2-IgG, including common-cold CoVs, for confirmatory testing. Statistical modelling generated optimised assay cut-off-thresholds. FindingsSensitivity of Euroimmun-anti-S1-IgA was 64.8%, specificity 93.3%; for Euroimmun-anti-S1-IgG, sensitivity was 77.2/79.8% (manufacturers/optimised cut-offs), specificity 98.0/97.8%; Roche-anti-N sensitivity was 85.5/88.6%, specificity 99.8/99.7%. In true-positives, mean and median titres remained stable for at least 90-120 days after RT-PCR-positivity. Of true-positives with positive RT-PCR (<30 days), 6.7% did not mount detectable seroresponses. Virus-neutralisation was 73.8% sensitive, 100.0% specific (1:10 dilution). Neutralisation surrogate tests (GeneScript(R)cPass, Mikrogen-recomLine-RBD) were >94.9% sensitive, >98.1% specific. Seasonality had limited effects; cross-reactivity with common-cold CoVs 229E and NL63 in SARS-CoV-2 true-positives was significant. ConclusionOptimised cut-offs improved test performances of several tests. Non-reactive serology in true-positives was uncommon. For epidemiological purposes, confirmatory testing with virus-neutralisation may be replaced with GeneScript(R)cPass or recomLine-RBD. Head-to-head comparisons given here aim to contribute to the refinement of testing-strategies for individual and public health use.

7.
medrxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.01.10.20248871

ABSTRACT

Prolonged shedding of infectious SARS-CoV-2 has recently been reported in a number of immunosuppressed individuals with COVID-19. Here, we describe the detection of high levels of replication-competent SARS-CoV-2 in specimens taken from the respiratory tract of a B-cell depleted patient up to 154 days after initial COVID-19 diagnosis concomitant with the development of high mutation rate. In this patient, a total of 11 nonsynonymous mutations were detected in addition to the Y144 deletion in the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. Virus evolution studies revealed a dramatic diversification in viral population coinciding with treatment with convalescent plasma and clinical respiratory deterioration. Our findings highlight the urgent need for continuous real-time surveillance of genetic changes of SARS-CoV-2 adaptation alongside immunological investigations in patients with severely compromised humoral responses who may shed infectious virus over prolonged periods of time.

8.
ssrn; 2020.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-SSRN | ID: ppzbmed-10.2139.ssrn.3716021

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Reliable methods for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) are essential for the evaluation of vaccine candidates and for the selection of convalescent plasma donors. Virus neutralization tests (NTs) are the gold standard for the detection and quantification of NAbs, but they are complex and require BSL3 facilities. In contrast, surrogate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (sELISA) offer the possibility of high-throughput testing under standard laboratory safety conditions. In this study, we investigated two commercial sELISA kits (GenScript, AdipoGen) designed for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 NAbs.Methods: 276 plasma samples were screened using commercial IgG-ELISA and NAbs titers were determined by micro-neutralization test (micro-NT). In addition, all samples were tested in both sELISA. Sensitivity and specificity for both sELISA were determined in comparison to the micro-NT results.Results: 57% of the samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2 NAbs in micro-NT, while 43% tested negative. Comparison with micro-NT results showed a sensitivity of 98.2% and a specificity of 69.5% for the GenScript ELISA. The AdipoGen ELISA had a sensitivity of 83.5% and a specificity of 97.8%. False negative results were obtained mainly on samples with low NAbs titers.Conclusion: Both sELISA were able to qualitatively detect NAbs in plasma samples. Sensitivity and specificity differed between sELISA with GenScript superior in sensitivity and AdipoGen superior in specificity. Both sELISA were unable to quantify NAbs, thus neither of them can completely replace conventional NTs. However, in a two-step diagnostic algorithm, AdipoGen could potentially replace NT as a subsequent confirmatory test due to its high specificity.

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