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1.
medrxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.12.03.23299331

ABSTRACT

Background COVID-19 survivors may suffer from a wide range of chronic cognitive symptoms for months or years as part of post-COVID-19 conditions (PCC). To date, there is no definitive objective cognitive marker for PCC. We hypothesised that a key common deficit in people with PCC might be generalised cognitive slowing. Methods To examine cognitive slowing, PCC patients completed two short web-based cognitive tasks, Simple Reaction Time (SRT) and Number Vigilance Test (NVT). 270 patients diagnosed with PCC at two different clinics in UK and Germany were compared to two control groups: individuals who contracted COVID-19 before but did not experience PCC after recovery (No-PCC group) and uninfected individuals (No-COVID group). Findings We identified pronounced cognitive slowing in PCC patients, which distinguished them from age-matched healthy individuals who previously had symptomatic COVID-19 but did not manifest PCC. Cognitive slowing was evident even on a 30-second task measuring simple reaction time (SRT), with PCC patients responding to stimuli ~3 standard deviations slower than healthy controls. This finding was replicated across two clinic samples in Germany and the UK. Comorbidities such as fatigue, depression, anxiety, sleep disturbance, and post-traumatic stress disorder did not account for the extent of cognitive slowing in PCC patients. Furthermore, cognitive slowing on the SRT was highly correlated with the poor performance of PCC patients on the NVT measure of sustained attention. Interpretation Together, these results robustly demonstrate pronounced cognitive slowing in people with PCC, which distinguishes them from age-matched healthy individuals who previously had symptomatic COVID-19 but did not manifest PCC. This might be an important factor contributing to some of the cognitive impairments reported in PCC patients. Funding Wellcome Trust (206330/Z/17/Z), NIHR Oxford Health Biomedical Research Centre, the Thuringer Aufbaubank (2021 FGI 0060), German Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, FI 1424/2-1) and the Horizon 2020 Framework Programme of the European Union (ITN SmartAge, H2020-MSCA-ITN-2019-859890).

2.
Perfusion ; 38(1 Supplement):96-97, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20244671

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Data about COVID-19 patients treated with veno-arterial-ECMO (VA-ECMO) is limited. Reported survival rates range from 27.9% to 77.8%, depending on VA-ECMO indication. A subgroup of patients suffers from circulatory failure due to a COVID-19 associated hyperinflammatory state (CovHI). In these patients, differentiation between inflammation and sepsis is difficult but important. In this retrospective case series, differential diagnoses of COVID-19 associated refractory circulatory failure and survival rates in different indications for VA-ECMO are investigated. Method(s): Retrospective analysis of 28 consecutive COVID-19 patients requiring VA-ECMO at the University Hospital Regensburg between March 2020 and May 2022. Specific treatment for COVID-19 was in accordance with respective guidelines. Mycotic infections were either invasive or met current definitions of COVID19-associated-pulmonary aspergillosis. Result(s): At VA-ECMO initiation, median age was 57.3 years (IQR: 51.4 - 61.8), SOFA score 16 (IQR: 13 - 17) and norepinephrine dosing 0.53mug/kg/min (IQR: 0.32 - 0.78). Virus-variants were: 61% wild-type, 14% Alpha, 18% Delta and 7% Omicron. Survival to hospital discharge was 39%. 17 patients were primarily supported with VA-ECMO only (survival 42%), 3 patients were switched from VV to VA-ECMO (survival 0%), and 8 patients were converted from VA to VAV or VV-ECMO (survival 50%). Indications for VA-ECMO support were pulmonary embolism (PE) (n=5, survival 80%), right heart failure due to secondary pulmonary hypertension (n=5, survival 20%), cardiac arrest (n=4, survival 25%), acute left heart failure (ALHF) (n=11, survival 36%) and refractory vasoplegia (n=3, survival 0%). Inflammatory markers at VA-ECMO initiation were higher in patients with ALHF or vasoplegia;in these patients a higher rate of invasive fungal infections (10/14, 71% vs. 4/14, 29%;p=0.023) compared to the other patients was found. Conclusion(s): Survival on VA-ECMO in COVID-19 depends on VA-ECMO indication, which should be considered in further studies and clinical decisions making. Circulatory failure due to vasoplegia should be considered very carefully as indication for VA-ECMO. A high rate of mycotic infections mandates an intense microbiological workup of these patients and must be considered as an important differential diagnosis to CovHI.

3.
Perfusion ; 38(1 Supplement):146, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20244670

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Treatment of severe respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to COVID-19 by veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) had a mortality of up to 70% in Germany. Many patients with COVID-19 need VV-ECMO support longer than 28 days (long-term VV-ECMO). Evidence on mortality, complications during intensive care, functional status after discharge and mortality-predictors for patients supported with long-term VV-ECMO is lacking. Method(s): Retrospective study of 137 consecutive patients treated with VV-ECMO for ARDS due to COVID-19 at University Hospital Regensburg from March 2020 to March 2022. Result(s): 38% (n=52;87% male) of patients needed longterm VV-ECMO support. In these, SOFA score (median [IQR]) at ECMO initiation was 9 [8-11], age 58.2 [50.6- 62.5] years, PaO2/FiO2-ratio 67 [52-88] mmHg, pCO262 [52-74] mmHg, Murray-Score 3.3 [3.0-3.6] and PEEP 15 [13 - 16] cmH2O. Duration of long-term support was 45 [35-65] days. 26 (50%) patients were discharged from the ICU. Only one patient died after hospital discharge. At VVECMO initiation, baseline characteristics did not differ between deceased and survivors. Complications were frequent (acute kidney injury: 31/52, renal replacement therapy: 14/52, pulmonary embolism: 21/52, intracranial hemorrhage 8/52, major bleeding 34/52 and secondary sclerosing cholangitis: 5/52) and more frequent in the deceased. Karnofsky index (normal 100) after rehabilitation was 70 [57.5-82.5]. Twelve of the 18 patients discharged from rehabilitation had a satisfactory quality of life according to their own subjective assessment. Four patients required nursing support. Mortality-predictors within the first 30 days on VV-ECMO only observed in those who deceased later, were: Bilirubin >5mg/dl for > 7 days, pulmonary compliance <10ml/mbar for >14 days, and repeated serum concentrations of interleukin 8 >150ng/L. Conclusion(s): Long-term extracorporeal lung support in patients with COVID-19 resulted in 50 % survival and subsequently lead to a satisfactory quality of life and functionality in the majority of patients. It should preferably be performed in experienced centers because of a high incidence of complications. Several findings during the early course were associated with late mortality but need validation in large prospective studies.

4.
Perfusion ; 38(1 Supplement):145-146, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20244669

ABSTRACT

Objectives: In COVID-19 associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring VV-ECMO, ventilator-associated-pneumonia (VAP), pulmonary aspergillosis and viral reactivations are observed frequently, but there is only little knowledge on incidence, onset and causative pathogens. This study analyzes frequency of VAP, pulmonary aspergillus infections, and viral reactivations in a large cohort of patients with ARDS treated with VV-ECMO due to either COVID-19 or Influenza. Method(s): Retrospective analysis of all consecutively patients at the University Hospital Regensburg requiring VVECMO due to COVID-19 (March 2020 and May 2022) or Influenza (May 2012 and December 2022). VAP was diagnosed according to current guidelines. Pulmonary Aspergillosis met criteria of probable COVID-associated Aspergillosis according to current guidelines. Result(s): 147 patients (age (median [IQR]) 55.3 [48.7 - 61.7], SOFA at VV-ECMO initiation 9 [8 - 12], 23 [14 - 38] days on VV-ECMO) suffering from COVID-19 and 72 influenza patients (age 55.3 [46 - 61.3], SOFA at VV-ECMO initiation 13 [10 - 15], 16 [10 - 23] days on VV-ECMO) were included in the analysis. Pulmonary superinfections were more frequent in COVID-19 than in influenza (VAP: 61% vs. 39%, pulmonary Aspergillosis: 33% vs. 22%, CMV reactivation: 19% vs. 4%, HSV reactivation: 49% vs. 26%.) The first episode of VAP in COVID-19 and Influenza was detected 2 days [1 - 15] after and 1 day (-3 - 22) before ECMO initiation, respectively. First VAP-episode in COVID-19 were mainly caused by Klebsiella spp. (29%,), Staphylococcus aureus (27%) and E. coli (11%). Further VAP-episodes (30% in COVID-19) and relapses of VAP were mainly caused by Klebsiella spp. (53%, 64%, respectively). In Influenza, VAP was mainly caused by Staphylococcus aureus (28%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae(28%), further VAP episodes were not observed. Conclusion(s): Superinfections were common in patients treated with VV-ECMO and occur more frequently in COVID-19 ARDS compared to Influenza. VAP occurs early and may significantly contribute to the need of VV-ECMO. Therefore, a meticulous routine microbiologic workup is advisable. The observed differences in the spectrum of secondary infectious agents in COVID19 compared to Influenza are not understood yet.

6.
Perfusion ; 38(1 Supplement):175-176, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20240537

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Besides in-centre ECMO care, the certificated ECMO centre of the University Hospital Regensburg (UKR) offers out-of-centre ECMO initiation with mobile equipment. During the pandemic situation, this treatment was especially meant for patients with critical cardiopulmonary failure in remote hospitals who present themselves as too unstable for interhospital transfer. We evaluated if treatment with outof-centre ECMO initiation could benefit patients;outcome, by comparing this group with a group of COVID-19 patients who received ECMO therapy at the UKR by in-hospital initiation. Method(s): Retrospective single-centre study including 169 patients who received ECMO due to COVID-19- induced cardiopulmonary failure between March 2020 till March 2022. Patients;population was separated into two groups according to the location of ECMO initiation, out-of-centre or in-centre, and into two subgroups by the used ECMO mode, venovenous (VV) or venoarterial (VA). We compared demographics, treatment duration, adverse events and patient;s outcome. The primary endpoint of the investigation was patients;survival to hospital discharge rate or death on ECMO or after ECMO explant. Result(s): Regarding the total study population, 98 (58.0%) of the 169 patients could be discharged from the UKR. Before initiation of ECMO therapy and with regard to complications during the course of intensive care, such as renal failure requiring dialysis or bleeding, there were no relevant differences between the two groups and subgroups. The out-of-centre group showed a significantly higher survival rate with 70 (63.6%) survivors out of 110 externally cannulated patients. Conclusion(s): In the study population, external ECMO cannulation was beneficial in terms of survival, although the reasons did not show significant differences between the groups. A possible approach for the good overall survival of the study groups in international comparison could be the existing centre expertise. (Figure Presented).

7.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 119(31-32): 544-545, 2022 Aug 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310603
8.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology ; 143(5 Supplement):S38, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2294989

ABSTRACT

Vaccines based on recombinant mRNA technology helped to control the pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Clinical trials for showed that these vaccines are safe and effective and promote a strong type 1 driven T cell response. Yet, several reports claimed that SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination might favor the onset, worsening or the reactivation of autoimmune disorders like pemphigus and bullous pemphigoid. However, no study demonstrated a direct immunological link between mRNA vaccination and disease appearance/worsening. We aimed to analyze the immunological and clinical effects exerted by mRNA booster vaccinations for SARS-CoV-2 in a cohort of patients with pemphigus (n=9), bullous pemphigoid (n=4) and in healthy individuals (n=5). Patients and healthy individuals were monitored at baseline, and after two and four weeks of mRNA vaccination. We assessed the clinical disease status, antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, antibody levels for BP180/230, DSG1/3 and tetanustoxoid. We also determined the distribution of peripheral T helper / T follicular cell subsets, intracellular cytokine production of T cells and cytokine serum levels. Our results show that booster vaccination increased anti spike protein IgG, while tetanustoxoid igC and skin-specific autoantibody titers were not or minimally affected. We observed an increase in Th1/Th17.1 cells, together with an increase in the intracellular production of IFN-gamma, IL-4 and IL-21 in peripheral T cells of pemphigus patients. Importantly, clinical activity in both remittent patients and in patients with active disease remained stable. In summary, vaccination with mRNA vaccines induced a specific activation of the humoral system with production of protective antibodies against the Sars-CoV-2 spike protein without affecting autoimmune disease activity in patients with pemphigus and bullous pemphigoid.Copyright © 2023

9.
Infection ; 2022 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282418

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Post-COVID syndrome is increasingly recognized as a new clinical entity after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients living in rural areas may have to travel long with subjectively great effort to be examined using all necessary interdisciplinary tools. This problem could be addressed with mobile outpatient clinics. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, we investigated physical fitness, fatigue, depression, cognitive dysfunction, and dyspnea in patients with post-COVID syndrome in a mobile interdisciplinary post-COVID outpatient clinic. Upon referral from their primary care physician, patients were offered an appointment at a mobile post-COVID outpatient clinic close to their home. RESULTS: We studied 125 patients (female, n = 79; 63.2%) in our mobile unit. All patients reported symptoms lasting for more than 12 weeks after acute infection. 88.3% and 64.1% of patients reported significant impairment in physical and mental quality of life. Patients reported a median of three symptoms. The most frequently reported symptoms were fatigue (86.4%), cognitive dysfunction (85.6%), and dyspnea (37.6%). 56.0% of patients performed at < 2.5th percentile at the 1 min sit-to-stand test compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls, and 25 patients (20.0%) exhibited a drop in oxygen saturation. A questionnaire given to each patient regarding the mobile unit revealed a very high level of patient satisfaction. CONCLUSION: There is an increasing need for high-quality and locally available care for patients with post-COVID syndrome. A mobile post-COVID outpatient clinic is a new concept that may be particularly suitable for use in rural regions. Patients' satisfaction following visits in such units is very high.

10.
Environmental Pollution ; 316, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2242802

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the levels and phenomenology of equivalent black carbon (eBC) at the city center of Augsburg, Germany (01/2018 to 12/2020). Furthermore, the potential health risk of eBC based on equivalent numbers of passively smoked cigarettes (PSC) was also evaluated, with special emphasis on the impact caused by the COVID19 lockdown restriction measures. As it could be expected, peak concentrations of eBC were commonly recorded in morning (06:00–8:00 LT) and night (19:00–22:00 LT) in all seasons, coinciding with traffic rush hours and atmospheric stagnation. The variability of eBC was highly influenced by diurnal variations in traffic and meteorology (air temperature (T), mixing-layer height (MLH), wind speed (WS)) across days and seasons. Furthermore, a marked "weekend effect” was evidenced, with an average eBC decrease of ∼35% due to lower traffic flow. During the COVID19 lockdown period, an average ∼60% reduction of the traffic flow resulted in ∼30% eBC decrease, as the health risks of eBC exposure was markedly reduced during this period. The implementation of a multilinear regression analysis allowed to explain for 53% of the variability in measured eBC, indicating that the several factors (e.g., traffic and meteorology) may contribute simultaneously to this proportion. Overall, this study will provide valuable input to the policy makers to mitigate eBC pollutant and its adverse effect on environment and human health. © 2022 Elsevier Ltd

12.
Ther Apher Dial ; 27(4): 790-801, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2230396

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Following SARS-CoV-2-infection up to 21% of patients will develop post-COVID-syndrome. Autoantibodies (AAbs) targeting neuronal-ß-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors may provide crucial contributions to the pathophysiology of this condition. Immunoadsorption (IA) has been identified as an effective means of removing AAbs and has resulted in clinical improvements of other autoantibody-associated diseases. METHODS: We determined AAb-levels (anti-ß1/ß2 and anti-M3/M4 receptor) in 178 patients diagnosed with post-COVID-syndrome and described the clinical courses of two patients with elevated AAb-levels that underwent IA-treatment. RESULTS: AAbs were detected in 57% (101/178) of patients diagnosed with post-COVID-syndrome. Substantial reductions in AAb-levels and clinical remission were achieved in one of two patients who was treated with IA. However, this patient relapsed within 6 weeks with a concomitant increase in AAb-levels. CONCLUSION: Collectively, AAbs may play a pathophysiologic role in post-COVID and their removal provide transient benefits in some patients. However, these findings should be further investigated in randomized-controlled-trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Autoantibodies , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndrome
13.
J Clin Med ; 12(2)2023 Jan 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2216459

ABSTRACT

Double plating for proximal humeral fractures (PHF) is an option to increase the primary fixation stability. Clinical data is missing for assessment of clinical and radiological outcome, as well as complications. We retrospectively examined 35 patients with unilateral PHF, who were treated with double plating for PHF between 2013 and 2019. The mean age was 59.5 ± 12 years and the leading fracture type was a varus dislocation (Resch type IV in 55.3%). A head-split was present in 22.9% of the cases. The primary outcome measurement was the radiological neck shaft angle (NSA). The radiological follow-up was 21 ± 16.6 months and the NSA did not differ between the intraoperative and follow-up time point (131.5 ± 6.9° vs. 136.6 ± 13.7°; p = 0.267). The clinical follow-up was 29.5 ± 15.3 months. The Constant-score was 78.5 ± 17 points, the simple-shoulder-test (SST) was 9.3 ± 3.2 points and the subjective shoulder value (SSV) was 78.8 ± 19.5%. The over-all complication rate was 31.4%, and without stiffness 14.3%. An avascular necrosis occurred in two patients (5.7%). In conclusion, this study shows good radiological and functional outcomes after double plating of highly complex proximal humeral fractures, while the complication rate is comparable to the literature. Double plating is a viable option especially for younger patients with complex fractures as a potential alternative to fracture arthroplasty.

14.
Psychiatry Res ; 317: 114836, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008050

ABSTRACT

Neuropsychiatric symptoms are the most common sequelae of long-COVID. As accumulating evidence suggests an impact of survived SARS-CoV-2-infection on brain physiology, it is necessary to further investigate brain structural changes in relation to course and neuropsychiatric symptom burden in long-COVID. To this end, the present study investigated 3T-MRI scans from long-COVID patients suffering from neuropsychiatric symptoms (n = 30), and healthy controls (n = 20). Whole-brain comparison of gray matter volume (GMV) was conducted by voxel-based morphometry. To determine whether changes in GMV are predicted by neuropsychiatric symptom burden and/or initial severity of symptoms of COVID-19 and time since onset of COVID-19 stepwise linear regression analysis was performed. Significantly enlarged GMV in long-COVID patients was present in several clusters (spanning fronto-temporal areas, insula, hippocampus, amygdala, basal ganglia, and thalamus in both hemispheres) when compared to controls. Time since onset of COVID-19 was a significant regressor in four of these clusters with an inverse relationship. No associations with clinical symptom burden were found. GMV alterations in limbic and secondary olfactory areas are present in long-COVID patients and might be dynamic over time. Larger samples and longitudinal data in long-COVID patients are required to further clarify the mediating mechanisms between COVID-19, GMV and neuropsychiatric symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gray Matter , Humans , Gray Matter/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
15.
Pathogens ; 11(5)2022 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869727

ABSTRACT

Humoral immunity is an important body defense system against virus infection and is correlated to patient health status [...].

16.
United European Gastroenterol J ; 10(4): 409-424, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1813612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: International registries have reported high mortality rates in patients with liver disease and COVID-19. However, the extent to which comorbidities contribute to excess COVID-19 mortality in cirrhosis is controversial. METHODS: We used the multinational Lean European Open Survey on SARS-CoV-2-infected patients (LEOSS) to identify patients with cirrhosis documented between March 2020 and March 2021, when the wild-type and alpha variant were predominant. We compared symptoms, disease progression and mortality after propensity score matching (PSM) for age, sex, obesity, smoking status, and concomitant diseases. Mortality was also compared with that of patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) without SARS-CoV-2 infection, a common bacterial infection and well-described precipitator of acute-on-chronic liver failure. RESULTS: Among 7096 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection eligible for analysis, 70 (0.99%) had cirrhosis, and all were hospitalized. Risk factors for severe COVID-19, such as diabetes, renal disease, and cardiovascular disease were more frequent in patients with cirrhosis. Case fatality rate in patients with cirrhosis was 31.4% with the highest odds of death in patients older than 65 years (43.6% mortality; odds ratio [OR] 4.02; p = 0.018), Child-Pugh class C (57.1%; OR 4.00; p = 0.026), and failure of two or more organs (81.8%; OR 19.93; p = 0.001). After PSM for demographics and comorbidity, the COVID-19 case fatality of patients with cirrhosis did not significantly differ from that of matched patients without cirrhosis (28.8% vs. 26.1%; p = 0.644) and was similar to the 28-day mortality in a comparison group of patients with cirrhosis and SBP (33.3% vs. 31.5%; p = 1.000). CONCLUSIONS: In immunologically naïve patients with cirrhosis, mortality from wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and the alpha variant is high and is largely determined by cirrhosis-associated comorbidities and extrahepatic organ failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Registries
17.
Horm Metab Res ; 54(8): 522-531, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805722

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by a wide clinical spectrum that includes abnormalities in liver function indicative of liver damage. Conversely, people with liver diseases are at higher risk of severe COVID-19. In the current review, we summarize first the epidemiologic evidence describing the bidirectional relationship between COVID-19 and liver function/liver diseases. Additionally, we present the most frequent histologic findings as well as the most important direct and indirect mechanisms supporting a COVID-19 mediated liver injury. Furthermore, we focus on the most frequent liver disease in the general population, non-alcoholic or metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (NAFLD/MAFLD), and describe how COVID-19 may affect NAFLD/MAFLD development and progression and conversely how NAFLD/MAFLD may further aggravate a COVID-19 infection. Finally, we present the long-term consequences of the pandemic on the development and management of NAFLD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Humans , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Pandemics , Risk Factors
18.
NPJ Vaccines ; 7(1): 47, 2022 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805616

ABSTRACT

Respiratory tract vaccination has an advantage of needle-free delivery and induction of mucosal immune response in the portal of SARS-CoV-2 entry. We utilized human parainfluenza virus type 3 vector to generate constructs expressing the full spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2, its S1 subunit, or the receptor-binding domain, and tested them in hamsters as single-dose intranasal vaccines. The construct bearing full-length S induced high titers of neutralizing antibodies specific to S protein domains critical to the protein functions. Robust memory T cell responses in the lungs were also induced, which represent an additional barrier to infection and should be less sensitive than the antibody responses to mutations present in SARS-CoV-2 variants. Following SARS-CoV-2 challenge, animals were protected from the disease and detectable viral replication. Vaccination prevented induction of gene pathways associated with inflammation. These results indicate advantages of respiratory vaccination against COVID-19 and inform the design of mucosal SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.

19.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 119(7): 113-114, 2022 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793074
20.
Crit Care Explor ; 4(4): e0671, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769406

ABSTRACT

To investigate the ICU survival of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) patients suffering from COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) versus ECMO patients without COVID-19 (non-COVID-19)-related ARDS. DESIGN: Preliminary analysis of data from two prospective ECMO trials and retrospective analysis of a cohort of ARDS ECMO patients. SETTING: Single-center ICU. PATIENTS: Adult ARDS ECMO patients, 16 COVID-19 versus 23 non-COVID-19 patients. Analysis of retrospective data from 346 adult ARDS ECMO patients. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ARDS patients did not differ with respect to preexisting disease or body mass index. ICU survival rate was 62% for COVID-19 ECMO patients and 70% for non-COVID-19 ECMO patients. COVID-19 ECMO survivors were supported with ECMO for a median of 43 days (interquartile range [IQR], 18-58 d) versus 16 days (IQR, 19-39 d; p = 0.03) for non-COVID-19 patients. The median duration of ECMO therapy for all ARDS patients between 2007 and 2018 was 15 days (IQR, 6-28 d). The subgroup of patients suffering from any viral pneumonia received ECMO support for a median of 16 days (IQR, 9-27 d), survivors of influenza pneumonia received ECMO support for 13 days (IQR, 7-25 d). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients required significant longer ECMO support compared with patients without COVID-19 to achieve successful ECMO weaning and ICU survival.

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