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1.
Neurol Sci ; 42(4): 1237-1245, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064523

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 outbreak highly impacted the acute ischemic stroke care management. The primary end point of the study was to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak and the following lockdown measures on our hub-and-spoke network; the secondary end point was to evaluate if the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak was different in hub-and-spoke centers. METHODS: This was a retrospective multicenter observational study conducted at the Stroke Units of Policlinico Gemelli, Ospedale San Filippo Neri, Ospedale di Belcolle, and Ospedale San Camillo de Lellis. We collected clinical reports of all consecutive patients admitted with diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) during the phase 1 of the lockdown period (11 March 2020-4 May 2020). As controls, we used all consecutive patients admitted for acute ischemic stroke or TIA in the same period of the previous year. RESULTS: A total of 156 and 142 clinical reports were collected in 2019 and 2020, respectively. During the COVID-19 outbreak, we observed a reduction of number of thrombolysis, a reduction of the length of hospitalization, and an increase of pneumonia. Regarding performance indicators, we observed an increase in onset-to-door time and in door-to-groin time. We did not observe any statistically significant interaction between year (2019 vs 2020) and facility of admission (hub vs spoke) on all variables analyzed. DISCUSSION: Our observational study, involving hub-and-spoke stroke network of a wide regional area, indicates that the COVID-19 outbreak impacted on the acute stroke management. This impact was equally observed in hub as well as in spoke centers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Quarantine , Stroke/therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient/epidemiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Italy/epidemiology , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Thrombolytic Therapy/statistics & numerical data
2.
Front Neurol ; 11: 616550, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006082

ABSTRACT

Background: The containment measures taken by Italian government authorities during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic caused the interruption of neurological activities of outpatient clinics. Vulnerable patients, as Parkinson's disease (PD) and dystonic patients with deep brain stimulation (DBS), may have an increased risk of chronic stress related to social restriction measures and may show a potential worsening of motor and psychiatric symptoms. Methods: This cross-sectional multicenter study was carried out during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and was based on a structured survey administered during a telephone call. The questionnaire was designed to gather motor and/or psychiatric effects of the lockdown and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemiologic information in PD and dystonic patients with a functioning DBS implant. Results: One hundred four patients were included in the study, 90 affected by PD and 14 by dystonia. Forty-nine patients reported a subjective perception of worsening of global neurological symptoms (motor and/or psychiatric) related to the containment measures. In the multivariate analysis, having problems with the DBS device was the only independent predictor of motor worsening [odds ratio (OR) = 3.10 (1.22-7.91), p = 0.018]. Independent predictors of psychiatric worsening were instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) score [OR = 0.78 (0.64-0.95), p = 0.012] and problems with DBS [OR = 5.69 (1.95-16.62), p = 0.001]. Only one patient underwent nasopharyngeal swabs, both negative, and no patient received a diagnosis of COVID-19. Conclusions: Lockdown restriction measures were associated with subjective worsening of motor and psychiatric symptoms in PD and dystonic patients treated with DBS, and they may have exacerbated the burden of neurological disease and increased the chronic stress related to the DBS management.

3.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 581144, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983681

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic represents a condition of increased vulnerability and frailty for elderly patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Social isolation may worsen the burden of the disease and specifically exacerbate psychiatric symptoms, often comorbid with PD. This study aimed at identifying risk/protective factors associated with subjective worsening of psychiatric symptomatology during the COVID-19 outbreak in a sample of individuals with PD aged 65 years or older. Methods: Patients with PD routinely followed at the outpatient clinic of Gemelli University Hospital, Rome, were assessed for subjective worsening of psychiatric symptoms through a dedicated telephone survey, after Italy COVID-19 lockdown. Patients' medical records were reviewed to collect sociodemographic and clinical data, including lifetime psychiatric symptoms and pharmacological treatment. Results: Overall, 134 individuals were assessed and 101 (75.4%) reported lifetime psychiatric symptoms. Among those, 23 (22.8%) presented with subjective worsening of psychiatric symptomatology during the COVID-19 outbreak. In this group, the most frequent symptom was depression (82.6%), followed by insomnia (52.2%). Subjective worsening of neurological symptoms (Wald = 24.03, df = 1, p = 0.001) and lifetime irritability (Wald = 6.35, df = 1, p = 0.020), together with younger age (Wald = 5.06, df = 1, p = 0.038) and female sex (Wald = 9.07 df = 1, p = 0.007), resulted as specific risk factors for ingravescence of psychiatric presentation. Lifetime pre-existing delusions, having received antipsychotics, and not having received mood stabilizer were also associated with subjective worsening of psychiatric symptomatology due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusions: Individuals with PD and lifetime history of psychiatric symptoms may be exposed to increased vulnerability to the stressful effect of COVID-19 outbreak. Interventions aimed at reducing irritability and mood instability might have an indirect effect on the health of patients with PD during the COVID-19 pandemic.

5.
Neurol Sci ; 41(9): 2309-2313, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-649625

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the lockdown measures, consequent to the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic, on the quality of pre-hospital and in-hospital care of patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: This is an observational cohort study. Data sources were the clinical reports of patients admitted during the first month of lockdown and discharged with a confirmed diagnosis of stroke or TIA. Data were collected in the interval ranging from March 11th to April 11th 2020. As controls, we evaluated the clinical reports of patients with stroke or TIA admitted in the same period of 2019. RESULTS: The clinical reports of patients eligible for the study were 52 in 2020 (71.6 ± 12.2 years) and 41 in 2019 (73.7 ± 13.1 years). During the lockdown, we observed a significant increase in onset-to-door time (median = 387 vs 161 min, p = 0.001), a significant reduction of the total number of thrombolysis (7 vs 13, p = 0.033), a non-significant increase of thrombectomy (15 vs 9, p = 0.451), and a significant increase in door-to-groin time (median = 120 vs 93 min, p = 0.048). No relevant difference was observed between 2019 and 2020 in the total number of patients admitted. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown measures, the stroke care pathway changed, involving both pre-hospital and in-hospital performances.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quarantine/methods , Stroke/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Management , Female , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Quarantine/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/therapy
6.
Front Neurol ; 11: 564, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612883

ABSTRACT

Objective: Neurological sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection have already been reported, but there is insufficient data about the impact of the pandemic on the management of the patients with chronic neurological diseases. We aim to analyze the effect of COVID-19 pandemic and social restriction rules on these fragile patients. Methods: Patients with chronic neurologic diseases routinely followed at the outpatient clinic of Gemelli University Hospital, Rome, were assessed for symptoms suggestive of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the pandemic period, consequences of social restrictions, and neurological disease features, concomitant medical conditions, current medical and disease-specific treatments. Data source: a dedicated telephone survey designed to encompass questions on COVID-19 symptoms and on pandemic effects in chronic neurologic conditions. Results: Overall, 2,167 individuals were analyzed: 63 patients reported contact with COVID-19 positive cases, 41 performed the swab, and 2 symptomatic patients tested positive for COVID-19 (0.09%). One hundred fifty-eight individuals (7%) needed urgent neurological care, deferred due to the pandemic; 641 patients (30%) suspended hospital treatments, physiotherapy or other support interventions; 405 individuals (19%) reported a subjective worsening of neurological symptoms. Conclusions: In our population, the presence of neurological chronic diseases did not increase the prevalence of COVID-19 infection. Nevertheless, the burden of neurological disorders has been worsened by the lockdown.

7.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(10): 105074, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611370

ABSTRACT

Recent evidence has underlined the association between large-vessel stroke and COVID-19, probably due to a proinflammatory and prothrombotic microenvironment induced by SARS-CoV-2. Here, we report the case of a young fit woman affected by COVID-19 without any flu-like symptom, who suffered from speech disorder and left hemiparesis. Brain magnetic resonance evidenced two small acute brain infarctions in right perirolandic cortex without signs of previous ischemic lesions and hemorrhagic infarction. Diagnostic workup excluded cardiac embolic sources, acquired and inherited thrombophilia or autoimmune diseases. Two positive nasopharyngeal swab tests and high titers of serum specific IgA/IgM confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis. In our case stroke seems to be the only manifestation of SARS-COV-2 infection. Therefore the hypothesis of an underlying viral infection, as COVID-19, should be investigated in all the cases of small vessel cryptogenic stroke.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Stroke/etiology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Middle Aged , Nursing Staff, Hospital , Pandemics , Paresis/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Speech Disorders/etiology , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/virology
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