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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319210

ABSTRACT

We analyzed 5,484 close contacts of COVID-19 cases from Italy, all of them tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection. We found an infection fatality ratio of 2.2% (95%CI 1.69-2.81%) and identified male sex, age >70 years, cardiovascular comorbidities, and infection early in the epidemics as risk factors for death.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315776

ABSTRACT

Background: The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has hardly affected the entire world. Vaccines against COVID-19 appear as a tool able to curb out the mortality and to reduce the circulation of the virus. Little is known so far about the clinical characteristics of individuals who developed SARS-CoV-2 infection after having received the vaccination, as well as the temporal relationship between vaccine administration and symptoms onset. Methods: : Retrospective cohort study among the healthcare workers (HCWs) of the Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico of Milano, vaccinated with the BNT162b2 vaccine who developed SARS-CoV-2 infection (documented through positive RT-PCR on NPSs). Results: : Overall, we have identified 15 HCWs with SARS-CoV-2 infection after vaccination, 7 (46.7%) of them were male and the mean age was 38.4 years (SD 14). In 4 of them the presence of SARS-CoV-2 anti-nucleocapside (anti-N) antibodies was assessed before vaccination and resulted positive in 1 case. In all HCWs the presence of SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike (anti-S1) antibodies was assessed, in average 42.2 days after the completion of vaccination, with a mean value of 2,055 U/mL (SD 1,927.3). SARS-CoV-2 infection was ascertained in average 56.2 days after vaccination. The mean cycle threshold (Ct) of SARS-CoV-2 PCR was 26.4, the lineage was characterized in 9 HCWs. None of the HCWs reported a primary or secondary immunodeficiency. Regarding symptoms, they were reported only by 7 (46.7%) HCWs and appeared on average 55 days after the second dose of vaccination. Of those who reported symptoms, one (14.3%) had fever, 7 (100%) rhinitis/conjunctivitis, 4 (57.1%) taste and smell alterations, none had respiratory symptoms, 4 headache/arthralgia (57.1%) and 1 gastrointestinal symptoms (14.3%). All symptoms disappeared in a few days and no other unclassified symptoms were reported. Conclusions: : Infections occurring after vaccination with BNT162b2 vaccine are mostly asymptomatic and are not associated with the serum titre of anti-S1 antibodies. We did not find a predominance of a specific viral variants, with several lineages represented.

3.
Vaccine ; 40(10): 1397-1403, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683651

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In occurrence of the coronavirusdisease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, carrying out an efficient large-scale vaccination campaign is vital in order to control the virus. Especially in high prevalence areas of COVID - 19, it is crucial to implement an effective vaccination strategy. In Italy, programming an efficient COVID-19 mass vaccination campaign has been the main target of the Ministry of Health. AIMS: This paper gives a comprehensive overview of how the mass vaccination campaign is performed in Milan, one of the cities that has been mostly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy. We analyze the vaccination strategy implemented by Fondazione Ca' Granda - Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico located in Milan. Furthermore, we compare the organization of this campaign in regards of those carried out across EU and UK. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data derive from an analysis of the different vaccination plans implemented across EU and UK from the 27/12/2020 to the 15/06/2020. In addition, we discuss the data collected from the internal data server of IRCCS Fondazione Ca' Granda - Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico from the 15/02/2021 to the 15/06/2021.The collected data are examined by means of descriptive statistics. RESULTS: From the analysis of the internal data server, we observe that the modular organization of Fiera Milano City guarantees up to 5000 vaccinations/day. Moreover, the precise flow organization of users and a series of strategies adopted to avoid identification errors or vaccine type administration errors are crucial to reach the aforementioned target. CONCLUSIONS: The institution of mass vaccination centers thanks to the optimization of all the involved processes and the meticulous organization of these structures, allows to avoid crowds and guarantees the administration of elevated amounts of vaccines. All these elements assure a rapid vaccination coverage of the population in Lombardy, with a meaningful increase in daily administration doses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Mass Vaccination , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
4.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 102(4): 115635, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631995

ABSTRACT

Use of antigen tests for the diagnosis of COVID-19 has become widespread. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the nasopharyngeal rapid antigen diagnostic (RAD) immunoassay LumiraDx UK in an Emergency Department (ED). All patients admitted to our ED between November 11 and December 8, 2020, and had both a RAD test and a real-time-reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) test were enrolled. RAD was considered as the index test and RT-PCR test was used as the reference standard. Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values, and likelihood ratios were calculated with the 95% confidence interval. The sensitivity and specificity of RAD were 34.2% and 92.3%. Positive and negative likelihood ratios were 4.4 and 0.71. Our results demonstrate that the diagnostic accuracy of the LumiraDx RAD test is too low for routine use as a diagnostic method in the ED.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
Am J Epidemiol ; 191(1): 137-146, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621545

ABSTRACT

During the spring of 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic caused an unprecedented demand for intensive-care resources in the Lombardy region of Italy. Using data on 43,538 hospitalized patients admitted between February 21 and July 12, 2020, we evaluated variations in intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and mortality over the course of 3 periods: the early phase of the pandemic (February 21-March 13), the period of highest pressure on the health-care system (March 14-April 25, when numbers of COVID-19 patients exceeded prepandemic ICU bed capacity), and the declining phase (April 26-July 12). Compared with the early phase, patients aged 70 years or more were less often admitted to an ICU during the period of highest pressure on the health-care system (odds ratio (OR) = 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.41, 0.54), with longer ICU delays (incidence rate ratio = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.52, 2.18) and lower chances of dying in the ICU (OR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.64). Patients under 56 years of age had more limited changes in the probability of (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.76) and delay to (incidence rate ratio = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.42) ICU admission and increased mortality (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.00, 2.07). In the declining phase, all quantities decreased for all age groups. These patterns may suggest that limited health-care resources during the peak phase of the epidemic in Lombardy forced a shift in ICU admission criteria to prioritize patients with higher chances of survival.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Time Factors
6.
Epidemics ; 37: 100528, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520903

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the night of February 20, 2020, the first epidemic of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outside Asia was uncovered by the identification of its first patient in Lombardy region, Italy. In the following weeks, Lombardy experienced a sudden increase in the number of ascertained infections and strict measures were imposed to contain the epidemic spread. METHODS: We analyzed official records of cases occurred in Lombardy to characterize the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 during the early phase of the outbreak. A line list of laboratory-confirmed cases was set up and later retrospectively consolidated, using standardized interviews to ascertained cases and their close contacts. We provide estimates of the serial interval, of the basic reproduction number, and of the temporal variation of the net reproduction number of SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: Epidemiological investigations detected over 500 cases (median age: 69, IQR: 57-78) before the first COVID-19 diagnosed patient (February 20, 2020), and suggested that SARS-CoV-2 was already circulating in at least 222 out of 1506 (14.7%) municipalities with sustained transmission across all the Lombardy provinces. We estimated the mean serial interval to be 6.6 days (95% CrI, 0.7-19). Our estimates of the basic reproduction number range from 2.6 in Pavia (95% CI, 2.1-3.2) to 3.3 in Milan (95% CI, 2.9-3.8). A decreasing trend in the net reproduction number was observed following the detection of the first case. CONCLUSIONS: At the time of first case notification, COVID-19 was already widespread in the entire Lombardy region. This may explain the large number of critical cases experienced by this region in a very short timeframe. The slight decrease of the reproduction number observed in the early days after February 20, 2020 might be due to increased population awareness and early interventions implemented before the regional lockdown imposed on March 8, 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
JAMA ; 323(16): 1574-1581, 2020 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453471

ABSTRACT

Importance: In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]) emerged in China and has spread globally, creating a pandemic. Information about the clinical characteristics of infected patients who require intensive care is limited. Objective: To characterize patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) requiring treatment in an intensive care unit (ICU) in the Lombardy region of Italy. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective case series of 1591 consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 referred for ICU admission to the coordinator center (Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy) of the COVID-19 Lombardy ICU Network and treated at one of the ICUs of the 72 hospitals in this network between February 20 and March 18, 2020. Date of final follow-up was March 25, 2020. Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay of nasal and pharyngeal swabs. Main Outcomes and Measures: Demographic and clinical data were collected, including data on clinical management, respiratory failure, and patient mortality. Data were recorded by the coordinator center on an electronic worksheet during telephone calls by the staff of the COVID-19 Lombardy ICU Network. Results: Of the 1591 patients included in the study, the median (IQR) age was 63 (56-70) years and 1304 (82%) were male. Of the 1043 patients with available data, 709 (68%) had at least 1 comorbidity and 509 (49%) had hypertension. Among 1300 patients with available respiratory support data, 1287 (99% [95% CI, 98%-99%]) needed respiratory support, including 1150 (88% [95% CI, 87%-90%]) who received mechanical ventilation and 137 (11% [95% CI, 9%-12%]) who received noninvasive ventilation. The median positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was 14 (IQR, 12-16) cm H2O, and Fio2 was greater than 50% in 89% of patients. The median Pao2/Fio2 was 160 (IQR, 114-220). The median PEEP level was not different between younger patients (n = 503 aged ≤63 years) and older patients (n = 514 aged ≥64 years) (14 [IQR, 12-15] vs 14 [IQR, 12-16] cm H2O, respectively; median difference, 0 [95% CI, 0-0]; P = .94). Median Fio2 was lower in younger patients: 60% (IQR, 50%-80%) vs 70% (IQR, 50%-80%) (median difference, -10% [95% CI, -14% to 6%]; P = .006), and median Pao2/Fio2 was higher in younger patients: 163.5 (IQR, 120-230) vs 156 (IQR, 110-205) (median difference, 7 [95% CI, -8 to 22]; P = .02). Patients with hypertension (n = 509) were older than those without hypertension (n = 526) (median [IQR] age, 66 years [60-72] vs 62 years [54-68]; P < .001) and had lower Pao2/Fio2 (median [IQR], 146 [105-214] vs 173 [120-222]; median difference, -27 [95% CI, -42 to -12]; P = .005). Among the 1581 patients with ICU disposition data available as of March 25, 2020, 920 patients (58% [95% CI, 56%-61%]) were still in the ICU, 256 (16% [95% CI, 14%-18%]) were discharged from the ICU, and 405 (26% [95% CI, 23%-28%]) had died in the ICU. Older patients (n = 786; age ≥64 years) had higher mortality than younger patients (n = 795; age ≤63 years) (36% vs 15%; difference, 21% [95% CI, 17%-26%]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this case series of critically ill patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to ICUs in Lombardy, Italy, the majority were older men, a large proportion required mechanical ventilation and high levels of PEEP, and ICU mortality was 26%.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Positive-Pressure Respiration/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Distribution , Young Adult
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367823

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: since October 2020, a second SARS-CoV-2 epidemic wave has hit Italy. We investigate the frequency of positive nasopharyngeal swabs among HCWs during the two waves and the association with occupation and demographic characteristics. METHODS: this is a retrospective, observational study conducted in a large university hospital in Milan, Northern Italy. We defined two epidemic waves: 1st (February 2020-July 2020) and 2nd (August 2020-January 2021). Occupational and demographic characteristics of HCWs who underwent nasopharyngeal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 were collected. RESULTS: in the 1st wave, 242 positive subjects (7.2%) were found among 3378 HCWs, whereas in the 2nd wave, the positive subjects were 545 out of 4465 (12.2%). In both epidemic waves positive NPSs were more frequent among HCWs with health-related tasks and lower among students (p < 0.001). However, in the 2nd wave, workers engaged in non-health-related tasks had a peak of 20.7% positivity. Among 160 positive HCWs in the 1st wave who were tested again in the 2nd wave, the rate of reinfection based on SARS-CoV2 RNA cycle quantification value was 0.6%. CONCLUSIONS: during the 2nd epidemic wave, we confirmed a significant impact of COVID-19 among HCWs. The rise of infection rate among HCWs seems to reflect the increasing spread of SARS-CoV-2 among the overall population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Health Personnel , Hospitals, University , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(8): 1120-1122, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364261

ABSTRACT

Great expectations are placed in vaccines against COVID-19 to control the pandemic. We reviewed the antibody titres in a cohort of healthcare workers (HCWs) vaccinated with BNT162b2 to assess the influence of a previous infection on them. We stratified the results according to the individual history of nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and symptoms. Among 3475 HCWs the highest titres were recorded among those infected more than 6 months before vaccination, independently of symptoms, followed by those infected less than 6 months before vaccination, especially in those with symptoms, and by uninfected HCWs. Vaccination with BNT162b2 can boost immunity acquired through infection, particularly in those infected more than 6 months before vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Vaccination
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(7): e2115699, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296685

ABSTRACT

Importance: Identifying health care settings and professionals at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection is crucial to defining appropriate strategies, resource allocation, and protocols to protect health care workers (HCWs) and patients. Moreover, such information is crucial to decrease the risk that HCWs and health care facilities become amplifiers for SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the community. Objective: To assess the association of different health care professional categories and operational units, including in-hospital wards, outpatient facilities, and territorial care departments, with seroprevalence and odds of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study was conducted using IgG serological tests collected from April 1 through May 26, 2020, in the Lombardy region in Italy. Voluntary serological screening was offered to all clinical and nonclinical staff providing any health care services or support to health care services in the region. Data were analyzed from June 2020 through April 2021. Exposures: Employment in the health care sector. Main Outcomes and Measures: Seroprevalence of positive IgG antibody tests for SARS-CoV-2 was collected, and odds ratios of experiencing infection were calculated. Results: A total of 140 782 professionals employed in the health sector were invited to participate in IgG serological screening, among whom 82 961 individuals (59.0% response rate) were tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, with median (interquartile range [IQR]; range) age, 50 (40-56; 19-83) years and 59 839 (72.1%) women. Among these individuals, 10 115 HCWs (12.2%; 95% CI, 12.0%-12.4%) had positive results (median [IQR; range] age, 50 [39-55; 20-80] years; 7298 [72.2%] women). Statistically significantly higher odds of infection were found among health assistants (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.48; 95% CI, 1.33-1.65) and nurses (aOR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.17-1.41) compared with administrative staff and among workers employed in internal medicine (aOR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.87-2.68), palliative care (aOR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.38-2.44), rehabilitation (aOR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.33-1.91), and emergency departments (aOR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.29-1.89) compared with those working as telephone operators. Statistically significantly lower odds of infection were found among individuals working in forensic medicine (aOR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.19-0.88), histology and anatomical pathology (aOR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.52-0.97), and medical device sterilization (aOR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.35-0.84) compared with those working as telephone operators. The odds of infection for physicians and laboratory personnel were not statistically significantly different from those found among administrative staff. The odds of infection for workers employed in intensive care units and infectious disease wards were not statistically significantly different from those of telephone operators. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that professionals partially accustomed to managing infectious diseases had higher odds of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The findings further suggest that adequate organization of clinical wards and personnel, appropriate personal protective equipment supply, and training of all workers directly and repeatedly exposed to patients with clinical or subclinical COVID-19 should be prioritized to decrease the risk of infection in health care settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Pandemics , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Infection Control , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Personal Protective Equipment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
11.
Euro Surveill ; 25(31)2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696483

ABSTRACT

We analysed 5,484 close contacts of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) cases in Italy, all tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Infection fatality ratio was 0.43% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.21-0.79) for individuals younger than 70 years and 10.5% (95% CI: 8.0-13.6) for older individuals. Risk of death after infection was 62% lower (95% CI: 31-80) in clusters identified after 16 March 2020 and 1.8-fold higher for males (95% CI: 1.03-3.16).


Subject(s)
Contact Tracing/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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