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1.
Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1837206

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection evokes various systemic alterations that push patients not only towards severe acute respiratory syndrome but causes an important metabolic dysregulation with following multi-organ alteration and potentially poor outcome. To discover novel potential biomarkers able to predict disease’s severity and patient’s outcome, in this study we applied untargeted lipidomics, by a reversed phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-trapped ion mobility mass spectrometry platform (RP-UHPLC-TIMS-MS), on blood samples collected at hospital admission in an Italian cohort of COVID-19 patients (45 mild, 54 severe, 21 controls). In a subset of patients, we also collected a second blood sample in correspondence of clinical phenotype modification (longitudinal population). Plasma lipid profiles revealed several lipids significantly modified in COVID-19 patients with respect to controls and able to discern between mild and severe clinical phenotype. Severe patients were characterized by a progressive decrease in the levels of LPCs, LPC-Os, PC-Os, and, on the contrary, an increase in overall TGs, PEs, and Ceramides. A machine learning model was built by using both the entire dataset and with a restricted lipid panel dataset, delivering comparable results in predicting severity (AUC= 0.777, CI: 0.639-0.904) and outcome (AUC= 0.789, CI: 0.658-0.910). Finally, re-building the with 25 longitudinal (t1) samples, this resulted in 21 patients correctly classified. In conclusion, this study highlights specific lipid profiles that could be used monitor the possible trajectory of COVID-19 patients at hospital admission, which could be used in targeted approaches.

3.
ProQuest Central;
Preprint in English | ProQuest Central | ID: ppcovidwho-328284

ABSTRACT

Background Scientific evidence for the involvement of human microbiota in the development of COVID-19 disease has been reported recently. SARS-CoV-2 RNA presence in human faecal samples and SARS-CoV-2 activity in faeces from COVID-19 patients have been observed. Methods Starting from these observations, an experimental design was developed to cultivate in vitro faecal microbiota from infected individuals, to monitor the presence of SARS-CoV-2, and to collect data on the relationship between faecal bacteria and the virus. Results Our results indicate that SARS-CoV-2 replicates in vitro in bacterial growth medium, that the viral replication follows bacterial growth and it is influenced by the administration of specific antibiotics. SARS-CoV-2-related peptides have been detected in 30-day bacterial cultures and characterised. Discussion Our observations are compatible with a ‘bacteriophage-like’ behaviour of SARS-CoV-2, which, to our knowledge has not been observed or described before. These results are unexpected and hint towards a novel hypothesis on the biology of SARS-CoV-2 and on the COVID-19 epidemiology. The discovery of possible new modes of action of SARS-CoV-2 has far-reaching implications for the prevention and the treatment of the disease.

4.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325811

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 that causes COVID-19 disease and led to the pandemic currently affecting the world has been broadly investigated. Different studies have been performed to understand the infection mechanism, and the involved human genes, transcripts and proteins. In parallel, numerous clinical extra-pulmonary manifestations co-occurring with COVID-19 disease have been reported and evidence of their severity and persistence is increasing. Whether these manifestations are linked to other disorders co-occurring with SARS-CoV-2 infection, is under discussion. In this work, we report the identification of toxin-like peptides in COVID-19 patients by application of the Liquid Chromatography Surface-Activated Chemical Ionization – Cloud Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry.   Methods: Plasma, urine and faecal samples from COVID-19 patients and control individuals were analysed to study peptidomic toxins’ profiles. Protein precipitation preparation procedure was used for plasma, to remove high molecular weight proteins and efficiently solubilize the peptide fraction; in the case of faeces and urine, direct peptide solubilization was employed.   Results: Toxin-like peptides, almost identical to toxic components of venoms from animals, like conotoxins, phospholipases, phosphodiesterases, zinc metal proteinases, and bradykinins, were identified in samples from COVID-19 patients, but not in control samples.  Conclusions: The presence of toxin-like peptides could potentially be connected to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Their presence suggests a possible association between COVID-19 disease and the release in the body of (oligo-)peptides almost identical to toxic components of venoms from animals. Their involvement in a large set of heterogeneous extra-pulmonary COVID-19 clinical manifestations, like neurological ones, cannot be excluded. Although the presence of each individual symptom is not selective of the disease, their combination might be related to COVID-19 by the coexistence of the panel of the here detected toxin-like peptides. The presence of these peptides opens new scenarios on the aetiology of the COVID-19 clinical symptoms observed up to now, including neurological manifestations.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307337

ABSTRACT

Background:  SARS-CoV-2 that causes COVID-19 disease and led to the pandemic currently affecting the world has been broadly investigated. Different studies have been performed to understand the infection mechanism, and the involved human genes, transcripts and proteins. In parallel, numerous clinical extra-pulmonary manifestations co-occurring with COVID-19 disease have been reported and evidence of their severity and persistence is increasing. Whether these manifestations are linked to other disorders co-occurring with SARS-CoV-2 infection, is under discussion. In this work, we report the identification of toxin-like peptides in COVID-19 patients by application of the Liquid Chromatography Surface-Activated Chemical Ionization – Cloud Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry.   Methods:  Plasma, urine and faecal samples from COVID-19 patients and control individuals were analysed to study peptidomic toxins’ profiles. Protein precipitation preparation procedure was used for plasma, to remove high molecular weight proteins and efficiently solubilize the peptide fraction; in the case of faeces and urine, direct peptide solubilization was employed.   Results:  Toxin-like peptides, almost identical to toxic components of venoms from animals, like conotoxins, phospholipases, phosphodiesterases, zinc metal proteinases, and bradykinins, were identified in samples from COVID-19 patients, but not in control samples.  Conclusions:  The presence of toxin-like peptides could potentially be connected to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Their presence suggests a possible association between COVID-19 disease and the release in the body of (oligo-)peptides almost identical to toxic components of venoms from animals. Their involvement in a large set of heterogeneous extra-pulmonary COVID-19 clinical manifestations, like neurological ones, cannot be excluded. Although the presence of each individual symptom is not selective of the disease, their combination might be related to COVID-19 by the coexistence of the panel of the here detected toxin-like peptides. The presence of these peptides opens new scenarios on the aetiology of the COVID-19 clinical symptoms observed up to now, including neurological manifestations.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294325

ABSTRACT

Background:  SARS-CoV-2 that causes COVID-19 disease and led to the pandemic currently affecting the world has been broadly investigated. Different studies have been performed to understand the infection mechanism, and the involved human genes, transcripts and proteins. In parallel, numerous clinical extra-pulmonary manifestations co-occurring with COVID-19 disease have been reported and evidence of their severity and persistence is increasing. Whether these manifestations are linked to other disorders co-occurring with SARS-CoV-2 infection, is under discussion. In this work, we report the identification of toxin-like peptides in COVID-19 patients by application of the Liquid Chromatography Surface-Activated Chemical Ionization – Cloud Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry.   Methods:  Plasma, urine and faecal samples from COVID-19 patients and control individuals were analysed to study peptidomic toxins’ profiles. Protein precipitation preparation procedure was used for plasma, to remove high molecular weight proteins and efficiently solubilize the peptide fraction; in the case of faeces and urine, direct peptide solubilization was employed.   Results:  Toxin-like peptides, almost identical to toxic components of venoms from animals, like conotoxins, phospholipases, phosphodiesterases, zinc metal proteinases, and bradykinins, were identified in samples from COVID-19 patients, but not in control samples.  Conclusions:  The presence of toxin-like peptides could potentially be connected to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Their presence suggests a possible association between COVID-19 disease and the release in the body of (oligo-)peptides almost identical to toxic components of venoms from animals. Their involvement in a large set of heterogeneous extra-pulmonary COVID-19 clinical manifestations, like neurological ones, cannot be excluded. Although the presence of each individual symptom is not selective of the disease, their combination might be related to COVID-19 by the coexistence of the panel of the here detected toxin-like peptides. The presence of these peptides opens new scenarios on the aetiology of the COVID-19 clinical symptoms observed up to now, including neurological manifestations.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293102

ABSTRACT

Rationale Krebs von den Lungen 6 (KL-6) is a high molecular weight mucin-like glycoprotein produced by type II pneumocytes and bronchial epithelial cells. Elevated circulating levels of KL-6 may denote disorder of the alveolar epithelial lining. Objective Aim of this study was to verify if KL-6 values may help to risk stratify and triage severe COVID-19 patients. Methods We performed a retrospective prognostic study on 110 COVID-19 ICU patients, evaluating the predictive role of KL-6 for mortality. Measurements and Main Results The study sample was divided in two groups related according to the median KL-6 value [Group A (KL-6 lower than the log-transformed median (6.73)) and Group B (KL-6 higher than the log-transformed median)]. In both linear and logistic multivariate analyses, ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen (P/F) was significantly and inversely related to KL-6. Death rate was higher in group B than in group A (80.3 versus 45.9%) (p<0.001), Accordingly, the Cox regression analysis showed a significant prognostic role of KL-6 on mortality in the whole sample as well as in the subgroup with SOFA lower than its median value. Conclusions At ICU admission, KL-6 serum level was significantly lower in the survivors group. Our findings shown that, in severe COVID19 patients, elevated KL-6 was strongly associated with mortality in ICU.

9.
Expert Opin Drug Discov ; 17(1): 9-18, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366950

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Remdesivir (RDV) is an inhibitor of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases that are active in some RNA viruses, including the Ebola virus and zoonotic coronaviruses. When severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was identified as the etiologic agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), several investigations have assessed the potential activity of RDV in inhibiting viral replication, giving rise to hope for an effective treatment. AREAS COVERED: In this review, the authors describe the main investigations leading to the discovery of RDV and its subsequent development as an antiviral agent, focusing on the main clinical trials investigating its efficacy in terms of symptom resolution and mortality reduction. EXPERT OPINION: RDV is the most widely investigated antiviral drug for the treatment of COVID-19. This attention on RDV activity against SARS-CoV-2 is justified by promising in vitro studies, which demonstrated that RDV was able to suppress viral replication without significant toxicity. Such activity was confirmed by an investigation in an animal model and by the results of preliminary clinical investigations. Nevertheless, the efficacy of RDV in reducing mortality has not been clearly demonstrated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(7)2021 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309824

ABSTRACT

We describe the case of a 63-year-old man who is reported to have the first confirmed case of COVID-19 reinfection in Campania Region, Italy. We found that the two episodes were caused by virus strains with clearly different genome sequences. The patient, a retired nurse, had a very low level of antibodies IgG directed against the spike protein 14 days after his first Pfizer/BioNTek vaccine shot.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Reinfection , SARS-CoV-2
11.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e036616, 2021 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228874

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In patients with septic shock, low levels of circulating immunoglobulins are common and their kinetics appear to be related to clinical outcome. The pivotal role of immunoglobulins in the host immune response to infection suggests that additional therapy with polyclonal intravenous immunoglobulins may be a promising option in patients with septic shock. Immunoglobulin preparations enriched with the IgM component have largely been used in sepsis, mostly at standard dosages (250 mg/kg per day), regardless of clinical severity and without any dose adjustment based on immunoglobulin serum titres or other biomarkers. We hypothesised that a personalised dose of IgM enriched preparation based on patient IgM titres and aimed to achieve a specific threshold of IgM titre is more effective in decreasing mortality than a standard dose. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study is designed as a multicentre, interventional, randomised, single-blinded, prospective, investigator sponsored, two-armed study. Patients with septic shock and IgM titres <60 mg/dL will be randomly assigned to an IgM titre-based treatment or a standard treatment group in a ratio of 1:1. The study will involve 12 Italian intensive care units and 356 patients will be enrolled. Patients assigned to the IgM titre-based treatment will receive a personalised daily dose based on an IgM serum titre aimed at achieving serum titres above 100 mg/dL up to discontinuation of vasoactive drugs or day 7 after enrolment. Patients assigned to the IgM standard treatment group will receive IgM enriched preparation daily for three consecutive days at the standard dose of 250 mg/kg. The primary endpoint will be all-cause mortality at 28 days. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol was approved by the ethics committees of the coordinating centre (Comitato Etico dell'Area Vasta Emilia Nord) and collaborating centres. The results of the trial will be published within 12 months from the end of the study and the steering committee has the right to present them at public symposia and conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION DETAILS: The trial protocol and information documents have received a favourable opinion from the Area Vasta Emilia Nord Ethical Committee on 12 September 2019. The trial protocol has been registered on EudraCT (2018-001613-33) on 18 April 2018 and on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04182737) on 2 December 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Shock, Septic , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin M , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Septic/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
12.
J Exp Pharmacol ; 13: 1-13, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1029637

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus infectious disease-2019 (COVID-19) has overwhelmed like a shock wave in a completely unprepared world. Despite coronavirus infections were involved in previous epidemic outbreaks, no antiviral agent was developed for specific treatment. As a consequence, since the beginning of this pandemic, both repositioned and experimental drugs were used to treat the infected patients without evidence of clinical efficacy. Just based on experience coming from the use of antiviral agents to treat other viruses (eg, lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir) and supposed antiviral or immunomodulatory activities of drugs with no approved antiviral indications (eg hydroxychloroquine, tocilizumab), clinicians have faced the ongoing pandemic. Currently, after about 9 months from the COVID-19 spread, there is still no antiviral agent capable of ensuring the cure of this syndrome. Clinical trials are beginning to confirm the benefits of some drugs, while for other compounds, efficacy and safety have not yet been confirmed. Randomized clinical trials (RCT) have denied or downsized the beneficial effects attributed to certain molecules, such as aminoquinolines, largely used in clinical practice at the beginning of COVID-19 spread. Conversely, at the same time, they have provided evidence for unexpected effectiveness of other agents that have been underutilized, such as steroids, which were not used in SARS treatment because of the threatened effect on viral replication. Evidence deriving from pathologic studies have demonstrated that the prothrombotic effects of SARS-CoV-2 can be prevented by heparin prophylaxis, underlining the need for personalized treatment for patients with severe disease. The main aim of this review is to synthesize the available information and evidence on both repositioned and experimental drugs for the treatment of COVID-19, focusing on the need to exercise caution on the use of unproven medical therapies.

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