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1.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 799298, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775692

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI), electrolyte, and acid-base disorders complicate the clinical course of critically ill patients with coronavirus-associated disease (COVID-19) and are associated with poor outcomes. It is not known whether the severity of clinical conditions at admission in the intensive care unit (ICU) changes the clinical significance of AKI and/or electrolyte or acid-base disorders developing during ICU stay. We conducted a retrospective study in critically ill patients with COVID-19 to evaluate whether the severity of clinical conditions at admission in the ICU affects the impact of AKI and of serum electrolytes or acid-base status on mortality. We carried out a 28-day retrospective follow-up study on 115 critically ill patients consecutively admitted to ICU for severe COVID-19 at a tertiary care university hospital and surviving longer than 24 h. We collected baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, and longitudinal data on kidney function, kidney replacement therapy, serum electrolytes, and acid-base status. We used Cox proportional hazards multiple regression models to test the interaction between the time-varying variates new-onset AKI or electrolyte or acid-base disorders and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) or Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score at admission. After adjusting for age, sex, Charlson's comorbidity index, and AKI present at ICU admission, new-onset AKI was significantly associated with 28-day mortality only in the patients in the lowest and middle SOFA score tertiles [lowest SOFA tertile, hazard ratio (HR) 4.27 (95% CI: 1.27-14.44; P = 0.019), middle SOFA tertile, HR 3.17 (95% CI: 1.11-9.04, P = 0.031), highest SOFA tertile, HR 0.77 (95% CI: 0.24-2.50; P = 0.66); P = 0.026 for interaction with SOFA as a continuous variable]. After stratifying for APACHE II tertile, results were similar [adjusted HR (aHR) in the lowest tertile 6.24 (95% CI: 1.85-21.03, P = 0.003)]. SOFA or APACHE II at admission did not affect the relationship of serum electrolytes and acid-base status with mortality, except for new-onset acidosis which was associated with increased mortality, with the HR of death increasing with SOFA or APACHE II score (P < 0.001 and P = 0.013, respectively). Thus, unlike in the most severe critically ill patients admitted to the ICU for COVID-19, in patients with the less severe conditions at admission the development of AKI during the stay is a strong indicator of increased hazard of death.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321598

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the COVID-19 pandemic has occurred, nations showed their unpreparedness to deal with a mass casualty incident of this proportion and severity. The World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) conceived this position paper with the purpose of providing recommendations for the management of surgical, infected and non-infected, patients in emergency setting under COVID-19 pandemic in the safety of the patient and health care workers based on available evidences and experienced surgeons’opinion.MethodA systematic review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P)through the MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase and SCOPUS databases. Synthesis of evidence, statements and recommendations were developed in accordance with the GRADE methodology.ResultsGiven the limitation of the evidence, the current document represents an effort to provide a guide for emergency surgeons to perform safely surgery during this pandemic on the basis of evidence medicine and principles of mass casualty incident management to limit the diffusion of the infection among patients and health care workers. ConclusionsWe recommend screening for COVID-19 infection at emergency department, all surgical patients with clinical and epidemiologic features suspect for COVID-19 disease who are waiting for hospital admission and urgent surgery. The screening provides performing a RT-PCR naso-pharyngeal swab test and a baseline (non-contrast) chest CT or chest X-ray or lungs US, depending on skills and availability.The management of COVID-19 surgical patient is multidiplinary.If an immediate surgical procedure is mandatory, whether laparoscopic or via open approach, we recommend doing every efforts to protect the operating room staff, in the safety of the patient . We recommend not being present during the intubation and extubation maneuvers (1A).To perform a safe surgical procedure, we recommend:-having a trained staff, wearing the necessary personal protective equipments, and an established protocol for the preoperative, peri-operative and postoperative management of the COVID-19 surgical patient;-being careful in the establishment and management of the artificial pneumoperitoneum, in the control of the hemostasis and of incisions to prevent any loss of biological fluids and contamination of the surgical staff;-using of all available devices to remove smoke and aerosol during the operation and a closed suction system for artificial pneumoperitoneum, especially if there is a risk of conversion to laparotomy.If it is not possible to perform surgery in a safe and protected environment, we recommend do not underestimating the highest risk of contamination and infection for health care workers and dissemination of the virus in the hospital and to consider transferring the patient in a COVID HUB hospital for the appropriate management.The administration of prophylactic anticoagulation with LMWH is recommended as soon as possible in COVID-19 patients to reduce thromboembolic risk related to the virus and sepsis, decreasing the mortality rate. We recommend to carefully administrating antibiotics in COVID-19 surgical patients for the high risk of selecting resistant bacteria, especially in patients admitted in ICU for mechanical ventilation. Early empirical antibiotic treatment should be targeted to results from cultures, with de-escalation of treatment as soon as possible. We recommend against empirical antifungal treatment in all surgical COVID-19 patients but to consider it in critically ill patients.

3.
World J Emerg Surg ; 16(1): 46, 2021 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403246

ABSTRACT

On January 2020, the WHO Director General declared that the outbreak constitutes a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. The world has faced a worldwide spread crisis and is still dealing with it. The present paper represents a white paper concerning the tough lessons we have learned from the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, an international and heterogenous multidisciplinary panel of very differentiated people would like to share global experiences and lessons with all interested and especially those responsible for future healthcare decision making. With the present paper, international and heterogenous multidisciplinary panel of very differentiated people would like to share global experiences and lessons with all interested and especially those responsible for future healthcare decision making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Health , Pandemics , Biomedical Research , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Policy , Health Services Accessibility , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , International Cooperation , Mass Vaccination/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Politics , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Telemedicine/organization & administration
4.
World J Emerg Surg ; 16(1): 14, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146830

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the COVID-19 pandemic has occurred, nations showed their unpreparedness to deal with a mass casualty incident of this proportion and severity, which resulted in a tremendous number of deaths even among healthcare workers. The World Society of Emergency Surgery conceived this position paper with the purpose of providing evidence-based recommendations for the management of emergency surgical patients under COVID-19 pandemic for the safety of the patient and healthcare workers. METHOD: A systematic review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) through the MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase and SCOPUS databases. Synthesis of evidence, statements and recommendations were developed in accordance with the GRADE methodology. RESULTS: Given the limitation of the evidence, the current document represents an effort to join selected high-quality articles and experts' opinion. CONCLUSIONS: The aim of this position paper is to provide an exhaustive guidelines to perform emergency surgery in a safe and protected environment for surgical patients and for healthcare workers under COVID-19 and to offer the best management of COVID-19 patients needing for an emergency surgical treatment. We recommend screening for COVID-19 infection at the emergency department all acute surgical patients who are waiting for hospital admission and urgent surgery. The screening work-up provides a RT-PCR nasopharyngeal swab test and a baseline (non-contrast) chest CT or a chest X-ray or a lungs US, depending on skills and availability. If the COVID-19 screening is not completed we recommend keeping the patient in isolation until RT-PCR swab test result is not available, and to manage him/she such as an overt COVID patient. The management of COVID-19 surgical patients is multidisciplinary. If an immediate surgical procedure is mandatory, whether laparoscopic or via open approach, we recommend doing every effort to protect the operating room staff for the safety of the patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/standards , Perioperative Care/standards , Surgical Procedures, Operative/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/standards , Emergencies , Global Health , Humans , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Laparoscopy/methods , Laparoscopy/standards , Pandemics , Perioperative Care/methods , Personal Protective Equipment , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods
5.
J Crit Care ; 63: 22-25, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062451

ABSTRACT

Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is a frequent complication in critically ill patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and it has been associated with worse clinical outcomes, especially when Kidney Replacement Therapy (KRT) is required. A condition of hypercoagulability has been frequently reported in COVID-19 patients, and this very fact may complicate KRT management. Sustained Low Efficiency Dialysis (SLED) is a hybrid dialysis modality increasingly used in critically ill patients since it allows to maintain acceptable hemodynamic stability and to overcome the increased clotting risk of the extracorporeal circuit, especially when Regional Citrate Anticoagulation (RCA) protocols are applied. Notably, given the mainly diffusive mechanism of solute transport, SLED is associated with lower stress on both hemofilter and blood cells as compared to convective KRT modalities. Finally, RCA, as compared with heparin-based protocols, does not further increase the already high hemorrhagic risk of patients with AKI. Based on these premises, we performed a pilot study on the clinical management of critically ill patients with COVID-19 associated AKI who underwent SLED with a simplified RCA protocol. Low circuit clotting rates were observed, as well as adequate KRT duration was achieved in most cases, without any relevant metabolic complication nor worsening of hemodynamic status.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Citric Acid/therapeutic use , Critical Care/methods , Hybrid Renal Replacement Therapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/virology , Critical Illness , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Treatment Outcome
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0240014, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-808956

ABSTRACT

Data regarding safety of bedside surgical tracheostomy in novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) mechanically ventilated patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) are lacking. We performed this study to assess the safety of bedside surgical tracheostomy in COVID-19 patients admitted to ICU. This retrospective, single-center, cohort observational study (conducted between February, 23 and April, 30, 2020) was performed in our 45-bed dedicated COVID-19 ICU. Inclusion criteria were: a) age over 18 years; b) confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 infection (with nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swab); c) invasive mechanical ventilation and d) clinical indication for tracheostomy. The objectives of this study were to describe: 1) perioperative complications, 2) perioperative alterations in respiratory gas exchange and 3) occurrence of COVID-19 infection among health-care providers involved into the procedure. A total of 125 COVID-19 patients were admitted to the ICU during the study period. Of those, 66 (53%) underwent tracheostomy. Tracheostomy was performed after a mean of 6.1 (± 2.1) days since ICU admission. Most of tracheostomies (47/66, 71%) were performed by intensivists and the mean time of the procedure was 22 (± 4.4) minutes. No intraprocedural complications was reported. Stoma infection and bleeding were reported in 2 patients and 7 patients, respectively, in the post-procedure period, without significant clinical consequences. The mean PaO2 / FiO2 was significantly lower at the end of tracheostomy (117.6 ± 35.4) then at the beginning (133.4 ± 39.2) or 24 hours before (135.8 ± 51.3) the procedure. However, PaO2/FiO2 progressively increased at 24 hours after tracheostomy (142 ± 50.7). None of the members involved in the tracheotomy procedures developed COVID-19 infection. Bedside surgical tracheostomy appears to be feasible and safe, both for patients and for health care workers, during COVID-19 pandemic in an experienced center.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Safety , Tracheostomy , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; 130(3): 304-306, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691916

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe Otolaryngologists' perspective in managing COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring tracheostomy in the ICUs during the pandemic peak in a dramatic scenario with limited resources. SETTING: Tertiary referral university hospital, regional hub in northern Italy during SARS CoV 2 pandemic peak (March 9th to April 10th, 2020). METHODS: Technical description of open bedside tracheostomies performed in ICUs on COVID-19 patients during pandemic peak with particular focus on resource allocation and healthcare professionals coordination. A dedicated "airway team" was created in order to avoid transportation of critically ill patients and reduce facility contamination. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, bedside minimally invasive tracheostomy in the ICU was selected by the Authors over conventional surgical technique or percutaneous procedures for both technical and operational reasons. Otolaryngologists' experience derived from direct involvement in 24 tracheostomies is reported. CONCLUSIONS: Tracheostomies on COVID-19 patients should be performed in a safe and standardized setting. The limited resources available in the pandemic peak required meticulous organization and optimal allocation of the resources to grant safety of both patients and healthcare workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Tracheostomy/methods , Hospitals, University , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Personal Protective Equipment , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
8.
SN Compr Clin Med ; 2(8): 1213-1217, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-631355

ABSTRACT

We describe a case of a 47-year-old Italian, immunocompromised, and obese woman infected by COVID-19 presenting with fever (39.6 °C) and respiratory symptoms. Neurological examination was normal. Chest CT findings consist of bilateral interstitial pneumonia (visual score extension: 30%). The patient was treated with antiviral drugs and anti-inflammatory drugs with supportive care. Seven days after admission to Covid-19 Unit, the patient rapidly developed worsening respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). She suddenly developed partial left hemispheric syndrome. A new HRCT scan of her thorax revealed diffuse ground-glass opacities in both lungs (visual score extension: 90%). Brain CT performed 2 h after sudden-onset left-sided weakness showed subtle low attenuation within the right insular ribbon and frontal lobe (ASPECT Score 8). Multiphasic CT angiography (MCTA) demonstrated occlusion of both the dominant inferior division of the right middle cerebral artery and the A2 segment of the right anterior cerebral artery. After 24 h, her pupils became dilated and unreactive, and brain CT demonstrated large bilateral infarctions of both the cerebellar and cerebral hemispheres. She had a rapid progression of interstitial pneumonia from COVID-19, developed multiple strokes, and died 1 day later. SARS-CoV-2 infection seems to predispose pluripathological subjects to cerebrovascular complications.

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