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1.
Infect Dis Ther ; 2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864504

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome are common complications in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Poor outcomes in patients with COVID-19 are associated with cytokine release syndrome. Binding of interleukin-8 (CXCL8/IL-8) to its chemokine receptors, CXCR1/2, may mediate this inflammatory process. The aim of this clinical trial was to determine if CXCR1/2 blockade with reparixin can improve clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. The dose and safety of reparixin have been investigated in clinical trials of patients with metastatic breast cancer. METHODS: This was a phase 2, open-label, multicenter, randomized study in hospitalized adult patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia from May 5, 2020 until November 27, 2020. Patients were randomized 2:1 to receive 1200 mg reparixin orally three times daily or standard of care (SOC) for up to 21 days. The primary endpoint was defined as a composite of clinical events: use of supplemental oxygen, need for mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admission, and/or use of rescue medication. RESULTS: Fifty-five patients were enrolled between reparixin (n = 36) and SOC (n = 19). The rate of clinical events was statistically significantly lower in the reparixin group compared with the SOC group (16.7% [95% CI 6.4-32.8%] vs. 42.1% [95% CI 20.3-66.5%], P = 0.02). The sensitivity analysis based on the Cox regression model provided an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.33 with statistical significance lower than 0.05 (95% CI 0.11-0.99; P = 0.047). Reparixin treatment appeared to be well tolerated. CONCLUSION: In patients with severe COVID-19, reparixin led to an improvement in clinical outcomes when compared with the SOC. A larger phase 3 clinical study is needed to confirm these results. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT identifier, 2020-001645-40; registered May 6, 2020 (retrospectively registered), and clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04794803) on March 8, 2021.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335278

ABSTRACT

Low-volume antibody assays can be used to track SARS-CoV-2 infection rates in settings where active testing for virus is limited and remote sampling is optimal. We developed 12 ELISAs detecting total or antibody isotypes to SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid, spike protein or its receptor binding domain (RBD), 3 anti-RBD isotype specific luciferase immunoprecipitation system (LIPS) assays and a novel Spike-RBD bridging LIPS total-antibody assay. We utilised pre-pandemic (n=984) and confirmed/suspected recent COVID-19 sera taken pre-vaccination rollout in 2020 (n=269). Assays measuring total antibody discriminated best between pre-pandemic and COVID-19 sera and were selected for diagnostic evaluation. In the blind evaluation, two of these assays (Spike Pan ELISA and Spike-RBD Bridging LIPS assay) demonstrated >97% specificity and >92% sensitivity for samples from COVID- 19 patients taken >21 days post symptom onset or PCR test. These assays offered better sensitivity for the detection of COVID-19 cases than a commercial assay which requires 100-fold larger serum volumes. This study demonstrates that low-volume in- house antibody assays can provide good diagnostic performance, and highlights the importance of using well-characterised samples and controls for all stages of assay development and evaluation. These cost-effective assays may be particularly useful for seroprevalence studies in low and middle-income countries.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317281

ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of this study was to understand whether the dysglyceamia associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection persists or reverts when the viral infection resolves. Methods: . We analyzed fasting blood glucose (FBG) after hospital discharge in a cohort of 621 adult cases with suspected COVID-19 pneumonia. Results: . At admission,, 18.8% of the patients in our cohort had pre-existing diabetes, 9.3% fasting glucose in the diabetes range without a prior diagnosis (DFG), 26% impaired fasting glucose (IFG), 44.9% normal fasting glucose (NFG), while 2% had no FBG available. FBG categories were similarly distributed in the 71 patients without confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. During follow up (median time 6 month) FBG was available for 321 out of the 453 (70.9%) surviving patients and showed a trend to a marginal increase [from 97 (87–116) to 100 (92–114) mg/dL;p = 0.071]. Transitions between FBG categories was analysed in subjects without pre-existing diabetes (265 out of 321). We identified three groups: i) patients who maintained or improved FBG during follow-up [Group A, n = 185;from 100 (86–109) to 94 (88–99) mg/dL;p < 0.001];ii) patients who moved from the NFG to IFG category [Group B, n = 66: from 89 (85–96) to 106 (102–113) mg/dl;p < 0.001];iii) patients who maintained or reached DFG during follow-up [Group C, n = 14: from 114 (94–138) to 134 (126–143) mg/dl;p = 0.035]. Male sex and ICU admission during the hospitalization were more prevalent in Group C compared to Group A or B. Conclusions: . Six months after the SARS-CoV-2 infection DFG was evident in only few patients who experienced severe COVID-19 pneumonia.

4.
J Clin Immunol ; 42(3): 448-458, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616195

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is known to induce antibodies that recognize also variants of concerns (VoCs) of the virus. However, epidemiological and laboratory evidences indicate that these antibodies have a reduced neutralization ability against VoCs. We studied binding and neutralizing antibodies against the Spike protein domains and subunits of the Wuhan-Hu-1 virus and its alpha, beta, delta VoCs and of seasonal betacoronaviruses (HKU1 and OC43) in a cohort of 31 health care workers prospectively followed post-vaccination with BNT162b2-Comirnaty. The study of sequential samples collected up to 64 days post-vaccination showed that serological assays measuring IgG against Wuhan-Hu-1 antigens were a poor proxy for VoC neutralization. In addition, in subjects who had asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 prior to vaccination, the loss of nAbs following disease could be rapid and accompanied by post-vaccination antibody levels similar to those of naïve vaccinees. Interestingly, in health care workers naïve for SARS-CoV-2 infection, vaccination induced a rapid and transient reactivation of pre-existing seasonal coronaviruses IgG responses that was associated with a subsequent reduced ability to neutralize alpha and beta VoCs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Seasons , Vaccination
5.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(12)2021 Dec 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581045

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients may be at increased risk for severe disease and mortality from COVID-19 because of immunosuppression and prolonged end-stage organ disease. As a transplant center serving a diverse patient population, we report the cumulative incidence and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in our cohort of SOT recipients. METHODS: We prospectively included in this observational study SOT recipients with a functioning kidney (n = 201), pancreas ± kidney (n = 66) or islet transplant (n = 24), attending outpatient regular follow-up at the San Raffaele Hospital from February 2020 to April 2021. Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 were tested in all patients by a luciferase immunoprecipitation system assay. RESULTS: Of the 291 SOT recipients, 30 (10.3%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 during the study period and prevalence was not different among different transplants. The SARS-CoV-2 antibody frequency was around 2.6-fold higher than the incidence of cases who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR. As for the WHO COVID-19 severity classification, 19 (63.3%) SOT recipients were mild, nine (30%) were moderate, and two were critical and died yielding a crude mortality rate in our patient population of 6.7%. Kidney transplant (OR 12.9 (1.1-150) p = 0.041) was associated with an increased risk for moderate/critical disease, while statin therapy (OR 0.116 (0.015-0.926) p = 0.042) and pancreas/islet transplant (OR 0.077 (0.007-0.906) p = 0.041) were protective. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in SOT recipients may be higher than previously described. Due to the relative high crude mortality, symptomatic SOT recipients must be considered at high risk in case of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

6.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295258

ABSTRACT

A bstract Aim The aim of the current study was to compare clinical characteristics, laboratory findings and major outcomes of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia with COVID-associated hyperglycaemia or preexisting diabetes. Methods A cohort of 176 adult patients with a diagnosis of pre-existing diabetes (n=112) or COVID-associated hyperglycaemia (n=55) was studied. Clinical outcomes and laboratory findings were analysed according to the presence of the two conditions. The time to viral clearance was assessed during the follow-up after hospital discharge. Result Patients with COVID-associated hyperglycaemia had lower BMI, significantly less comorbidities and higher levels of inflammatory markers and indicators of multi-organ injury than those with preexisting diabetes. No differences between preexisting diabetes and COVID-associated hyperglycaemia were evident for symptoms at admission, humoral response against SARS-CoV-2 or autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase or interferon alpha-4. COVID-associated hyperglycaemia was independently associated with the risk of adverse clinical outcome defined as ICU admission or death (HR 2.11, 95% CI 1.34-3.31;p=0.001), even after adjustment for age, sex and other selected variables associated with COVID-19 severity. Furthermore, we documented a negative association (HR 0.661, 95% CI 0.43-1.02;p=0.063) between COVID-associated hyperglycaemia and the time to swab negativization. Conclusions The recognition of hyperglycaemia as a specific clinical entity associated with COVID-19 pneumonia is relevant for early and appropriate patient management and close monitoring for the progression of disease severity.

7.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294357

ABSTRACT

A bstract Purpose Individuals with diabetes/stress hyperglycemia carry an increased risk for adverse clinical outcome in case of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether this risk is, at least in part, modulated by an increase of thromboembolic complications. Methods We prospectively followed 180 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to the Internal Medicine Units of San Raffaele Hospital. Data from 11 out of 180 patients were considered incomplete and excluded from the analysis. We analysed inflammation, tissue damage biomarkers, hemostatic parameters, thrombotic events (TEs) and clinical outcome according to the presence of diabetes/stress hyperglycemia. Results Among 169 patients, 51 (30.2%) had diabetes/stress hyperglycemia. Diabetes/stress hyperglycemia and fasting blood glucose (FBG) were associated with increased inflammation and tissue damage circulating markers, higher D-dimer levels, increased prothrombin time and lower antithrombin III activity. Forty-eight venous and 10 arterial TEs were identified in 49 (29%) patients. Diabetes/stress hyperglycemia (HR 2.71, p=0.001), fasting blood glucose (HR 4.32, p<0.001) and glucose variability (HR 1.6, p < 0.009) were all associated with an increased risk of thromboembolic complication. TEs significantly increased the risk for an adverse clinical outcome only in the presence of diabetes/stress hyperglycemia (HR 3.05, p=0.01) or fasting blood glucose ≥ 7 mmol/l (HR 3.07, p=0.015). Conclusions Thromboembolism risk is higher among patients with diabetes/stress hyperglycemia and COVID-19 pneumonia and is associated to poor clinical outcome. In case of SARS-Cov-2 infection patients with diabetes/stress hyperglycemia could be considered for a more intensive prophylactic anticoagulation regimen.

8.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 107(3): e1009-e1019, 2022 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496303

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess whether dysglycemia diagnosed during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pneumonia may become a potential public health problem after resolution of the infection. In an adult cohort with suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia, we integrated glucose data upon hospital admission with fasting blood glucose (FBG) in the year prior to COVID-19 and during postdischarge follow-up. METHODS: From February 25 to May 15, 2020, 660 adults with suspected COVID-19 pneumonia were admitted to the San Raffaele Hospital (Milan, Italy). Through structured interviews/ medical record reviews, we collected demographics, clinical features, and laboratory tests upon admission and additional data during hospitalization or after discharge and in the previous year. Upon admission, we classified participants according to American Diabetes Association criteria as having (1) preexisting diabetes, (2) newly diagnosed diabetes, (3) hyperglycemia not in the diabetes range, or (4) normoglycemia. FBG prior to admission and during follow-up were classified as normal or impaired fasting glucose and fasting glucose in the diabetes range. RESULTS: In patients with confirmed COVID (n = 589), the proportion with preexisting or newly diagnosed diabetes, hyperglycemia not in the diabetes range and normoglycemia was 19.6%, 6.7%, 43.7%, and 30.0%, respectively. Patients with dysglycemia associated to COVID-19 had increased markers of inflammation and organs' injury and poorer clinical outcome compared to those with normoglycemia. After the infection resolved, the prevalence of dysglycemia reverted to preadmission frequency. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19-associated dysglycemia is unlikely to become a lasting public health problem. Alarmist claims on the diabetes risk after COVID-19 pneumonia should be interpreted with caution.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/metabolism , Hyperglycemia/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Fasting/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
9.
Med (N Y) ; 2(2): 149-163.e4, 2021 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antibody responses to virus reflect exposure and potential protection. METHODS: We developed a highly specific and sensitive approach to measuring antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 for population-scale immune surveillance. Antibody positivity was defined as a dual-positive response against both the receptor-binding domain and nucleocapsid proteins of SARS-CoV-2. Antibodies were measured by immunoprecipitation assays in capillary blood from 15,771 children aged 1 to 18 years living in Bavaria, Germany, and participating in a public health type 1 diabetes screening program (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04039945), in 1,916 dried blood spots from neonates in a Bavarian screening study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03316261), and in 75 SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals. Virus positive incidence was obtained from the Bavarian health authority data. FINDINGS: Dual-antibody positivity was detected in none of the 3,887 children in 2019 (100% specificity) and 73 of 75 SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals (97.3% sensitivity). Antibody surveillance in children during 2020 resulted in frequencies of 0.08% in January to March, 0.61% in April, 0.74% in May, 1.13% in June, and 0.91% in July. Antibody prevalence from April 2020 was 6-fold higher than the incidence of authority-reported cases (156 per 100,000 children), showed marked variation between the seven Bavarian regions (p < 0.0001), and was not associated with age or sex. Transmission in children with virus-positive family members was 35%. 47% of positive children were asymptomatic. No association with type 1 diabetes autoimmunity was observed. Antibody frequency in newborns was 0.47%. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate the value of population-based screening programs for pandemic monitoring. FUNDING: The work was supported by funding from the BMBF (FKZ01KX1818).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Front Immunol ; 11: 603428, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389167

ABSTRACT

In this work we present the case of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a 1.5-year-old boy affected by severe Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome with previous history of autoinflammatory disease, occurring 5 months after treatment with gene therapy. Before SARS-CoV-2 infection, the patient had obtained engraftment of gene corrected cells, resulting in WASP expression restoration and early immune reconstitution. The patient produced specific immunoglobulins to SARS-CoV-2 at high titer with neutralizing capacity and experienced a mild course of infection, with limited inflammatory complications, despite pre-gene therapy clinical phenotype.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , Genetic Therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Infant , Male , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome/blood , Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome/immunology , Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome/therapy , Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein/biosynthesis , Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein/immunology
11.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(8)2021 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341645

ABSTRACT

AIM: The aim of the current study was to compare clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, and major outcomes of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia with COVID-associated hyperglycaemia or pre-existing diabetes. METHODS: A cohort of 176 adult patients with a diagnosis of pre-existing diabetes (n = 112) or COVID-associated hyperglycaemia (n = 55) was studied. RESULTS: Patients with COVID-associated hyperglycaemia had lower BMI, significantly less comorbidities, and higher levels of inflammatory markers and indicators of multi-organ injury than those with pre-existing diabetes. No differences between pre-existing diabetes and COVID-associated hyperglycaemia were evident for symptoms at admission, the humoral response against SARS-CoV-2, or autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase or interferon alpha-4. COVID-associated hyperglycaemia was independently associated with the risk of adverse clinical outcome, which was defined as ICU admission or death (HR 2.11, 95% CI 1.34-3.31; p = 0.001), even after adjustment for age, sex, and other selected variables associated with COVID-19 severity. Furthermore, at the same time, we documented a negative association (HR 0.661, 95% CI 0.43-1.02; p = 0.063) between COVID-associated hyperglycaemia to swab negativization. CONCLUSIONS: Recognizing hyperglycaemia as a specific clinical entity associated with COVID-19 pneumonia is relevant for early and appropriate patient management and close monitoring for the progression of disease severity.

12.
Metabolism ; 123: 154845, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340768

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Individuals with diabetes/stress hyperglycemia carry an increased risk for adverse clinical outcome in case of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether this risk is, at least in part, modulated by an increase of thromboembolic complications. METHODS: We prospectively followed 180 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to the Internal Medicine Units of San Raffaele Hospital. Data from 11 out of 180 patients were considered incomplete and excluded from the analysis. We analysed inflammation, tissue damage biomarkers, hemostatic parameters, thrombotic events (TEs) and clinical outcome according to the presence of diabetes/stress hyperglycemia. RESULTS: Among 169 patients, 51 (30.2%) had diabetes/stress hyperglycemia. Diabetes/stress hyperglycemia and fasting blood glucose (FBG) were associated with increased inflammation and tissue damage circulating markers, higher D-dimer levels, increased prothrombin time and lower antithrombin III activity. Forty-eight venous and 10 arterial TEs were identified in 49 (29%) patients. Diabetes/stress hyperglycemia (HR 2.71, p = 0.001), fasting blood glucose (HR 4.32, p < 0.001) and glucose variability (HR 1.6, p < 0.009) were all associated with an increased risk of thromboembolic complication. TEs significantly increased the risk for an adverse clinical outcome only in the presence of diabetes/stress hyperglycemia (HR 3.05, p = 0.010) or fasting blood glucose ≥7 mmol/L (HR 3.07, p = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Thromboembolism risk is higher among patients with diabetes/stress hyperglycemia and COVID-19 pneumonia and is associated to poor clinical outcome. In case of SARS-Cov-2 infection patients with diabetes/stress hyperglycemia could be considered for a more intensive prophylactic anticoagulation regimen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Hyperglycemia/therapy , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/epidemiology , Inflammation/therapy , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Stress, Psychological/complications , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
13.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(7): 100327, 2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275765

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 appears rare in children. This is unexpected, especially in young infants, who are vulnerable to severe disease caused by other respiratory viruses. We evaluate convalescent immune responses in 4 infants under 3 months old with confirmed COVID-19 who presented with mild febrile illness, alongside their parents, and adult controls recovered from confirmed COVID-19. Although not statistically significant, compared to seropositive adults, infants have high serum levels of IgG and IgA to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, with a corresponding functional ability to block SARS-CoV-2 cellular entry. Infants also exhibit robust saliva anti-spike IgG and IgA responses. Spike-specific IFN-γ production by infant peripheral blood mononuclear cells appears restrained, but the frequency of spike-specific IFN-γ- and/or TNF-α-producing T cells is comparable between infants and adults. On principal-component analysis, infant immune responses appear distinct from their parents. Robust functional antibody responses alongside restrained IFN-γ production may help protect infants from severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19/immunology , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Male , Young Adult
14.
Minerva Med ; 2021 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267020

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease characterised by systemic inflammation, which might enhance baseline thrombotic risk, especially in hospitalised patients. Little is, however, known about predictors of thrombotic complications in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We prospectively followed up 180 hospitalised COVID-19 patients. Demographics, clinical and laboratory features at presentation and past medical history were tested as predictors of the first thrombotic complication through multivariate Cox regression analysis and a categorical score generated based on the results. RESULTS: Sixty-four thromboses were recorded in 54 patients, of whom seven with thrombosis on admission and 47 with thrombosis during hospitalisation. Patients with thrombosis were mainly Caucasian and diabetic, had marked baseline signs of inflammation and organ damage, lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio, higher D-dimer levels and history of major haemorrhages. The latter three variables were independently associated to thrombotic complications and concurred to a 0-5 score, which accounted for 80% of the total sample variability. Patients with three or more points of the newly generated score were at higher risk for thrombotic complications (HR=4.9, p<0.001). Patients with thrombotic complications were more likely to be admitted to intensive care and/or to die (HR=1.9, p=0.036). Five of 180 patients were diagnosed with disseminated intravascular coagulation and three of them died. Eleven minor and no major bleeding events were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 are at increased risk for thrombosis and might be stratified on admission based lower Pao2/FiO2 ratio, higher D-dimer levels and history of major haemorrhages.

15.
Acta Diabetol ; 58(11): 1481-1490, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258218

ABSTRACT

AIM: The aim of this study was to understand whether the dysglycemia associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection persists or reverts when the viral infection resolves. METHODS: We analyzed fasting blood glucose (FBG) after hospital discharge in a cohort of 621 adult cases with suspected COVID-19 pneumonia. RESULTS: At admission, 18.8% of the patients in our cohort had pre-existing diabetes, 9.3% fasting glucose in the diabetes range without a prior diagnosis (DFG), 26% impaired fasting glucose (IFG), 44.9% normal fasting glucose (NFG), while 2% had no FBG available. FBG categories were similarly distributed in the 71 patients without confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. During follow-up (median time 6 month) FBG was available for 321 out of the 453 (70.9%) surviving patients and showed a trend to a marginal increase [from 97 (87-116) to 100 (92-114) mg/dL; p = 0.071]. Transitions between FBG categories were analyzed in subjects without pre-existing diabetes (265 out of 321). We identified three groups: (i) patients who maintained or improved FBG during follow-up [Group A, n = 185; from 100 (86-109) to 94 (88-99) mg/dL; p < 0.001]; (ii) patients who moved from the NFG to IFG category [Group B, n = 66: from 89 (85-96) to 106 (102-113) mg/dl; p < 0.001]; (iii) patients who maintained or reached DFG during follow-up [Group C, n = 14: from 114 (94-138) to 134 (126-143) mg/dl; p = 0.035]. Male sex and ICU admission during the hospitalization were more prevalent in Group C compared to Group A or B. CONCLUSIONS: Six months after the SARS-CoV-2 infection DFG was evident in only few patients who experienced severe COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Blood Glucose , Cohort Studies , Fasting , Humans , Male , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2670, 2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225507

ABSTRACT

Understanding how antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 evolve during infection may provide important insight into therapeutic approaches and vaccination for COVID-19. Here we profile the antibody responses of 162 COVID-19 symptomatic patients in the COVID-BioB cohort followed longitudinally for up to eight months from symptom onset to find SARS-CoV-2 neutralization, as well as antibodies either recognizing SARS-CoV-2 spike antigens and nucleoprotein, or specific for S2 antigen of seasonal beta-coronaviruses and hemagglutinin of the H1N1 flu virus. The presence of neutralizing antibodies within the first weeks from symptoms onset correlates with time to a negative swab result (p = 0.002), while the lack of neutralizing capacity correlates with an increased risk of a fatal outcome (p = 0.008). Neutralizing antibody titers progressively drop after 5-8 weeks but are still detectable up to 8 months in the majority of recovered patients regardless of age or co-morbidities, with IgG to spike antigens providing the best correlate of neutralization. Antibody responses to seasonal coronaviruses are temporarily boosted, and parallel those to SARS-CoV-2 without dampening the specific response or worsening disease progression. Our results thus suggest compromised immune responses to the SARS-CoV-2 spike to be a major trait of COVID-19 patients with critical conditions, and thereby inform on the planning of COVID-19 patient care and therapy prioritization.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Kinetics , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Survival Rate
17.
J Clin Invest ; 130(12): 6366-6378, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112390

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDSerological assays are of critical importance to investigate correlates of response and protection in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), to define previous exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in populations, and to verify the development of an adaptive immune response in infected individuals.METHODSWe studied 509 patients confirmed to have COVID-19 from the San Raffaele Hospital of Milan and 480 samples of prepandemic organ donor sera collected in 2010-2012. Using fluid-phase luciferase immune precipitation (LIPS) assays, we characterized IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies to the spike receptor binding domain (RBD), S1+S2, nucleocapsid, and ORF6 to ORF10 of SARS-CoV-2, to the HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1 betacoronaviruses spike S2, and the H1N1Ca2009 flu virus hemagglutinin. Sequential samples at 1 and 3 months after hospital discharge were also tested for SARS-CoV-2 RBD antibodies in 95 patients.RESULTSAntibodies developed rapidly against multiple SARS-CoV-2 antigens in 95% of patients by 4 weeks after symptom onset and IgG to the RBD increased until the third month of follow-up. We observed a major synchronous expansion of antibodies to the HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1 spike S2. A likely coinfection with influenza was neither linked to a more severe presentation of the disease nor to a worse outcome. Of the measured antibody responses, positivity for IgG against the SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD was predictive of survival.CONCLUSIONThe measurement of antibodies to selected epitopes of SARS-CoV-2 antigens can offer a more accurate assessment of the humoral response in patients and its impact on survival. The presence of partially cross-reactive antibodies with other betacoronaviruses is likely to impact on serological assay specificity and interpretation.TRIAL REGISTRATIONCOVID-19 Patients Characterization, Biobank, Treatment Response and Outcome Predictor (COVID-BioB). ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04318366.FUNDINGIRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele and Università Vita Salute San Raffaele.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Epitopes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Protein Domains , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
18.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(5): 1472-1481, 2021 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054860

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Demonstrating the ability to mount a neutralizing antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 in the presence of diabetes is crucial to understand COVID-19 pathogenesis, reinfection potential, and vaccine development. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize the kinetics and durability of neutralizing antibody (Nab) response against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the presence of hyperglycemia. METHODS: Using a lentiviral vector-based SARS-CoV-2 neutralization assay to measure Nabs, we characterized 150 patients randomly selected from a cohort of 509 patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. We analyzed Nab response according to the presence of diabetes or hyperglycemia, at the time of hospitalization and during the postdischarge follow-up: 1-, 3-, and 6-month outpatient visits. RESULTS: Among 150 randomly selected patients 40 (26.6%) had diabetes. Diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 8.9, P < .001), glucose levels (HR 1.25 × 1.1 mmol/L, P < .001), and glucose variability (HR 1.17 × 0.6 mmol/L, P < .001) were independently associated with an increased risk of mortality. The neutralizing activity of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in patients with diabetes was superimposable, as for kinetics and extent, to that of patients without diabetes. It was similar across glucose levels and correlated with the humoral response against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Positivity for Nabs at the time of hospital admission conferred protection on mortality, both in the presence (HR 0.28, P = .046) or absence of diabetes (HR 0.26, P = .030). The longevity of the Nab response was not affected by diabetes. CONCLUSION: Diabetes and hyperglycemia do not affect the kinetics and durability of the neutralizing antibody response to SARS-CoV-2. These findings provide the rational to include patients with diabetes in the early phase of the vaccination campaign against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Diabetes Complications/immunology , Pneumonia/immunology , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Complications/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Pneumonia/complications
19.
Science ; 370(6515)2020 10 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889832

ABSTRACT

Interindividual clinical variability in the course of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is vast. We report that at least 101 of 987 patients with life-threatening coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia had neutralizing immunoglobulin G (IgG) autoantibodies (auto-Abs) against interferon-ω (IFN-ω) (13 patients), against the 13 types of IFN-α (36), or against both (52) at the onset of critical disease; a few also had auto-Abs against the other three type I IFNs. The auto-Abs neutralize the ability of the corresponding type I IFNs to block SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. These auto-Abs were not found in 663 individuals with asymptomatic or mild SARS-CoV-2 infection and were present in only 4 of 1227 healthy individuals. Patients with auto-Abs were aged 25 to 87 years and 95 of the 101 were men. A B cell autoimmune phenocopy of inborn errors of type I IFN immunity accounts for life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia in at least 2.6% of women and 12.5% of men.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/blood , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Interferon Type I/immunology , Interferon alpha-2/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Asymptomatic Infections , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Diabetologia ; 63(12): 2548-2558, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-840591

ABSTRACT

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study was to characterise the humoral response against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in patients with diabetes. Demonstrating the ability to mount an appropriate antibody response in the presence of hyperglycaemia is relevant for the comprehension of mechanisms related to the observed worse clinical outcome of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia in patients with diabetes and for the development of any future vaccination campaign to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Using a highly specific and sensitive measurement of antibodies by fluid-phase luciferase immunoprecipitation assays, we characterised the IgG, IgM and IgA response against multiple antigens of SARS-CoV-2 in a cohort of 509 patients with documented diagnosis of COVID-19, prospectively followed at our institution. We analysed clinical outcomes and antibody titres according to the presence of hyperglycaemia, i.e., either diagnosed or undiagnosed diabetes, at the time of, or during, hospitalisation. RESULTS: Among patients with confirmed COVID-19, 139 (27.3%) had diabetes: 90 (17.7%) had diabetes diagnosed prior to the hospital admission (comorbid diabetes) while 49 (9.6%) had diabetes diagnosed at the time of admission (newly diagnosed). Diabetes was associated with increased levels of inflammatory biomarkers and hypercoagulopathy, as well as leucocytosis and neutrophilia. Diabetes was independently associated with risk of death (HR 2.32 [95% CI 1.44, 3.75], p = 0.001), even after adjustment for age, sex and other relevant comorbidities. Moreover, a strong association between higher glucose levels and risk of death was documented irrespective of diabetes diagnosis (HR 1.14 × 1.1 mmol/l [95% CI 1.08, 1.21], p < 0.001). The humoral response against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with diabetes was present and superimposable, as for timing and antibody titres, to that of non-diabetic patients, with marginal differences, and was not influenced by glucose levels. Of the measured antibody responses, positivity for IgG against the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) was predictive of survival rate, both in the presence or absence of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The observed increased severity and mortality risk of COVID-19 pneumonia in patients with hyperglycaemia was not the result of an impaired humoral response against SARS-CoV-2. RBD IgG positivity was associated with a remarkable protective effect, allowing for a cautious optimism about the efficacy of future vaccines against SARs-COV-2 in people with diabetes. Graphical abstract.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Biomarkers/analysis , Blood Coagulation Disorders/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/immunology , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Risk Factors , Survival Analysis
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