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1.
Cureus ; 13(12), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1615281

ABSTRACT

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) where the decrease in the insulin level leads to a state of metabolic acidosis and hyperglycemia. Based on the literature review, the risk of severity of DKA in children was significantly associated with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) cases during the first wave of the pandemic. This could be attributed to social distancing restrictions which delayed hospital presentation and timely treatment and interventions. We present the case of a 15-year-old female, with non-insulin-dependent diabetes (type 2), who presented during the COVID-19 pandemic with severe DKA from another hospital. She had elevated glucose level at home for three days that was worsening but her parents continue to manage the patient at home out of fear of the patient contracting COVID-19 if she was brought to the hospital. After she deteriorated, the parents took her to the nearest hospital which did not have a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). She was immediately transferred to our facility. The patient was intubated immediately on arrival because of altered mental status possibly due to cerebral edema from severe metabolic acidosis and elevated glucose level. The patient rapidly progressed into shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). She was managed aggressively with vasopressors, fluid resuscitation, and insulin drip. She had four cardiac arrests for which she was resuscitated. Despite all efforts, she subsequently expired less than 24 hours after admission. We intend on shedding light on an emerging phenomenon due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, wherein due to the fear of contracting COVID-19, many parents opt to keep and manage sick children at home. This report highlights the important role that the aversion of presenting to medical establishments out of fear of contracting COVID-19 may have led to the untimely and preventable death of our patient. It also outlines the importance of future educational reforms toward changing the patient and family’s perception of hospitals and medical institutions, especially in children with pre-existing chronic medical conditions.

2.
Crit Care Med ; 50(1): e40-e51, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1584019

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Multicenter data on the characteristics and outcomes of children hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 are limited. Our objective was to describe the characteristics, ICU admissions, and outcomes among children hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 using Society of Critical Care Medicine Discovery Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study: Coronavirus Disease 2019 registry. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Society of Critical Care Medicine Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study (Coronavirus Disease 2019) registry. PATIENTS: Children (< 18 yr) hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 at participating hospitals from February 2020 to January 2021. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was ICU admission. Secondary outcomes included hospital and ICU duration of stay and ICU, hospital, and 28-day mortality. A total of 874 children with coronavirus disease 2019 were reported to Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study registry from 51 participating centers, majority in the United States. Median age was 8 years (interquartile range, 1.25-14 yr) with a male:female ratio of 1:2. A majority were non-Hispanic (492/874; 62.9%). Median body mass index (n = 817) was 19.4 kg/m2 (16-25.8 kg/m2), with 110 (13.4%) overweight and 300 (36.6%) obese. A majority (67%) presented with fever, and 43.2% had comorbidities. A total of 238 of 838 (28.2%) met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and 404 of 874 (46.2%) were admitted to the ICU. In multivariate logistic regression, age, fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and pre-existing seizure disorder were independently associated with a greater odds of ICU admission. Hospital mortality was 16 of 874 (1.8%). Median (interquartile range) duration of ICU (n = 379) and hospital (n = 857) stay were 3.9 days (2-7.7 d) and 4 days (1.9-7.5 d), respectively. For patients with 28-day data, survival was 679 of 787, 86.3% with 13.4% lost to follow-up, and 0.3% deceased. CONCLUSIONS: In this observational, multicenter registry of children with coronavirus disease 2019, ICU admission was common. Older age, fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and seizure disorder were independently associated with ICU admission, and mortality was lower among children than mortality reported in adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child, Hospitalized/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Adolescent , Age Factors , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality
3.
Crit Care Med ; 50(1): e40-e51, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356720

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Multicenter data on the characteristics and outcomes of children hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 are limited. Our objective was to describe the characteristics, ICU admissions, and outcomes among children hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 using Society of Critical Care Medicine Discovery Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study: Coronavirus Disease 2019 registry. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Society of Critical Care Medicine Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study (Coronavirus Disease 2019) registry. PATIENTS: Children (< 18 yr) hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 at participating hospitals from February 2020 to January 2021. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was ICU admission. Secondary outcomes included hospital and ICU duration of stay and ICU, hospital, and 28-day mortality. A total of 874 children with coronavirus disease 2019 were reported to Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness Universal Study registry from 51 participating centers, majority in the United States. Median age was 8 years (interquartile range, 1.25-14 yr) with a male:female ratio of 1:2. A majority were non-Hispanic (492/874; 62.9%). Median body mass index (n = 817) was 19.4 kg/m2 (16-25.8 kg/m2), with 110 (13.4%) overweight and 300 (36.6%) obese. A majority (67%) presented with fever, and 43.2% had comorbidities. A total of 238 of 838 (28.2%) met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and 404 of 874 (46.2%) were admitted to the ICU. In multivariate logistic regression, age, fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and pre-existing seizure disorder were independently associated with a greater odds of ICU admission. Hospital mortality was 16 of 874 (1.8%). Median (interquartile range) duration of ICU (n = 379) and hospital (n = 857) stay were 3.9 days (2-7.7 d) and 4 days (1.9-7.5 d), respectively. For patients with 28-day data, survival was 679 of 787, 86.3% with 13.4% lost to follow-up, and 0.3% deceased. CONCLUSIONS: In this observational, multicenter registry of children with coronavirus disease 2019, ICU admission was common. Older age, fever, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and seizure disorder were independently associated with ICU admission, and mortality was lower among children than mortality reported in adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child, Hospitalized/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Adolescent , Age Factors , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality
5.
J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open ; 2(1): e12375, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1055907

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread across the globe, causing innumerable deaths and a massive economic catastrophe. Exposure to household members with confirmed COVID-19 is the most common source of infection among children. Children are just as likely as adults to get infected with SARS-CoV-2. Most children are asymptomatic and when symptoms occur, they are usually mild. Infants <12 months old are at a higher risk for severe or critical disease. COVID-19 is diagnosed the same way in pediatric population as adults by testing specimen obtained from upper respiratory tract for nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) using reverse transcriptase viral polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The common laboratory findings in hospitalized patient include leukopenia, lymphopenia, and increased levels of inflammatory markers. Chest X-ray findings are variable and computed tomography scans of the chest may show ground glass opacities similar to adults or non-specific findings. Prevention is the primary intervention strategy. Recently the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has provided emergency authorization of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine and many other vaccine candidates are in the investigational stage. There is limited data in children on the use of antivirals, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, monoclonal antibody, and convalescent plasma. Oxygen therapy is required in hypoxic children (saturation <92%). Similar to adults, other measures to maintain oxygenation such as high flow nasal cannula, CPAP, or ventilatory support may be needed. Ventilatory management strategies should include use of low tidal volumes (5-6 cc/kg), high positive expiratory pressure, adequate sedation, paralysis, and prone positioning. Recently, a new entity associated with COVID-19 called multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) has emerged. Clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological criteria are the basis for this diagnosis. Management options include ICU admission, steroids, intravenous gamma globulin, aspirin, anakinra, and anticoagulants. Vasoactive-inotropic score (VIS) is used to guide vasopressor support.

6.
Cureus ; 13(1): e12444, 2021 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013552

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly found infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), first observed in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. An otherwise healthy 13-month-old male presented with persistent fever and cheilitis as his initial findings of COVID-19 in April 2020 prior to the discovery and classification of the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Clinical symptoms of COVID-19 are still evolving in the pediatric population, ranging from being asymptomatic to varied symptoms, such as fever, abdominal pain, and myocarditis. Other manifestations such as conjunctivitis and cheilitis can offer clues. We speculate that cheilitis can be a sign of the hyperinflammatory state, as seen in MIS-C.

7.
J Pediatr ; 226: 55-63.e2, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-765218

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical manifestations and outcomes of critically ill children with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) in New York City. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective observational study of children 1 month to 21 years admitted March 14 to May 2, 2020, to 9 New York City pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. RESULTS: Of 70 children admitted to PICUs, median age was 15 (IQR 9, 19) years; 61.4% male; 38.6% Hispanic; 32.9% black; and 74.3% with comorbidities. Fever (72.9%) and cough (71.4%) were the common presenting symptoms. Twelve patients (17%) met severe sepsis criteria; 14 (20%) required vasopressor support; 21 (30%) developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); 9 (12.9%) met acute kidney injury criteria; 1 (1.4%) required renal-replacement therapy, and 2 (2.8%) had cardiac arrest. For treatment, 27 (38.6%) patients received hydroxychloroquine; 13 (18.6%) remdesivir; 23 (32.9%) corticosteroids; 3 (4.3%) tocilizumab; and 1 (1.4%) anakinra; no patient was given immunoglobulin or convalescent plasma. Forty-nine (70%) patients required respiratory support: 14 (20.0%) noninvasive mechanical ventilation, 20 (28.6%) invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), 7 (10%) prone position, 2 (2.8%) inhaled nitric oxide, and 1 (1.4%) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Nine (45%) of the 20 patients requiring IMV were extubated by day 14 with median IMV duration of 218 (IQR 79, 310.4) hours. Presence of ARDS was significantly associated with duration of PICU and hospital stay, and lower probability of PICU and hospital discharge at hospital day 14 (P < .05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: Critically ill children with COVID-19 predominantly are adolescents, have comorbidities, and require some form of respiratory support. The presence of ARDS is significantly associated with prolonged PICU and hospital stay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Adolescent , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Combined Modality Therapy , Comorbidity , Critical Care/methods , Critical Illness , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , New York City/epidemiology , Respiratory Therapy/methods , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
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