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1.
Sci Adv ; 8(29): eabo0171, 2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1949924

ABSTRACT

Neurological manifestations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection represent a major issue in long coronavirus disease. How SARS-CoV-2 gains access to the brain and how infection leads to neurological symptoms are not clear because the principal means of viral entry by endocytosis, the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor, are barely detectable in the brain. We report that human neuronal cells, nonpermissive to infection through the endocytic pathway, can be infected when cocultured with permissive infected epithelial cells. SARS-CoV-2 induces the formation of tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) and exploits this route to spread to uninfected cells. In cellulo correlative fluorescence and cryo-electron tomography reveal that SARS-CoV-2 is associated with TNTs between permissive cells. Furthermore, multiple vesicular structures such as double-membrane vesicles, sites of viral replication, are observed inside TNTs between permissive and nonpermissive cells. Our data highlight a previously unknown mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 spreading, likely used as a route to invade nonpermissive cells and potentiate infection in permissive cells.

2.
Life Sci Alliance ; 5(4)2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1614505

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus contains a single linear RNA segment that serves as a template for transcription and replication, leading to the synthesis of positive and negative-stranded viral RNA (vRNA) in infected cells. Tools to visualize vRNA directly in infected cells are critical to analyze the viral replication cycle, screen for therapeutic molecules, or study infections in human tissue. Here, we report the design, validation, and initial application of FISH probes to visualize positive or negative RNA of SARS-CoV-2 (CoronaFISH). We demonstrate sensitive visualization of vRNA in African green monkey and several human cell lines, in patient samples and human tissue. We further demonstrate the adaptation of CoronaFISH probes to electron microscopy. We provide all required oligonucleotide sequences, source code to design the probes, and a detailed protocol. We hope that CoronaFISH will complement existing techniques for research on SARS-CoV-2 biology and COVID-19 pathophysiology, drug screening, and diagnostics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence/methods , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Replication/genetics , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Caco-2 Cells , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , In Situ Hybridization/methods , Microscopy, Electron/methods , RNA, Viral/ultrastructure , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Vero Cells , Virus Release/drug effects , Virus Release/genetics , Virus Release/physiology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Virus Replication/physiology
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293071

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells is mediated by the binding of its spike glycoprotein to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, highly expressed in several organs, but very low in the brain. The mechanism through which SARS-CoV-2 infects neurons is not understood. Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs), actin-based intercellular conduits that connect distant cells, allow the transfer of cargos, including viruses. Here, we explored the neuroinvasive potential of SARS-CoV-2 and whether TNTs are involved in its spreading between cells in vitro. We report that neuronal cells, not permissive to SARS-CoV-2 through an exocytosis/endocytosis dependent pathway, can be infected when co-cultured with permissive infected epithelial cells. SARS-CoV-2 induces TNTs formation between permissive cells and exploits this route to spread to uninfected permissive cells in co-culture. Correlative Cryo-electron tomography reveals that SARS-CoV-2 is associated with the plasma membrane of TNTs formed between permissive cells and virus-like vesicular structures are inside TNTs established both between permissive cells and between permissive and non-permissive cells. Our data highlight a potential novel mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 spreading which could serve as route to invade non-permissive cells and potentiate infection in permissive cells.

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