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1.
Open Access Emerg Med ; 13: 465-479, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523560

ABSTRACT

In the Emergency Medicine setting, D-dimer is currently employed in the diagnostic assessment of suspected venous thromboembolism and aortic syndrome. The nonspecific symptoms reported by patients, like chest pain, dyspnea or syncope, uncover a wide range of differential diagnosis, spanning from mild to life-threatening conditions. Therefore, we assumed the perspective of the Emergency Physician and, in this narrative review, we reported a brief presentation of the epidemiology of these symptoms and the characteristics of patients, in whom we could suspect the aforementioned pathologies. We also reported in which patients D-dimer gives useful information. In fact, when the probability of the disease is high, the D-dimer level is futile. On the contrary, given the low specificity of the test, when the probability of the disease is very low, a false-positive value of the D-dimer only increases the risk of overtesting. Patients with low to moderate probability really benefit from the D-dimer testing, in order to prevent the execution of expensive and potentially dangerous imaging tests. In the second part of the review, we focused on the prognostic value of the test in septic patients. The early prognostic stratification of septic patients remains a challenge for the Emergency Physician, in the absence of a definite biomarker or score to rely on. Therefore, we need several parameters for the early identification of patients at risk of an adverse prognosis and the D-dimer may play a role in this demanding task. SARS COVID-19 patients represent an emerging reality, where the role of the D-dimer for prognostic stratification could be relevant. In fact, in patients with severe forms of this disease, the D-dimer reaches very high values, which appear to parallel the course of respiratory failure. Whether the test may add useful information for the management of these patients remains to be determined.

2.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(1): 137-144, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477604

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder in hospitalized patients and occurs in about 30% of patients with pneumonia. Hyponatremia has been associated with a worse outcome in several pathologic conditions The main objective of this study was to determine whether serum sodium alterations may be independent predictors of the outcome of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. DESIGN AND METHODS: In this observational study, data from 441 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to a University Hospital were collected. After excluding 61 patients (no serum sodium at admission available, saline solution infusion before sodium assessment, transfer from another hospital), data from 380 patients were analyzed. RESULTS: 274 (72.1%) patients had normonatremia at admission, 87 (22.9%) patients had hyponatremia and 19 (5%) patients had hypernatremia. We found an inverse correlation between serum sodium and IL-6, whereas a direct correlation between serum sodium and PaO2/FiO2 ratio was observed. Patients with hyponatremia had a higher prevalence of non-invasive ventilation and ICU transfer than those with normonatremia or hypernatremia. Hyponatremia was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (2.7-fold increase vs normonatremia) and each mEq/L of serum sodium reduction was associated with a 14.4% increased risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that serum sodium at admission may be considered as an early prognostic marker of disease severity in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sodium/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Fluorocarbons/blood , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydrocarbons, Brominated/blood , Hypernatremia/epidemiology , Hyponatremia/epidemiology , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS Virus
4.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251966, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236594

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the lower limbs, using serial compression ultrasound (CUS) surveillance, in acutely ill patients with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to a non-ICU setting. METHODS: Multicenter, prospective study of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to Internal Medicine units. All patients were screened for DVT of the lower limbs with serial CUS. Anticoagulation was defined as: low dose (enoxaparin 20-40 mg/day or fondaparinux 1.5-2.5 mg/day); intermediate dose (enoxaparin 60-80 mg/day); high dose (enoxaparin 120-160 mg or fondaparinux 5-10 mg/day or oral anticoagulation). The primary end-point of the study was the diagnosis of DVT by CUS. RESULTS: Over a two-month period, 227 consecutive patients with moderate-severe COVID-19 pneumonia were enrolled. The incidence of DVT was 13.7% (6.2% proximal, 7.5% distal), mostly asymptomatic. All patients received anticoagulation (enoxaparin 95.6%) at the following doses: low 57.3%, intermediate 22.9%, high 19.8%. Patients with and without DVT had similar characteristics, and no difference in anticoagulant regimen was observed. DVT patients were older (mean 77±9.6 vs 71±13.1 years; p = 0.042) and had higher peak D-dimer levels (5403 vs 1723 ng/mL; p = 0.004). At ROC analysis peak D-dimer level >2000 ng/mL (AUC 0.703; 95% CI 0.572-0.834; p = 0.004) was the most accurate cut-off value able to predict DVT (RR 3.74; 95%CI 1.27-10, p = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of DVT in acutely ill patients with COVID-19 pneumonia is relevant. A surveillance protocol by serial CUS of the lower limbs is useful to timely identify DVT that would go otherwise largely undetected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Female , Fondaparinux/therapeutic use , Humans , Incidence , Lower Extremity/blood supply , Male , Middle Aged , Ultrasonography , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
5.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e040729, 2020 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-797443

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Several physiological abnormalities that develop during COVID-19 are associated with increased mortality. In the present study, we aimed to develop a clinical risk score to predict the in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients, based on a set of variables available soon after the hospitalisation triage. SETTING: Retrospective cohort study of 516 patients consecutively admitted for COVID-19 to two Italian tertiary hospitals located in Northern and Central Italy were collected from 22 February 2020 (date of first admission) to 10 April 2020. PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive patients≥18 years admitted for COVID-19. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Simple clinical and laboratory findings readily available after triage were compared by patients' survival status ('dead' vs 'alive'), with the objective of identifying baseline variables associated with mortality. These were used to build a COVID-19 in-hospital mortality risk score (COVID-19MRS). RESULTS: Mean age was 67±13 years (mean±SD), and 66.9% were male. Using Cox regression analysis, tertiles of increasing age (≥75, upper vs <62 years, lower: HR 7.92; p<0.001) and number of chronic diseases (≥4 vs 0-1: HR 2.09; p=0.007), respiratory rate (HR 1.04 per unit increase; p=0.001), PaO2/FiO2 (HR 0.995 per unit increase; p<0.001), serum creatinine (HR 1.34 per unit increase; p<0.001) and platelet count (HR 0.995 per unit increase; p=0.001) were predictors of mortality. All six predictors were used to build the COVID-19MRS (Area Under the Curve 0.90, 95% CI 0.87 to 0.93), which proved to be highly accurate in stratifying patients at low, intermediate and high risk of in-hospital death (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19MRS is a rapid, operator-independent and inexpensive clinical tool that objectively predicts mortality in patients with COVID-19. The score could be helpful from triage to guide earlier assignment of COVID-19 patients to the most appropriate level of care.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections , Critical Care , Critical Pathways , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Risk Assessment/methods , Triage , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Critical Care/methods , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Critical Pathways/organization & administration , Critical Pathways/standards , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Triage/methods , Triage/statistics & numerical data
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