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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463708

ABSTRACT

Social behavioral changes, including social isolation or loneliness, increase the risk for stress-related disorders, such as major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and suicide, which share a strong neuroinflammatory etiopathogenetic component. The peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α, a newly discovered target involved in emotional behavior regulation, is a ligand-activated nuclear receptor and a transcription factor that, following stimulation by endogenous or synthetic ligands, may induce neuroprotective effects by modulating neuroinflammation, and improve anxiety and depression-like behaviors by enhancing neurosteroid biosynthesis. How stress affects epigenetic mechanisms with downstream effects on inflammation and emotional behavior remains poorly understood. We studied the effects of 4-week social isolation, using a mouse model of PTSD/suicide-like behavior, on hippocampal PPAR-α epigenetic modification. Decreased PPAR-α expression in the hippocampus of socially isolated mice was associated with increased levels of methylated cytosines of PPAR-α gene CpG-rich fragments and deficient neurosteroid biosynthesis. This effect was associated with increased histone deacetylases (HDAC)1, methyl-cytosine binding protein (MeCP)2 and decreased ten-eleven translocator (TET)2 expression, which favor hypermethylation. These alterations were associated with increased TLR-4 and pro-inflammatory markers (e.g., TNF-α,), mediated by NF-κB signaling in the hippocampus of aggressive mice. This study contributes the first evidence of stress-induced brain PPAR-α epigenetic regulation. Social isolation stress may constitute a risk factor for inflammatory-based psychiatric disorders associated with neurosteroid deficits, and targeting epigenetic marks linked to PPAR-α downregulation may offer a valid therapeutic approach.


Subject(s)
Aggression , Hippocampus/metabolism , Inflammation/etiology , PPAR alpha/genetics , Social Isolation , Stress, Psychological , Aggression/psychology , Animals , Behavior, Animal , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , CpG Islands , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Susceptibility , Epigenesis, Genetic , Gene Expression , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Male , Methylation , Mice , PPAR alpha/metabolism , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Signal Transduction
2.
Inflamm Res ; 70(9): 935-937, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355995

ABSTRACT

We report a case of itchy papulovesicular rash consistent with varicella-zoster virus reactivation after Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine second dose administration. While there have been cases of varicella-zoster virus reactivation due to COVID-19 or COVID-19 vaccine inoculation in older individuals with pre-existing conditions, this case report describes the first case of varicella-zoster virus reactivation on a healthy, young male in the absence of pre-existing conditions. The mechanisms underlying varicella-zoster virus reactivation in patients with COVID-19 are unknown and should be further characterized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Chickenpox/etiology , Chickenpox/virology , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Chickenpox/pathology , Humans , Male , Skin/pathology , Vaccination/adverse effects
3.
Inflamm Res ; 70(9): 931-933, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258184

ABSTRACT

Long-term and rare adverse effects of COVID-19 vaccines are unknown. Hence, it is important to report them to improve the safety profile of the vaccines and enhance their use worldwide. Here, we describe a case of acute visual impairment after Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine second dose.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Vision Disorders/etiology , Visual Acuity/drug effects , Visual Fields , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccination/adverse effects
4.
Trends Endocrinol Metab ; 32(1): 3-6, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940894

ABSTRACT

Evidence shows coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-induced symptom severity and mortality is more frequent in men than in women, suggesting sex steroids may play a protective role. Female reproductive steroids, estrogen and progesterone, and its metabolite allopregnanolone, are anti-inflammatory, reshape competence of immune cells, stimulate antibody production, and promote proliferation and repair of respiratory epithelial cells, suggesting they may protect against COVID-19 symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Estradiol/immunology , Estrogens/immunology , Immune System/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Pregnanolone/immunology , Pregnenolone/immunology , Progesterone/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Age Factors , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , Estradiol/metabolism , Estrogens/metabolism , Female , Humans , Immune System/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Male , Pregnanolone/metabolism , Pregnenolone/metabolism , Progesterone/metabolism , Sex Factors
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