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1.
Health Expect ; 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784639

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic forced health care systems globally to adapt quickly to remote modes of health care delivery, including for routine asthma reviews. A core component of asthma care is supporting self-management, a guideline-recommended intervention that reduces the risk of acute attacks, and improves asthma control and quality of life. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore context and mechanisms for the outcomes of clinical effectiveness, acceptability and safety of supported self-management delivery within remote asthma consultations. DESIGN: The review followed standard methodology for rapid realist reviews. An External Reference Group (ERG) provided expert advice and guidance throughout the study. We systematically searched four electronic databases and, with ERG advice, selected 18 papers that explored self-management delivery during routine asthma reviews. SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTION: Health care professional delivery of supported self-management for asthma patients during remote (specifically including telephone and video) consultations. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Data were extracted using Context-Mechanism-Outcome (C-M-O) configurations and synthesised into overarching themes using the PRISMS taxonomy of supported self-management as a framework to structure the findings. RESULTS: The review findings identified how support for self-management delivered remotely was acceptable (often more acceptable than in-person consultations), and was a safe and effective alternative to face-to-face reviews. In addition, remote delivery of supported self-management was associated with; increased patient convenience, improved access to and attendance at remote reviews, and offered continuity of care. DISCUSSION: Remote delivery of supported self-management for asthma was generally found to be clinically effective, acceptable, and safe with the added advantage of increasing accessibility. Remote reviews could provide the core content of an asthma review, including remote completion of asthma action plans. CONCLUSION: Our findings support the option of remote delivery of routine asthma care for those who have this preference, and offer healthcare professionals guidance on embedding supported self-management into remote asthma reviews. PATIENT AND PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: Patient and public contribution was provided by a representative of the Asthma UK Centre for Applied Research (AUKCAR) patient and public involvement (PPI) group. The PPI representative reviewed the findings, and feedback and comments were considered. This lead to further interpretations of the data which were included in the final manuscript.

2.
J Glob Health ; 12: 04023, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776559

ABSTRACT

Background: Asthma was one of the top causes of hospitalization and unscheduled medical attendances due to acute exacerbations and its complications. In Malaysia, all pilgrims must undergo a mandatory health examination and certified fit to perform pilgrimage. We studied the current organisational and clinical routines of Hajj health examination in Malaysia with a focus on the delivery of care for pilgrims with asthma. Methods: We conducted non-participant observation to obtain ethnographic understanding of Hajj health examination activities for 2019. Observations were guided by a checklist and recorded as notes that were analysed thematically. The study was conducted at 11 public (from each region in Malaysia, namely, North, South, East, West of Peninsular Malaysia, and Sabah and Sarawak of East Malaysia) and two private primary care clinics. Results: We observed considerable variation in the implementation and practice of Hajj health examinations among the 11 public clinics but no marked variation among the private clinics. The short time span of between three to four months was inadequate for disease control measures and had put pressure on health care providers. They mostly viewed the Hajj health examination as merely a certification of fitness to perform the pilgrimage, though respiratory health assessment was often inadequate. The opportunity to optimise the health of pilgrims with asthma by providing the appropriate medications, asthma action plan and asthma education including the preventive measures was disregarded. The preliminary health screening, which aimed to optimise pilgrims' health before the actual Hajj health examination was not appreciated by either pilgrims or health care providers. Conclusions: There is great potential to reform the current system of Hajj health certification in order to optimise its potential benefits for pilgrims with asthma. A systematic approach to restructuring the delivery of Hajj health examination could address the time constraints, clinical competency of primary health care providers and resources limitations.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Travel , Asthma/diagnosis , Humans , Islam , Malaysia
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313029

ABSTRACT

Background: There are almost 11 million cases of COVID-19 in India. Transmission rates vary from region to region, and are influenced by many factors including population susceptibility, travel and uptake of preventive measures. To date there have been relatively few studies examining the impact of the pandemic in poor, rural regions of India. We report on a study examining COVID-19 burden in a rural community in Tamil Nadu. Methods: : The study was undertaken in a population of approximately 130000 people, served by the Rural Unit of Health and Social Affairs (RUHSA), a community health center of CMC, Vellore. We established and evaluated a COVID-19 PCR-testing programme for symptomatic patients – testing was offered to 350 individuals, and household members of test-positive cases were offered antibody testing. We also undertook two COVID-19 seroprevalence surveys in the same community, amongst 701 randomly-selected individuals. Results: : There were 182 positive tests in the symptomatic population (52.0%). Factors associated with test-positivity were older age, male gender, higher socioeconomic status (SES, as determined by occupation, education and housing), a history of diabetes, contact with a confirmed/suspected case and attending a gathering (such as a religious ceremony, festival or extended family gathering). Amongst test-positive cases, 3 (1.6%) died and 16 (8.8%) suffered a severe illness. Amongst 129 household contacts 40 (31.0 %) tested positive. The two seroprevalence surveys showed positivity rates of 2.2% (July/Aug 2020) and 22.0% (Nov 2020). 40 tested positive (31.0%, 95% CI: 23.02 -38.98). Our estimated infection-to-case ratio was 31.7. Conclusions: : A simple approach using community health workers and a community-based testing clinic can readily identify significant numbers of COVID-19 infections in Indian rural population. There appear, however, to be low rates of death and severe illness, although vulnerable groups may be under-represented in our sample. It’s vital these poor, rural populations aren’t overlooked in ongoing pandemic monitoring and vaccine roll-out in India.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258689, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477537

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data to better understand and manage the COVID-19 pandemic is urgently needed. However, there are gaps in information stored within even the best routinely-collected electronic health records (EHR) including test results, remote consultations for suspected COVID-19, shielding, physical activity, mental health, and undiagnosed or untested COVID-19 patients. Observational and Pragmatic Research Institute (OPRI) Singapore and Optimum Patient Care (OPC) UK established Platform C19, a research database combining EHR data and bespoke patient questionnaire. We describe the demographics, clinical characteristics, patient behavior, and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic using data within Platform C19. METHODS: EHR data from Platform C19 were extracted from 14 practices across UK participating in the OPC COVID-19 Quality Improvement program on a continuous, monthly basis. Starting 7th August 2020, consenting patients aged 18-85 years were invited in waves to fill an online questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were summarized using all data available up to 22nd January 2021. FINDINGS: From 129,978 invitees, 31,033 responded. Respondents were predominantly female (59.6%), white (93.5%), and current or ex-smokers (52.6%). Testing for COVID-19 was received by 23.8% of respondents, of which 7.9% received positive results. COVID-19 symptoms lasted ≥4 weeks in 19.5% of COVID-19 positive respondents. Up to 39% respondents reported a negative impact on questions regarding their mental health. Most (67%-76%) respondents with asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), diabetes, heart, or kidney disease reported no change in the condition of their diseases. INTERPRETATION: Platform C19 will enable research on key questions relating to COVID-19 pandemic not possible using EHR data alone.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Databases, Factual , Electronic Health Records , Primary Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United Kingdom/epidemiology
5.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e050362, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462962

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) are common and disabling conditions that can result in social isolation and economic hardship for patients and their families. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) improves functional exercise capacity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) but practical barriers to attending centre-based sessions or the need for infection control limits accessibility. Home-PR offers a potential solution that may improve access. We aim to systematically review the clinical effectiveness, completion rates and components of Home-PR for people with CRDs compared with Centre-PR or Usual care. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will search PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, PeDRO and PsycInfo from January 1990 to date using a PICOS search strategy (Population: adults with CRDs; Intervention: Home-PR; Comparator: Centre-PR/Usual care; Outcomes: functional exercise capacity and HRQoL; Setting: any setting). The strategy is to search for 'Chronic Respiratory Disease' AND 'Pulmonary Rehabilitation' AND 'Home-PR', and identify relevant randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials. Six reviewers working in pairs will independently screen articles for eligibility and extract data from those fulfilling the inclusion criteria. We will use the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to rate the quality of evidence. We will perform meta-analysis or narrative synthesis as appropriate to answer our three research questions: (1) what is the effectiveness of Home-PR compared with Centre-PR or Usual care? (2) what components are used in effective Home-PR studies? and (3) what is the completion rate of Home-PR compared with Centre-PR? ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Research ethics approval is not required since the study will review only published data. The findings will be disseminated through publication in a peer-reviewed journal and presentation in conferences. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020220137.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Respiration Disorders , Adult , Exercise , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Quality of Life , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Treatment Outcome
6.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(9): e26434, 2021 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403381

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Technology, including mobile apps, has the potential to support self-management of long-term conditions and can be tailored to enhance adoption. We developed an app to support asthma self-management among people with limited health literacy in a web-based workshop (to ensure physical distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to develop and test a prototype asthma self-management mobile app tailored to the needs of people with limited health literacy through a web-based workshop. METHODS: We recruited participants from a primary care center in Malaysia. We adapted a design sprint methodology to a web-based workshop in five stages over 1 week. Patients with asthma and limited health literacy provided insights into real-life self-management issues in stage 1, which informed mobile app development in stages 2-4. We recruited additional patients to test the prototype in stage 5 using a qualitative research design. Participants gave feedback through a concurrent thinking-aloud process moderated by a researcher. Each interview lasted approximately 1 hour. Screen recordings of app browsing activities were performed. Interviews were audio-recorded and analyzed using a thematic approach to identify utility and usability issues. RESULTS: The stakeholder discussion identified four themes: individual, family, friends, and society and system levels. Five patients tested the prototype. Participants described 4 ways in which the app influenced or supported self-management (utility): offering information, providing access to an asthma action plan, motivating control of asthma through support for medication adherence, and supporting behavior change through a reward system. Specific usability issues addressed navigation, comprehension, and layout. CONCLUSIONS: This study proved that it was possible to adapt the design sprint workshop to a web-based format with the added advantage that it allowed the development and the testing process to be done efficiently through various programs. The resultant app incorporated advice from stakeholders, including sources for information about asthma, medication and appointment reminders, accessible asthma action plans, and sources for social support. The app is now ready to move to feasibility testing.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Health Literacy , Self-Management , Asthma/therapy , Humans , Internet , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , User-Centered Design
7.
Pragmat Obs Res ; 12: 93-104, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360683

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Symptoms may persist after the initial phases of COVID-19 infection, a phenomenon termed long COVID. Current knowledge on long COVID has been mostly derived from test-confirmed and hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Data are required on the burden and predictors of long COVID in a broader patient group, which includes both tested and untested COVID-19 patients in primary care. METHODS: This is an observational study using data from Platform C19, a quality improvement program-derived research database linking primary care electronic health record data (EHR) with patient-reported questionnaire information. Participating general practices invited consenting patients aged 18-85 to complete an online questionnaire since 7th August 2020. COVID-19 self-diagnosis, clinician-diagnosis, testing, and the presence and duration of symptoms were assessed via the questionnaire. Patients were considered present with long COVID if they reported symptoms lasting ≥4 weeks. EHR and questionnaire data up till 22nd January 2021 were extracted for analysis. Multivariable regression analyses were conducted comparing demographics, clinical characteristics, and presence of symptoms between patients with long COVID and patients with shorter symptom duration. RESULTS: Long COVID was present in 310/3151 (9.8%) patients with self-diagnosed, clinician-diagnosed, or test-confirmed COVID-19. Only 106/310 (34.2%) long COVID patients had test-confirmed COVID-19. Risk predictors of long COVID were age ≥40 years (adjusted Odds Ratio [AdjOR]=1.49 [1.05-2.17]), female sex (adjOR=1.37 [1.02-1.85]), frailty (adjOR=2.39 [1.29-4.27]), visit to A&E (adjOR=4.28 [2.31-7.78]), and hospital admission for COVID-19 symptoms (adjOR=3.22 [1.77-5.79]). Aches and pain (adjOR=1.70 [1.21-2.39]), appetite loss (adjOR=3.15 [1.78-5.92]), confusion and disorientation (adjOR=2.17 [1.57-2.99]), diarrhea (adjOR=1.4 [1.03-1.89]), and persistent dry cough (adjOR=2.77 [1.94-3.98]) were symptom features statistically more common in long COVID. CONCLUSION: This study reports the factors and symptom features predicting long COVID in a broad primary care population, including both test-confirmed and the previously missed group of COVID-19 patients.

8.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 685696, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282403

ABSTRACT

Maintaining healthcare for noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is particularly important during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, diversion of resources to acute care, and physical distancing restrictions markedly affected management of NCDs. We aimed to assess the medication management practices in place for NCDs during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic across European countries. In December 2020, the European Network to Advance Best practices & technoLogy on medication adherencE (ENABLE) conducted a cross-sectional, web-based survey in 38 European and one non-European countries. Besides descriptive statistics of responses, nonparametric tests and generalized linear models were used to evaluate the impact on available NCD services of the number of COVID-19 cases and deaths per 100,000 inhabitants, and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. Fifty-three collaborators from 39 countries completed the survey. In 35 (90%) countries face-to-face primary-care, and out-patient consultations were reduced during the COVID-19 pandemic. The mean ± SD number of available forms of teleconsultation services in the public healthcare system was 3 ± 1.3. Electronic prescriptions were available in 36 (92%) countries. Online ordering and home delivery of prescription medication (avoiding pharmacy visits) were available in 18 (46%) and 26 (67%) countries, respectively. In 20 (51%) countries our respondents were unaware of any national guidelines regarding maintaining medication availability for NCDs, nor advice for patients on how to ensure access to medication and adherence during the pandemic. Our results point to an urgent need for a paradigm shift in NCD-related healthcare services to assure the maintenance of chronic pharmacological treatments during COVID-19 outbreaks, as well as possible future disasters.

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