Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 78
Filter
1.
J Clin Virol ; 157: 105300, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105314

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Viral conjunctivitis (pink eye) can be highly contagious and is of public health importance. There remains significant debate whether SARS-CoV-2 can present as a primary conjunctivitis. The aim of this study was to identify pathogens associated with outpatient infectious conjunctivitis during the COVID-19 Delta surge. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted in the spring and summer months of 2021. 106 patients with acute conjunctivitis who presented to the Aravind Eye Center in Madurai, India were included. One anterior nasal swab and one conjunctival swab of each eye were obtained for each enrolled patient. Samples were subsequently processed for unbiased metagenomic RNA deep sequencing (RNA-seq). Outcomes included clinical findings and codetection of other pathogens with SARS-CoV-2 in patients with conjunctivitis. RESULTS: Among the 13 patients identified with human coronavirus RNA fragments in their swabs, 6 patients had SARS-CoV-2 infection, 5 patients had coinfections of SARS-CoV-2 and human adenovirus (HAdV), 1 patient had a coinfection with human coronavirus OC43 and HAdV, and 1 patient had a coinfection of Vittaforma corneae and SARS-CoV-2. 30% had bilateral disease and symptoms on presentation. Petechial hemorrhage was noted in 33% of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. No patients with SARS-CoV-2 or SARS-CoV-2 and HAdV infections had subepithelial infiltrates on presentation. All patients denied systemic symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Among the patients presented with conjunctivitis associated with human coronavirus infection, over 50% of the patients had co-infections with other circulating pathogens, suggesting the public-health importance of broad pathogen testing and surveillance in the outpatient conjunctivitis population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Conjunctivitis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Coinfection/epidemiology , Outpatients , Prospective Studies , India/epidemiology , RNA
2.
J Clin Virol ; 157: 105323, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2083110

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Although most laboratories are capable of employing established protocols to perform full-genome SARS-CoV-2 sequencing, many are unable to assess sequence quality, select appropriate mutation-detection thresholds, or report on the potential clinical significance of mutations in the targets of antiviral therapy METHODS: We describe the technical aspects and benchmark the performance of Sierra SARS-CoV-2, a program designed to perform these functions on user-submitted FASTQ and FASTA sequence files and lists of Spike mutations. Sierra SARS-CoV-2 indicates which sequences contain an unexpectedly large number of unusual mutations and which mutations are associated with reduced susceptibility to clinical stage mAbs, the RdRP inhibitor remdesivir, or the Mpro inhibitor nirmatrelvir RESULTS: To assess the performance of Sierra SARS-CoV-2 on FASTQ files, we applied it to 600 representative FASTQ sequences and compared the results to the COVID-19 EDGE program. To assess its performance on FASTA files, we applied it to nearly one million representative FASTA sequences and compared the results to the GISAID mutation annotation. To assess its performance on mutations lists, we applied it to 13,578 distinct Spike RBD mutation patterns and showed that exactly or partially matching annotations were available for 88% of patterns CONCLUSION: Sierra SARS-CoV-2 leverages previously published data to improve the quality control of submitted viral genomic data and to provide functional annotation on the impact of mutations in the targets of antiviral SARS-CoV-2 therapy. The program can be found at https://covdb.stanford.edu/sierra/sars2/ and its source code at https://github.com/hivdb/sierra-sars2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Genome, Viral , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Mutation , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
3.
J Clin Virol ; 157: 105318, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061479

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Seasonal outbreaks of infectious conjunctivitis remain a public health issue. Determination of outbreak etiologies in the context of a worldwide pandemic may provide useful information to guide public health strategies. The aim of this study was to identify pathogens associated with outpatient infectious conjunctivitis during the COVID-19 Delta surge. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted from April 2021 to September 2021. All outpatients presenting to the Aravind Eye Center (Madurai, India) with signs and symptoms consistent with acute infectious conjunctivitis were eligible. Three swabs were obtained from each participant: one from each conjunctiva and one from the anterior nares. Samples were processed for metagenomic RNA deep sequencing (RNA-seq). RESULTS: Samples from 106 study participants were sequenced. The most common presenting symptoms were tearing (86%) and itching (71%). Preauricular lymphadenopathy was present in 38% of participants. 20% of participants had close contacts with similar symptoms. Systemic symptoms such as coughing, runny nose, vomiting or diarrhea were uncommonly reported. 60% of all participants used some medicated eye drops upon enrollment. 75% of study participants demonstrated infection with human adenovirus D (HAdV-D). 11% of conjunctivitis was associated with SARS-CoV-2. 15% had no definitive pathogen detected. 8% of all participants had codetection of more than one pathogen on RNA-seq. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 Delta surge in India, HAdV-D was the most common pathogen associated with infectious conjunctivitis. SARS-CoV-2 was the second most common associated pathogen. Seasonal surveillance may be necessary for the determination of emerging and reemerging pathogens responsible for infectious conjunctivitis.


Subject(s)
Adenoviruses, Human , COVID-19 , Conjunctivitis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Prospective Studies , India/epidemiology , Conjunctivitis/epidemiology , Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , Acute Disease , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e314-e321, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017819

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An immunodiagnostic assay that sensitively detects a cell-mediated immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is needed for epidemiological investigation and for clinical assessment of T- cell-mediated immune response to vaccines, particularly in the context of emerging variants that might escape antibody responses. METHODS: The performance of a whole blood interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assay (IGRA) for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 antigen-specific T cells was evaluated in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescents tested serially up to 10 months post-infection and in healthy blood donors. SARS-CoV-2 IGRA was applied in contacts of households with index cases. Freshly collected blood in the lithium heparin tube was left unstimulated, stimulated with a SARS-CoV-2 peptide pool, and stimulated with mitogen. RESULTS: The overall sensitivity and specificity of IGRA were 84.5% (153/181; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 79.0-89.0) and 86.6% (123/142; 95% CI: 80.0-91.2), respectively. The sensitivity declined from 100% (16/16; 95% CI: 80.6-100) at 0.5-month post-infection to 79.5% (31/39; 95% CI: 64.4-89.2) at 10 months post-infection (P < .01). The IFN-γ response remained relatively robust at 10 months post-infection (3.8 vs 1.3 IU/mL, respectively). In 14 households, IGRA showed a positivity rate of 100% (12/12) and 65.2% (15/23), and IgG of 50.0% (6/12) and 43.5% (10/23) in index cases and contacts, respectively, exhibiting a difference of + 50% (95% CI: +25.4 to +74.6) and +21.7% (95% CI: +9.23 to +42.3), respectively. Either IGRA or IgG was positive in 100% (12/12) of index cases and 73.9% (17/23) of contacts. CONCLUSIONS: The SARS-CoV-2 IGRA is a useful clinical diagnostic tool for assessing cell-mediated immune response to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Interferon-gamma Release Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4503, 2022 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972603

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is exacting an increasing toll worldwide, with new SARS-CoV-2 variants emerging that exhibit higher infectivity rates and that may partially evade vaccine and antibody immunity. Rapid deployment of non-invasive therapeutic avenues capable of preventing infection by all SARS-CoV-2 variants could complement current vaccination efforts and help turn the tide on the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we describe a novel therapeutic strategy targeting the SARS-CoV-2 RNA using locked nucleic acid antisense oligonucleotides (LNA ASOs). We identify an LNA ASO binding to the 5' leader sequence of SARS-CoV-2 that disrupts a highly conserved stem-loop structure with nanomolar efficacy in preventing viral replication in human cells. Daily intranasal administration of this LNA ASO in the COVID-19 mouse model potently suppresses viral replication (>80-fold) in the lungs of infected mice. We find that the LNA ASO is efficacious in countering all SARS-CoV-2 "variants of concern" tested both in vitro and in vivo. Hence, inhaled LNA ASOs targeting SARS-CoV-2 represents a promising therapeutic approach to reduce or prevent transmission and decrease severity of COVID-19 in infected individuals. LNA ASOs are chemically stable and can be flexibly modified to target different viral RNA sequences and could be stockpiled for future coronavirus pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Humans , Mice , Oligonucleotides, Antisense/pharmacology , Oligonucleotides, Antisense/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control , RNA, Viral/genetics
6.
Nat Genet ; 54(8): 1078-1089, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960394

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes a range of symptoms in infected individuals, from mild respiratory illness to acute respiratory distress syndrome. A systematic understanding of host factors influencing viral infection is critical to elucidate SARS-CoV-2-host interactions and the progression of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we conducted genome-wide CRISPR knockout and activation screens in human lung epithelial cells with endogenous expression of the SARS-CoV-2 entry factors ACE2 and TMPRSS2. We uncovered proviral and antiviral factors across highly interconnected host pathways, including clathrin transport, inflammatory signaling, cell-cycle regulation, and transcriptional and epigenetic regulation. We further identified mucins, a family of high molecular weight glycoproteins, as a prominent viral restriction network that inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro and in murine models. These mucins also inhibit infection of diverse respiratory viruses. This functional landscape of SARS-CoV-2 host factors provides a physiologically relevant starting point for new host-directed therapeutics and highlights airway mucins as a host defense mechanism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Epigenesis, Genetic , Humans , Mice , Mucins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 896352, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952398

ABSTRACT

Since March 2020, SARS-CoV-2 has plagued the world with COVID-19 and individuals of all ages have experienced varying symptoms of disease. Older adults were experiencing more severe disease compared to children and were prioritized by vaccination efforts. While biologic therapies and vaccinations were implemented, there were changes in public health restrictions with subsequent surges resulting in more infected children. During these surges there was a rise of different SARS-CoV-2 variants with the dominant variant initially alpha (B.1.1.7 and other Pango lineages) and epsilon (B.1.427/B.1.429) in early 2021 and a dramatic shift to delta (B.1.617.2 and other Pango lineages) by mid-summer 2021. In this study we aimed to characterize the clinical severity and host factors associated with disease by SARS-CoV-2 variant and evaluate if there are differences in disease severity by circulating variant. We retrospectively included all individuals 0-25 years of age who presented to our center and had a positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR, SARS-CoV-2 variant mutation testing, and documented clinical notes from 1 January 2021 through 31 December 2021. We identified 745 individuals who met inclusion criteria and found the delta variant was associated with severe/critical disease compared to the other variants studied. The results of the model showed that underlying respiratory disease and diabetes were risk factors for progression to severe disease. These insights are important when evaluating public health measures and treatment options for children as more variants arise.

8.
J Clin Virol ; 154: 105242, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936754

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cycle threshold (Ct) values from SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) tests are used to measure viral burden. Calibration to the First WHO International Standard for SARS-CoV-2 RNA may improve quantitative inter-assay agreement. METHODS: WHO standard was tested using four emergency use authorized RT-qPCRs to generate calibration curves and evaluate Ct value differences. Harmonization of two assays, Cepheid Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 targeting E and nucleocapsid (N2) [Xpert (E) and Xpert (N2)] and a laboratory-developed test targeting E [LDT (E)], was assessed using 93 positive upper respiratory samples. Platform (target) pairs were compared via Bland-Altman analysis and Passing-Bablok regression. RESULTS: Ct values with the WHO standard were comparable across platforms and targets, except Xpert (N2) for which the mean difference was a median of 3.68 cycles (Interquartile Range, IQR = 3.23 to 3.76 cycles) greater than other platform (target) pairs. Using clinical samples, the mean difference of Xpert (N2) to LDT (E) was 3.64 cycles (95% Confidence Interval, CI =1.51 to 5.76). After calibration, the mean difference of Xpert (N2) to LDT (E) was 0.08 log10 IU/mL (95% CI = -0.56 to 0.71) and the regression was y = 1.00x * 0.08 (95% CI slope = 0.93 to 1.07, 95% CI intercept = 0.28 to 0.42). CONCLUSIONS: Calibration to the WHO standard resulted in the harmonization of two RT-qPCR tests, whereas analysis by Ct value alone may have led to erroneous quantitation. Harmonization to the WHO standard has the potential to improve the generalizability of clinical associations with SARS-CoV-2 RNA levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , World Health Organization
9.
JCI Insight ; 7(13)2022 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1932894

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDProlonged symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection are well documented. However, which factors influence development of long-term symptoms, how symptoms vary across ethnic groups, and whether long-term symptoms correlate with biomarkers are points that remain elusive.METHODSAdult SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription PCR-positive (RT-PCR-positive) patients were recruited at Stanford from March 2020 to February 2021. Study participants were seen for in-person visits at diagnosis and every 1-3 months for up to 1 year after diagnosis; they completed symptom surveys and underwent blood draws and nasal swab collections at each visit.RESULTSOur cohort (n = 617) ranged from asymptomatic to critical COVID-19 infections. In total, 40% of participants reported at least 1 symptom associated with COVID-19 six months after diagnosis. Median time from diagnosis to first resolution of all symptoms was 44 days; median time from diagnosis to sustained symptom resolution with no recurring symptoms for 1 month or longer was 214 days. Anti-nucleocapsid IgG level in the first week after positive RT-PCR test and history of lung disease were associated with time to sustained symptom resolution. COVID-19 disease severity, ethnicity, age, sex, and remdesivir use did not affect time to sustained symptom resolution.CONCLUSIONWe found that all disease severities had a similar risk of developing post-COVID-19 syndrome in an ethnically diverse population. Comorbid lung disease and lower levels of initial IgG response to SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen were associated with longer symptom duration.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04373148.FUNDINGNIH UL1TR003142 CTSA grant, NIH U54CA260517 grant, NIEHS R21 ES03304901, Sean N Parker Center for Allergy and Asthma Research at Stanford University, Chan Zuckerberg Biohub, Chan Zuckerberg Initiative, Sunshine Foundation, Crown Foundation, and Parker Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol ; 81(9): 666-695, 2022 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931851

ABSTRACT

Brains of 42 COVID-19 decedents and 107 non-COVID-19 controls were studied. RT-PCR screening of 16 regions from 20 COVID-19 autopsies found SARS-CoV-2 E gene viral sequences in 7 regions (2.5% of 320 samples), concentrated in 4/20 subjects (20%). Additional screening of olfactory bulb (OB), amygdala (AMY) and entorhinal area for E, N1, N2, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and S gene sequences detected one or more of these in OB in 8/21 subjects (38%). It is uncertain whether these RNA sequences represent viable virus. Significant histopathology was limited to 2/42 cases (4.8%), one with a large acute cerebral infarct and one with hemorrhagic encephalitis. Case-control RNAseq in OB and AMY found more than 5000 and 700 differentially expressed genes, respectively, unrelated to RT-PCR results; these involved immune response, neuronal constituents, and olfactory/taste receptor genes. Olfactory marker protein-1 reduction indicated COVID-19-related loss of OB olfactory mucosa afferents. Iba-1-immunoreactive microglia had reduced area fractions in cerebellar cortex and AMY, and cytokine arrays showed generalized downregulation in AMY and upregulation in blood serum in COVID-19 cases. Although OB is a major brain portal for SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19 brain changes are more likely due to blood-borne immune mediators and trans-synaptic gene expression changes arising from OB deafferentation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Brain , Gene Expression , Humans , Immunity
11.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(7): 100680, 2022 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1907870

ABSTRACT

The biological determinants underlying the range of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) clinical manifestations are not fully understood. Here, over 1,400 plasma proteins and 2,600 single-cell immune features comprising cell phenotype, endogenous signaling activity, and signaling responses to inflammatory ligands are cross-sectionally assessed in peripheral blood from 97 patients with mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19 and 40 uninfected patients. Using an integrated computational approach to analyze the combined plasma and single-cell proteomic data, we identify and independently validate a multi-variate model classifying COVID-19 severity (multi-class area under the curve [AUC]training = 0.799, p = 4.2e-6; multi-class AUCvalidation = 0.773, p = 7.7e-6). Examination of informative model features reveals biological signatures of COVID-19 severity, including the dysregulation of JAK/STAT, MAPK/mTOR, and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) immune signaling networks in addition to recapitulating known hallmarks of COVID-19. These results provide a set of early determinants of COVID-19 severity that may point to therapeutic targets for prevention and/or treatment of COVID-19 progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction
13.
Antiviral Res ; 204: 105367, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1894786

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to pose serious threats to global health. We previously reported that AAK1, BIKE and GAK, members of the Numb-associated kinase family, control intracellular trafficking of multiple RNA viruses during viral entry and assembly/egress. Here, using both genetic and pharmacological approaches, we probe the functional relevance of NAKs for SARS-CoV-2 infection. siRNA-mediated depletion of AAK1, BIKE, GAK, and STK16, the fourth member of the NAK family, suppressed SARS-CoV-2 infection in human lung epithelial cells. Both known and novel small molecules with potent AAK1/BIKE, GAK or STK16 activity suppressed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, combination treatment with the approved anti-cancer drugs, sunitinib and erlotinib, with potent anti-AAK1/BIKE and GAK activity, respectively, demonstrated synergistic effect against SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. Time-of-addition experiments revealed that pharmacological inhibition of AAK1 and BIKE suppressed viral entry as well as late stages of the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle. Lastly, suppression of NAKs expression by siRNAs inhibited entry of both wild type and SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus. These findings provide insight into the roles of NAKs in SARS-CoV-2 infection and establish a proof-of-principle that pharmacological inhibition of NAKs can be potentially used as a host-targeted approach to treat SARS-CoV-2 with potential implications to other coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Membrane Proteins , Nerve Tissue Proteins , Pandemics , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcription Factors , Virus Internalization
15.
J Clin Virol ; 153: 105217, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885897

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Humoral and cellular immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination among immunosuppressed patients remain poorly defined, as well as variables associated with poor response. METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational cohort study at a large Northern California healthcare system of infection-naïve individuals fully vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 (mRNA-1273, BNT162b2, or Ad26.COV2.S) with clinical SARS-CoV-2 interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) ordered between January through November 2021. Humoral and cellular immune responses were measured by anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 IgG ELISA (anti-S1 IgG) and IGRA, respectively, following primary and/or booster vaccination. RESULTS: 496 immunosuppressed patients (54% female; median age 50 years) were included. 62% (261/419) of patients had positive anti-S1 IgG and 71% (277/389) had positive IGRA after primary vaccination, with 20% of patients having a positive IGRA only. Following booster, 69% (81/118) had positive anti-S1 IgG and 73% (91/124) had positive IGRA. Factors associated with low humoral response rates after primary vaccination included anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (P < 0.001), sphingosine 1-phsophate (S1P) receptor modulators (P < 0.001), mycophenolate (P = 0.002), and B cell lymphoma (P = 0.004); those associated with low cellular response rates included S1P receptor modulators (P < 0.001) and mycophenolate (P < 0.001). Of patients who had poor humoral response to primary vaccination, 35% (18/52) developed a significantly higher response after the booster. Only 5% (2/42) of patients developed a significantly higher cellular response to the booster dose compared to primary vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Humoral and cellular response rates to primary and booster SARS-CoV-2 vaccination differ among immunosuppressed patient groups. Clinical testing of cellular immunity is important in monitoring vaccine response in vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Ad26COVS1 , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
17.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(5): e0017822, 2022 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807314

ABSTRACT

The ability to distinguish between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VOCs) is of ongoing interest due to differences in transmissibility, responses to vaccination, clinical prognosis, and therapy. Although detailed genetic characterization requires whole-genome sequencing (WGS), targeted nucleic acid amplification tests can serve a complementary role in clinical settings, as they are more rapid and accessible than sequencing in most laboratories. We designed and analytically validated a two-reaction multiplex reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay targeting spike protein mutations L452R, E484K, and N501Y in reaction 1 and del69-70, K417N, and T478K in reaction 2. This assay had 95 to 100% agreement with WGS for 502 upper respiratory tract swab samples collected between 26 April 2021 and 1 August 2021, consisting of 43 Alpha, 2 Beta, 20 Gamma, 378 Delta, and 59 non-VOC infections. Validation in a separate group of 230 WGS-confirmed Omicron variant samples collected in December 2021 and January 2022 demonstrated 100% agreement. This RT-qPCR-based approach can be implemented in clinical laboratories already performing SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification tests to assist in local epidemiological surveillance and clinical decision-making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mutation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
18.
Med (N Y) ; 3(6): 371-387.e9, 2022 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783640

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 manifests with respiratory, systemic, and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms.1, SARS-CoV-2 RNA is detected in respiratory and fecal samples, and recent reports demonstrate viral replication in both the lung and intestinal tissue.2, 3, 4 Although much is known about early fecal RNA shedding, little is known about long-term shedding, especially in those with mild COVID-19. Furthermore, most reports of fecal RNA shedding do not correlate these findings with GI symptoms.5. Methods: We analyzed the dynamics of fecal RNA shedding up to 10 months after COVID-19 diagnosis in 113 individuals with mild to moderate disease. We also correlated shedding with disease symptoms. Findings: Fecal SARS-CoV-2 RNA is detected in 49.2% [95% confidence interval, 38.2%-60.3%] of participants within the first week after diagnosis. Whereas there was no ongoing oropharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding in subjects at 4 months, 12.7% [8.5%-18.4%] of participants continued to shed SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the feces at 4 months after diagnosis and 3.8% [2.0%-7.3%] shed at 7 months. Finally, we found that GI symptoms (abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting) are associated with fecal shedding of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Conclusions: The extended presence of viral RNA in feces, but not in respiratory samples, along with the association of fecal viral RNA shedding with GI symptoms suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infects the GI tract and that this infection can be prolonged in a subset of individuals with COVID-19. Funding: This research was supported by a Stanford ChemH-IMA grant; fellowships from the AACR and NSF; and NIH R01-AI148623, R01-AI143757, and UL1TR003142.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Gastrointestinal Diseases , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Feces , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Humans , Lung , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
19.
Kidney360 ; 3(1): 133-143, 2022 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776876

ABSTRACT

Background: Morbidity and mortality associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection in kidney transplant recipients are high and early outpatient interventions to prevent progression to severe disease are needed. SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing mAbs, including bamlanivimab and casirivimab-imdevimab, received emergency use authorization in the United States in November 2020 for treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 disease. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 27 kidney transplant recipients diagnosed with COVID-19 between July 2020 and February 2021 who were treated with bamlanivimab or casirivimab-imdevimab and immunosuppression reduction. We additionally identified 13 kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19 who had mild to moderate disease at presentation, who did not receive mAbs, and had SARS-CoV-2 serology testing available. Results: There were no deaths or graft failures in either group. Both infusions were well tolerated. Four of the 27 patients treated with mAbs required hospitalization due to COVID-19. Four of 13 patients who did not receive mAbs required hospitalization due to COVID-19. Patients who received mAbs demonstrated measurable anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor blocking activity at the highest level detectable at 90 days postinfusion, whereas ACE2 blocking activity acquired from natural immunity in the mAb-untreated group was weak. Conclusions: Bamlanivimab and casirivimab-imdevimab combined with immunosuppression reduction were well tolerated and associated with favorable clinical outcomes in kidney transplant recipients diagnosed with mild to moderate COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 32(6): 692-696, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765022

ABSTRACT

In order to prevent in-hospital transmission and potential complications related to SARS-CoV-2 in the perioperative patient, most healthcare institutions require preoperative testing for SARS-CoV-2 prior to proceeding with elective surgery. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends a time and symptom-based duration of isolation for the presumed infectious period. The guidance to avoid retesting of asymptomatic patients in the 90 days following a positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test is because of the possibility of detection of non-infectious viral shedding. When to reschedule asymptomatic patients who test RT-PCR positive for SARS-CoV-2 preoperatively is of considerable debate, both from the perspective of ensuring a patient's full preoperative fitness, as well as reducing the risk of viral transmission within the hospital. We describe the novel perioperative use of a strand-specific assay to detect minus strand ribonucleic acid (RNA) in a clinical decision-making algorithm to determine optimal timing of elective surgery after a patient tests RT-PCR positive for SARS-CoV-2. This is the first description in the literature of an attempt to further stratify patients who repeatedly test positive for SARS-CoV-2 into infectious versus non-infectious for perioperative planning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Clinical Decision-Making , Humans , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL