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1.
Nat Genet ; 54(8): 1078-1089, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960394

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes a range of symptoms in infected individuals, from mild respiratory illness to acute respiratory distress syndrome. A systematic understanding of host factors influencing viral infection is critical to elucidate SARS-CoV-2-host interactions and the progression of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we conducted genome-wide CRISPR knockout and activation screens in human lung epithelial cells with endogenous expression of the SARS-CoV-2 entry factors ACE2 and TMPRSS2. We uncovered proviral and antiviral factors across highly interconnected host pathways, including clathrin transport, inflammatory signaling, cell-cycle regulation, and transcriptional and epigenetic regulation. We further identified mucins, a family of high molecular weight glycoproteins, as a prominent viral restriction network that inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro and in murine models. These mucins also inhibit infection of diverse respiratory viruses. This functional landscape of SARS-CoV-2 host factors provides a physiologically relevant starting point for new host-directed therapeutics and highlights airway mucins as a host defense mechanism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Epigenesis, Genetic , Humans , Mice , Mucins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 896352, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952398

ABSTRACT

Since March 2020, SARS-CoV-2 has plagued the world with COVID-19 and individuals of all ages have experienced varying symptoms of disease. Older adults were experiencing more severe disease compared to children and were prioritized by vaccination efforts. While biologic therapies and vaccinations were implemented, there were changes in public health restrictions with subsequent surges resulting in more infected children. During these surges there was a rise of different SARS-CoV-2 variants with the dominant variant initially alpha (B.1.1.7 and other Pango lineages) and epsilon (B.1.427/B.1.429) in early 2021 and a dramatic shift to delta (B.1.617.2 and other Pango lineages) by mid-summer 2021. In this study we aimed to characterize the clinical severity and host factors associated with disease by SARS-CoV-2 variant and evaluate if there are differences in disease severity by circulating variant. We retrospectively included all individuals 0-25 years of age who presented to our center and had a positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR, SARS-CoV-2 variant mutation testing, and documented clinical notes from 1 January 2021 through 31 December 2021. We identified 745 individuals who met inclusion criteria and found the delta variant was associated with severe/critical disease compared to the other variants studied. The results of the model showed that underlying respiratory disease and diabetes were risk factors for progression to severe disease. These insights are important when evaluating public health measures and treatment options for children as more variants arise.

3.
J Clin Virol ; 154: 105242, 2022 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936754

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cycle threshold (Ct) values from SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) tests are used to measure viral burden. Calibration to the First WHO International Standard for SARS-CoV-2 RNA may improve quantitative inter-assay agreement. METHODS: WHO standard was tested using four emergency use authorized RT-qPCRs to generate calibration curves and evaluate Ct value differences. Harmonization of two assays, Cepheid Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 targeting E and nucleocapsid (N2) [Xpert (E) and Xpert (N2)] and a laboratory-developed test targeting E [LDT (E)], was assessed using 93 positive upper respiratory samples. Platform (target) pairs were compared via Bland-Altman analysis and Passing-Bablok regression. RESULTS: Ct values with the WHO standard were comparable across platforms and targets, except Xpert (N2) for which the mean difference was a median of 3.68 cycles (Interquartile Range, IQR = 3.23 to 3.76 cycles) greater than other platform (target) pairs. Using clinical samples, the mean difference of Xpert (N2) to LDT (E) was 3.64 cycles (95% Confidence Interval, CI =1.51 to 5.76). After calibration, the mean difference of Xpert (N2) to LDT (E) was 0.08 log10 IU/mL (95% CI = -0.56 to 0.71) and the regression was y = 1.00x * 0.08 (95% CI slope = 0.93 to 1.07, 95% CI intercept = 0.28 to 0.42). CONCLUSIONS: Calibration to the WHO standard resulted in the harmonization of two RT-qPCR tests, whereas analysis by Ct value alone may have led to erroneous quantitation. Harmonization to the WHO standard has the potential to improve the generalizability of clinical associations with SARS-CoV-2 RNA levels.

4.
JCI Insight ; 7(13)2022 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1932894

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDProlonged symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection are well documented. However, which factors influence development of long-term symptoms, how symptoms vary across ethnic groups, and whether long-term symptoms correlate with biomarkers are points that remain elusive.METHODSAdult SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription PCR-positive (RT-PCR-positive) patients were recruited at Stanford from March 2020 to February 2021. Study participants were seen for in-person visits at diagnosis and every 1-3 months for up to 1 year after diagnosis; they completed symptom surveys and underwent blood draws and nasal swab collections at each visit.RESULTSOur cohort (n = 617) ranged from asymptomatic to critical COVID-19 infections. In total, 40% of participants reported at least 1 symptom associated with COVID-19 six months after diagnosis. Median time from diagnosis to first resolution of all symptoms was 44 days; median time from diagnosis to sustained symptom resolution with no recurring symptoms for 1 month or longer was 214 days. Anti-nucleocapsid IgG level in the first week after positive RT-PCR test and history of lung disease were associated with time to sustained symptom resolution. COVID-19 disease severity, ethnicity, age, sex, and remdesivir use did not affect time to sustained symptom resolution.CONCLUSIONWe found that all disease severities had a similar risk of developing post-COVID-19 syndrome in an ethnically diverse population. Comorbid lung disease and lower levels of initial IgG response to SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen were associated with longer symptom duration.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04373148.FUNDINGNIH UL1TR003142 CTSA grant, NIH U54CA260517 grant, NIEHS R21 ES03304901, Sean N Parker Center for Allergy and Asthma Research at Stanford University, Chan Zuckerberg Biohub, Chan Zuckerberg Initiative, Sunshine Foundation, Crown Foundation, and Parker Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol ; 2022 Jul 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931851

ABSTRACT

Brains of 42 COVID-19 decedents and 107 non-COVID-19 controls were studied. RT-PCR screening of 16 regions from 20 COVID-19 autopsies found SARS-CoV-2 E gene viral sequences in 7 regions (2.5% of 320 samples), concentrated in 4/20 subjects (20%). Additional screening of olfactory bulb (OB), amygdala (AMY) and entorhinal area for E, N1, N2, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and S gene sequences detected one or more of these in OB in 8/21 subjects (38%). It is uncertain whether these RNA sequences represent viable virus. Significant histopathology was limited to 2/42 cases (4.8%), one with a large acute cerebral infarct and one with hemorrhagic encephalitis. Case-control RNAseq in OB and AMY found more than 5000 and 700 differentially expressed genes, respectively, unrelated to RT-PCR results; these involved immune response, neuronal constituents, and olfactory/taste receptor genes. Olfactory marker protein-1 reduction indicated COVID-19-related loss of OB olfactory mucosa afferents. Iba-1-immunoreactive microglia had reduced area fractions in cerebellar cortex and AMY, and cytokine arrays showed generalized downregulation in AMY and upregulation in blood serum in COVID-19 cases. Although OB is a major brain portal for SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19 brain changes are more likely due to blood-borne immune mediators and trans-synaptic gene expression changes arising from OB deafferentation.

6.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2766, 2022 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1927082

ABSTRACT

A major challenge in coronavirus vaccination and treatment is to counteract rapid viral evolution and mutations. Here we demonstrate that CRISPR-Cas13d offers a broad-spectrum antiviral (BSA) to inhibit many SARS-CoV-2 variants and diverse human coronavirus strains with >99% reduction of the viral titer. We show that Cas13d-mediated coronavirus inhibition is dependent on the crRNA cellular spatial colocalization with Cas13d and target viral RNA. Cas13d can significantly enhance the therapeutic effects of diverse small molecule drugs against coronaviruses for prophylaxis or treatment purposes, and the best combination reduced viral titer by over four orders of magnitude. Using lipid nanoparticle-mediated RNA delivery, we demonstrate that the Cas13d system can effectively treat infection from multiple variants of coronavirus, including Omicron SARS-CoV-2, in human primary airway epithelium air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures. Our study establishes CRISPR-Cas13 as a BSA which is highly complementary to existing vaccination and antiviral treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Liposomes , Nanoparticles , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
7.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(7): 100680, 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1907870

ABSTRACT

The biological determinants underlying the range of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) clinical manifestations are not fully understood. Here, over 1,400 plasma proteins and 2,600 single-cell immune features comprising cell phenotype, endogenous signaling activity, and signaling responses to inflammatory ligands are cross-sectionally assessed in peripheral blood from 97 patients with mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19 and 40 uninfected patients. Using an integrated computational approach to analyze the combined plasma and single-cell proteomic data, we identify and independently validate a multi-variate model classifying COVID-19 severity (multi-class area under the curve [AUC]training = 0.799, p = 4.2e-6; multi-class AUCvalidation = 0.773, p = 7.7e-6). Examination of informative model features reveals biological signatures of COVID-19 severity, including the dysregulation of JAK/STAT, MAPK/mTOR, and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) immune signaling networks in addition to recapitulating known hallmarks of COVID-19. These results provide a set of early determinants of COVID-19 severity that may point to therapeutic targets for prevention and/or treatment of COVID-19 progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction
9.
Antiviral Res ; 204: 105367, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1894786

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to pose serious threats to global health. We previously reported that AAK1, BIKE and GAK, members of the Numb-associated kinase family, control intracellular trafficking of multiple RNA viruses during viral entry and assembly/egress. Here, using both genetic and pharmacological approaches, we probe the functional relevance of NAKs for SARS-CoV-2 infection. siRNA-mediated depletion of AAK1, BIKE, GAK, and STK16, the fourth member of the NAK family, suppressed SARS-CoV-2 infection in human lung epithelial cells. Both known and novel small molecules with potent AAK1/BIKE, GAK or STK16 activity suppressed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, combination treatment with the approved anti-cancer drugs, sunitinib and erlotinib, with potent anti-AAK1/BIKE and GAK activity, respectively, demonstrated synergistic effect against SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. Time-of-addition experiments revealed that pharmacological inhibition of AAK1 and BIKE suppressed viral entry as well as late stages of the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle. Lastly, suppression of NAKs expression by siRNAs inhibited entry of both wild type and SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus. These findings provide insight into the roles of NAKs in SARS-CoV-2 infection and establish a proof-of-principle that pharmacological inhibition of NAKs can be potentially used as a host-targeted approach to treat SARS-CoV-2 with potential implications to other coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Membrane Proteins , Nerve Tissue Proteins , Pandemics , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcription Factors , Virus Internalization
11.
J Clin Virol ; 153: 105217, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885897

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Humoral and cellular immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination among immunosuppressed patients remain poorly defined, as well as variables associated with poor response. METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational cohort study at a large Northern California healthcare system of infection-naïve individuals fully vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 (mRNA-1273, BNT162b2, or Ad26.COV2.S) with clinical SARS-CoV-2 interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) ordered between January through November 2021. Humoral and cellular immune responses were measured by anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 IgG ELISA (anti-S1 IgG) and IGRA, respectively, following primary and/or booster vaccination. RESULTS: 496 immunosuppressed patients (54% female; median age 50 years) were included. 62% (261/419) of patients had positive anti-S1 IgG and 71% (277/389) had positive IGRA after primary vaccination, with 20% of patients having a positive IGRA only. Following booster, 69% (81/118) had positive anti-S1 IgG and 73% (91/124) had positive IGRA. Factors associated with low humoral response rates after primary vaccination included anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (P < 0.001), sphingosine 1-phsophate (S1P) receptor modulators (P < 0.001), mycophenolate (P = 0.002), and B cell lymphoma (P = 0.004); those associated with low cellular response rates included S1P receptor modulators (P < 0.001) and mycophenolate (P < 0.001). Of patients who had poor humoral response to primary vaccination, 35% (18/52) developed a significantly higher response after the booster. Only 5% (2/42) of patients developed a significantly higher cellular response to the booster dose compared to primary vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Humoral and cellular response rates to primary and booster SARS-CoV-2 vaccination differ among immunosuppressed patient groups. Clinical testing of cellular immunity is important in monitoring vaccine response in vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Ad26COVS1 , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
12.
Frontiers in medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1877050

ABSTRACT

Since March 2020, SARS-CoV-2 has plagued the world with COVID-19 and individuals of all ages have experienced varying symptoms of disease. Older adults were experiencing more severe disease compared to children and were prioritized by vaccination efforts. While biologic therapies and vaccinations were implemented, there were changes in public health restrictions with subsequent surges resulting in more infected children. During these surges there was a rise of different SARS-CoV-2 variants with the dominant variant initially alpha (B.1.1.7 and other Pango lineages) and epsilon (B.1.427/B.1.429) in early 2021 and a dramatic shift to delta (B.1.617.2 and other Pango lineages) by mid-summer 2021. In this study we aimed to characterize the clinical severity and host factors associated with disease by SARS-CoV-2 variant and evaluate if there are differences in disease severity by circulating variant. We retrospectively included all individuals 0–25 years of age who presented to our center and had a positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR, SARS-CoV-2 variant mutation testing, and documented clinical notes from 1 January 2021 through 31 December 2021. We identified 745 individuals who met inclusion criteria and found the delta variant was associated with severe/critical disease compared to the other variants studied. The results of the model showed that underlying respiratory disease and diabetes were risk factors for progression to severe disease. These insights are important when evaluating public health measures and treatment options for children as more variants arise.

13.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335191

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Clinical diagnoses rely on a wide variety of laboratory tests and imaging studies, interpreted alongside physical examination and documentation of symptoms and patient history. However, the tools of diagnosis make little use of the immune system’s internal record of specific disease exposures encoded by the antigen-specific receptors of memory B cells and T cells. We have combined extensive receptor sequence datasets with three different machine learning representations of the contents of immune repertoires to develop an interpretive framework, MAchine Learning for Immunological Diagnosis (Mal-ID) , that screens for multiple illnesses simultaneously. This approach can already reliably distinguish a wide range of disease states, including specific acute or chronic infections, and autoimmune or immunodeficiency disorders, and could contribute to identifying new infectious diseases as they emerge. Importantly, many features of the model of immune receptor sequences are human-interpretable. They independently recapitulate known biology of the responses to infection by SARS-CoV-2 or HIV, and reveal common features of autoreactive immune receptor repertoires, indicating that machine learning on immune repertoires can yield new immunological knowledge.

15.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(5): e0017822, 2022 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807314

ABSTRACT

The ability to distinguish between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VOCs) is of ongoing interest due to differences in transmissibility, responses to vaccination, clinical prognosis, and therapy. Although detailed genetic characterization requires whole-genome sequencing (WGS), targeted nucleic acid amplification tests can serve a complementary role in clinical settings, as they are more rapid and accessible than sequencing in most laboratories. We designed and analytically validated a two-reaction multiplex reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay targeting spike protein mutations L452R, E484K, and N501Y in reaction 1 and del69-70, K417N, and T478K in reaction 2. This assay had 95 to 100% agreement with WGS for 502 upper respiratory tract swab samples collected between 26 April 2021 and 1 August 2021, consisting of 43 Alpha, 2 Beta, 20 Gamma, 378 Delta, and 59 non-VOC infections. Validation in a separate group of 230 WGS-confirmed Omicron variant samples collected in December 2021 and January 2022 demonstrated 100% agreement. This RT-qPCR-based approach can be implemented in clinical laboratories already performing SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification tests to assist in local epidemiological surveillance and clinical decision-making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mutation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
17.
Med (N Y) ; 3(6): 371-387.e9, 2022 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783640

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 manifests with respiratory, systemic, and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms.1 , SARS-CoV-2 RNA is detected in respiratory and fecal samples, and recent reports demonstrate viral replication in both the lung and intestinal tissue.2, 3, 4 Although much is known about early fecal RNA shedding, little is known about long-term shedding, especially in those with mild COVID-19. Furthermore, most reports of fecal RNA shedding do not correlate these findings with GI symptoms.5. Methods: We analyzed the dynamics of fecal RNA shedding up to 10 months after COVID-19 diagnosis in 113 individuals with mild to moderate disease. We also correlated shedding with disease symptoms. Findings: Fecal SARS-CoV-2 RNA is detected in 49.2% [95% confidence interval, 38.2%-60.3%] of participants within the first week after diagnosis. Whereas there was no ongoing oropharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding in subjects at 4 months, 12.7% [8.5%-18.4%] of participants continued to shed SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the feces at 4 months after diagnosis and 3.8% [2.0%-7.3%] shed at 7 months. Finally, we found that GI symptoms (abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting) are associated with fecal shedding of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Conclusions: The extended presence of viral RNA in feces, but not in respiratory samples, along with the association of fecal viral RNA shedding with GI symptoms suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infects the GI tract and that this infection can be prolonged in a subset of individuals with COVID-19. Funding: This research was supported by a Stanford ChemH-IMA grant; fellowships from the AACR and NSF; and NIH R01-AI148623, R01-AI143757, and UL1TR003142.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Gastrointestinal Diseases , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Feces , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Humans , Lung , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
18.
Kidney360 ; 3(1): 133-143, 2022 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776876

ABSTRACT

Background: Morbidity and mortality associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection in kidney transplant recipients are high and early outpatient interventions to prevent progression to severe disease are needed. SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing mAbs, including bamlanivimab and casirivimab-imdevimab, received emergency use authorization in the United States in November 2020 for treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 disease. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 27 kidney transplant recipients diagnosed with COVID-19 between July 2020 and February 2021 who were treated with bamlanivimab or casirivimab-imdevimab and immunosuppression reduction. We additionally identified 13 kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19 who had mild to moderate disease at presentation, who did not receive mAbs, and had SARS-CoV-2 serology testing available. Results: There were no deaths or graft failures in either group. Both infusions were well tolerated. Four of the 27 patients treated with mAbs required hospitalization due to COVID-19. Four of 13 patients who did not receive mAbs required hospitalization due to COVID-19. Patients who received mAbs demonstrated measurable anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor blocking activity at the highest level detectable at 90 days postinfusion, whereas ACE2 blocking activity acquired from natural immunity in the mAb-untreated group was weak. Conclusions: Bamlanivimab and casirivimab-imdevimab combined with immunosuppression reduction were well tolerated and associated with favorable clinical outcomes in kidney transplant recipients diagnosed with mild to moderate COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769227

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An immunodiagnostic assay that sensitively detects a cell-mediated immune response to SARS-CoV-2 is needed for epidemiological investigation and for clinical assessment of T cell-mediated immune response to vaccines, particularly in the context of emerging variants that might escape antibody responses. METHODS: The performance of a whole blood interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assay (IGRA) for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 antigen-specific T cells was evaluated in COVID-19 convalescents tested serially up to 10 months post-infection and in healthy blood donors. SARS-CoV-2 IGRA was applied in contacts of households with index cases. Freshly collected blood in the lithium heparin tube was left unstimulated, stimulated with a SARS-CoV-2 peptide pool, and stimulated with mitogen. RESULTS: The overall sensitivity and specificity of IGRA were 84.5% (153/181; 95% confidence interval [CI] 79.0-89.0) and 86.6% (123/142; 95% CI;80.0-91.2), respectively. The sensitivity declined from 100% (16/16; 95% CI 80.6-100) at 0.5-month post-infection to 79.5% (31/39; 95% CI 64.4-89.2) at 10 months post-infection (P<0.01). The IFN-γ response remained relatively robust at 10 months post-infection (3.8 vs. 1.3 IU/mL, respectively). In 14 households, IGRA showed a positivity rate of 100% (12/12) and 65.2% (15/23), and IgG of 50.0% (6/12) and 43.5% (10/23) in index cases and contacts, respectively, exhibiting a difference of +50% (95% CI +25.4-+74.6) and +21.7% (95% CI, +9.23-+42.3), respectively. Either IGRA or IgG was positive in 100% (12/12) of index cases and 73.9% (17/23) of contacts. CONCLUSIONS: The SARS-CoV-2 IGRA is a useful clinical diagnostic tool for assessing cell-mediated immune response to SARS-CoV-2.

20.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 32(6): 692-696, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765022

ABSTRACT

In order to prevent in-hospital transmission and potential complications related to SARS-CoV-2 in the perioperative patient, most healthcare institutions require preoperative testing for SARS-CoV-2 prior to proceeding with elective surgery. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends a time and symptom-based duration of isolation for the presumed infectious period. The guidance to avoid retesting of asymptomatic patients in the 90 days following a positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test is because of the possibility of detection of non-infectious viral shedding. When to reschedule asymptomatic patients who test RT-PCR positive for SARS-CoV-2 preoperatively is of considerable debate, both from the perspective of ensuring a patient's full preoperative fitness, as well as reducing the risk of viral transmission within the hospital. We describe the novel perioperative use of a strand-specific assay to detect minus strand ribonucleic acid (RNA) in a clinical decision-making algorithm to determine optimal timing of elective surgery after a patient tests RT-PCR positive for SARS-CoV-2. This is the first description in the literature of an attempt to further stratify patients who repeatedly test positive for SARS-CoV-2 into infectious versus non-infectious for perioperative planning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Clinical Decision-Making , Humans , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
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